Islam Spreads: India and Southeast Asia Islam in South Asia/India 1st Wave: INVASIONS 711: Muhammad ibn Qasim conquered Sind region & Indus Valley for Umayyad People welcomed
lower taxes religious tolerance India influenced Islam: Math, astronomy, medicine, music, building styles, Hindu mysticism(?) . 2nd Wave of Invasions Mahmud of Ghazni- from Afghanistan took India from declining Abbasids WHY? extravagant wealth of empire
Muhammad of Ghur expanded to Bengal Sultans established capital at Delhi with a variety of Persian, Turkish, Afghan until 16th century Patterns of Conversion Islamic conversion was voluntary and peaceful Sufi mystics attractive to Buddhists, untouchables & low caste groups Merchant converts improved economic relationships with Muslim traders We see the 3 Ms!!!
Military- Mahmud, Delhi Merchants Missionary- Sufis and untouchables Muslim v. Hindu Islam
Rigid egalitarian, stern doctrine Monotheistic adopted Hindu styles marriage practices Hinduism: Absorptive supportive of caste system
responded with focus on Bhakti mystic cults Most showed little interest in Islam Islam & SE Asia 8th century: Coastal trade (2nd M!) dominated by Muslims; 13th century: Collapse of Shrivijaya (SE Asian trading empire) allowed Islam's entrance Merchants & Sufis (3rd M!) brought Islam to Malacca to Malaya & Sumatra; Sufis tolerated earlier animist, Hindu & Buddhist beliefs
Bali & Mainland SE Asia did not convert African Civilization & the Spread of Islam Chapter 8 I. African Societies Pre-Islam Bantu migration provided common language background
Animistic religion & belief in naturalistic forces; common belief in creator deity Mixed Economy: agriculture, Active trade & Market Life http://www.google.com/imgres? q=bantu+migration&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=N&biw=1280&bih=840&tbm=isch&tbnid=qHelsCvf9NjTwM:&imgrefurl=http:// people.eku.edu/davisb/Africa/Ch7notes.htm&docid=9KQlxftqqoWBjM&imgurl=http://people.eku.edu/davisb/Africa/ Bantumigrationmap1.gif&w=405&h=405&ei=xqRYUPu9CMr0iQLl14GYBQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=63&sig=107074975010236596184&page=1 &tbnh=152&tbnw=152&start=0&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:76&tx=102&ty=84&surl=1
Arrival of Islam Between 640-700 Muslim conquered N. Africa; conversion was rapid. Why? Equality, Political Unity attractive to diverse Africans Native African Berber Kingdoms emerged in opposition to Arabs. Who? Almoravids & Almohadis became
radical Islamic movement pushing Islam South; used jihadholy war http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=36412 Christian Kingdoms Axum, Egypt & Nubia (descendents of Kush) Ethiopia emerged as new Christian dynasty from Axum; struggles between Christian & Muslim persist http://www.google.com/search?
hl=en&q=bantu+migration&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&biw=1280&bih=840&wrapid=tlif134798651204210&surl=1&safe=active&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=VqRYUKKpBuHWiwKuzYD4Dg#um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=north+africa+map&oq=north+africa+map& gs_l=img.1.0.0j0i5l2j0i24l7.8484.11063.11.13907.12.10.0.0.0.1.188.1062.6j4.10.0...0.0...1c.1.yOqCfrwz27g&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&fp=fa0fa40884b0c6b7&biw=7 Ghana There were a number of Sudanic States: Ghana was the first large empire (trade and location) Mali Economy Agricultural basis with active trade (salt, gold, etc)
specialized trading group, juula Strong legal authority provided easy travel and trade Politics Sundiata attained legendary hero status attributed with social structure; 16 clans of free people, 5 religious clans, 4 specialized clans Mansa Musas Muslim pilgrimage gave Mali recognition & new innovation
Brought renown to Mali He brought back architect Ishak al-Sahili from Muslim Spain Social and Intellectual Towns commercial with many foreign residents Cosmopolitan court of merchants, scholars attracted by power of Sudanic states Timbuktu- Books were symbol of Islamic African civilization 80% of villagers lived by farming with intensive labor requiring multiple wives and many children
Songhay Kingdom began to form in 7th century; dominated Mali by 1370s Sunni Ali, excelled as commander and leader, established askia (future Songhay leaders) Religion -was syncretist fusion of Islam & pagan beliefs that encouraged strict interpretation of Sharia law How was Songhai defeated? Songhay ruled until defeated in 1591 by a Muslim army from Morrocco
Sudanic States: Ghana, Mali, Songhay Politics Patriarchal Leaders or Councils Sacred Rulers associated with rituals Ruling leaders used Islamic titles like caliph to reinforce position
same linguistic/ethnicity All used taxes, military support of conquered peoples Religion- Islam emerges to reinforce idea of kingship AND leaderships reinforces Islam Common Religion & Law provided unity Society still matrilineal allowed freedom of movement for women despite Arab restriction
Islam encouraged/spread slavery Swahili Coast Coastal Trading Ports Originally inhabited by Bantu people merchants from M. East, China, India Swahili language & cultural traits mixed with active coastal commerce Islam brought to E. Africa from Indian merchants which facilitate trade relationships; primarily among upper ruling merchant classes
clonal deletion - self-reactive T cells die and macrophages phagocytize them. anergy - self-reactive T cells remain alive but unresponsive. negative selection leaves the body in a state of self-tolerance in which the surviving T cells respond only to foreign...
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