Accounting Principles 8th Edition - Grantham University
10 Budgetary Control and Responsibility Accounting Learning Objectives 10-1 1 Describe budgetary control and static budget reports. 2 Prepare flexible budget reports. 3 Apply responsibility accounting to cost and profit
centers. 4 Evaluate performance in investment centers. LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1 Describe budgetary control and static budget reports. The use of budgets in controlling operations is known as budgetary control. 10-2
Takes place by means of budget reports which compare actual results with planned objectives. Provides management with feedback on operations. Budget reports can be prepared as frequently as needed. Management analyzes differences between actual and planned results and determines causes. LO 1 Budgetary Control
Budgetary control involves the following activities. Illustration 10-1 10-3 LO 1 Budgetary Control Works best when a company has a formalized reporting system which: 1. Identifies the name of the budget report. 2. States the frequency of the report. 3. Specifies the purpose of the report. 4. Indicates the primary recipient(s) of the report. 10-4 LO 1 Budgetary Control
Partial budgetary control system for manufacturing company. Illustration 10-2 10-5 LO 1 Budgetary Control Question Budgetary control involves all but one of the following: a. Modifying future plans. b. Analyzing differences. c. Using static budgets. d. Determining differences between actual and planned results. 10-6 LO 1
Static Budget Reports A Static budget is a projection of budget data at one level of activity. 10-7 When used in budgetary control, each budget included in the master budget is considered to be static. Ignores data for different levels of activity. Compares actual results with budget data at the activity level used in the master budget.
LO 1 Static Budget Reports Illustration: Budget and actual sales data for the Rightride product in the first and second quarters of 2017 are as follows. Illustration 10-3 10-8 LO 1 Static Budget Reports Illustration: Sales budget report for Hayes Companys first quarter. Illustration 10-3 Illustration 10-4 10-9
LO 1 Static Budget Reports Illustration: Budget report for the second quarter contains one new feature: cumulative year-to-date information. Illustration 10-3 Illustration 10-5 10-10 LO 1 Static Budget Reports USES AND LIMITATIONS 10-11
Appropriate for evaluating a managers effectiveness in controlling costs when: Actual level of activity closely approximates master budget activity level, and/or Behavior of costs is fixed in response to changes in activity. Appropriate for fixed costs. Not appropriate for variable costs.
LO 1 Static Budget Reports Question A static budget is useful in controlling costs when cost behavior is: a. Mixed. b. Fixed. c. Variable. d. Linear. 10-12 LO 1 DO IT! 1 Static Budget Report Lawler Company expects to produce 5,000 units of product CV93
during the current month. Budgeted variable manufacturing costs per unit are direct materials $6, direct labor $15, and overhead $24. Monthly budgeted fixed manufacturing overhead costs are $10,000 for depreciation and $5,000 for supervision. In the current month, Lawler actually produced 5,500 units and incurred the following costs: direct materials $33,900, direct labor $74,200, variable overhead $120,500, depreciation $10,000, and supervision $5,000. Prepare a static budget report. (Hint: The Budget column is based on estimated production of 5,000 units while the Actual column is the actual costs incurred during the period.) 10-13 LO 1 DO IT! 1 Static Budget Report
Solution 10-14 LO 1 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2 Prepare flexible budget reports. Flexible budget projects budget data for various levels of activity. 10-15
Essentially a series of static budgets at different activity levels. Budgetary process more useful if it is adaptable to changes in operating conditions. Can be prepared for each type of budget in the master budget. LO 2 Why Flexible Budgets? Illustration: Barton Robotics, static budget based on a production volume of 10,000 units of robotic controls. Illustration 10-6
10-16 LO 2 Illustration: Overhead Static Budget report assuming 12,000 units were actually produced, rather than 10,000 units. 10-17 Illustration 10-7 LO 2 Why Flexible Budgets? Over budget in three of six overhead costs.
Unfavorable difference of $132,000 12% over budget. Comparison based on budget data for 10,000 units - the original activity level which is not relevant. Meaningless to compare actual variable costs for 12,000 units with budgeted variable costs for 10,000 units. Variable cost increase with production. Budgeted variable amounts should increase proportionately with production 10-18 LO 2
Why Flexible Budgets? Illustration: Analyzing the budget data for these costs at 10,000 units, you arrive at the following per unit results. Illustration 10-8 Variable costs per unit Illustration 10-9 Budgeted variable costs, 12,000 units 10-19 LO 2 Illustration: Prepare the budget report based on the flexible budget for 12,000 units of production. Illustration 10-10
10-20 Developing the Flexible Budget 1. Identify the activity index and the relevant range of activity. 2. Identify the variable costs and determine the budgeted variable cost per unit of activity for each cost. 3. Identify the fixed costs and determine the budgeted amount for each cost. 4. Prepare the budget for selected increments of activity within the relevant range. 10-21 LO 2 Service Company Insight NBC Universal
Just What the Doctor Ordered? Nobody is immune from the effects of declining revenuesnot even movie stars. When the number of viewers of the television show House, a medical drama, declined by almost 20%, Fox Broadcasting said it wanted to cut the license fee that it paid to NBC Universal by 20%. What would NBC Universal do in response? It might cut the size of the shows cast, which would reduce the payroll costs associated with the show. Or, it could reduce the number of episodes that take advantage of the full cast. Alternatively, it might threaten to quit providing the show to Fox altogether and instead present the show on its own NBC-affiliated channels. Source: Sam Schechner, Media Business Shorts: NBCU, Fox Taking Scalpel to House, Wall Street Journal Online (April 17, 2011). 10-22 LO 2 Flexible Budget A Case Study Illustration: Fox Companys management uses a flexible
budget for monthly comparisons of actual and budgeted manufacturing overhead costs of the Finishing Department. The master budget for the year ending December 31, 2017, shows expected annual operating capacity of 120,000 direct labor hours and the following overhead costs. Illustration 10-11 10-23 LO 2 Flexible Budget A Case Study Four steps for developing the flexible budget. 1. Identify the activity index and the relevant range of activity. Activity index: direct labor hours.
Relevant range: 8,000 12,000 direct labor hours per month. 2. Identify variable costs and determine the budgeted variable cost per unit of activity for each cost. Illustration 10-12 10-24 LO 2 Flexible Budget A Case Study Four steps for developing the flexible budget. 3. Identify the fixed costs and determine the budgeted amount for each cost. Three fixed costs per month: Depreciation $15,000.
Supervision $10,000. Property taxes $5,000. 4. Prepare the budget for selected increments of activity within the relevant range. 10-25 Prepared in increments of 1,000 direct labor hours. LO 2 Monthly overhead flexible budget
10-26 Illustration 10-13 LO 2 Flexible Budget A Case Study Fox uses the formula below to determine total budgeted costs at any level of activity. Illustration 10-14 Determine total budgeted costs for Fox Manufacturing Company with fixed costs of $30,000 and total variable cost $4 per direct labor hour: 10-27
9,000 direct labor hours : $30,000 + ($4 x 9,000) = $66,000 8,622 direct labor hours: $30,000 + ($4 x 8,622) = $64,488 LO 2 Flexible Budget A Case Study Graphic flexible budget data highlighting 10,000 and 12,000 activity levels. Illustration 10-15 10-28 LO 2 Flexible Budget Reports
Widely used in production and service departments. A type of internal report. Consists of two sections: 10-29 Production data for a selected activity index, such as direct labor hours.
Cost data for variable and fixed costs. Widely used in production and service departments to evaluate a managers performance. LO 2 10-30 Illustration 10-16 LO 2 Service Company Insight San Diego Zoo Budgets and the Exotic Newcastle Disease Exotic Newcastle Disease, one of the most infectious bird diseases in
the world, kills so swiftly that many victims die before any symptoms appear. When it broke out in Southern California, it could have spelled disaster for the San Diego Zoo. We have one of the most valuable collections of birds in the world, if not the most valuable, says Paula Brock, CFO of the Zoological Society of San Diego, which operates the zoo. Bird exhibits were closed to the public for several months (the disease, which is harmless to humans, can be carried on clothes and shoes). The tires of arriving delivery trucks were sanitized, as were the shoes of anyone visiting the zoos nonpublic areas. Zookeeper uniforms had to be changed and cleaned daily. And ultimately, the zoo, with $150 million in revenues, spent almost half a million dollars on quarantine measures. 10-31 LO 2 Service Company Insight San Diego Zoo
Budgets and the Exotic Newcastle Disease It worked: No birds got sick. Better yet, the damage to the rest of the zoos budget was minimized by another protective measure: the monthly budget reforecast. When we get a hit like this, we still have to find a way to make our bottom line, says Brock. Thanks to a new planning process Brock had introduced a year earlier, the zoos scientists were able to raise the financial alarm as they redirected resources to ward off the disease. Because we had timely awareness, she says, we were able to make adjustments to weather the storm. Source: Tim Reason, Budgeting in the Real World, CFO Magazine (July 12, 2005),www.cfodirect.com/cfopublic.nsf/vContentPrint/ 649A82C8FF8AB06B85257037004 (accessed July 2005). 10-32 LO 2 Flexible Budgets Question At 9,000 direct labor hours, the flexible budget for indirect
materials is $27,000. If $28,000 of indirect materials costs are incurred at 9,200 direct labor hours, the flexible budget report should show the following difference for indirect materials: 10-33 a. $1,000 unfavorable. b. $1,000 favorable. c. $400 favorable. d.
$400 unfavorable. LO 2 DO IT! 2 In Strassel Companys flexible budget graph, the fixed cost line and the total budgeted cost line intersect the vertical axis at $36,000. The total budgeted cost line is $186,000 at an activity level of 50,000 direct labor hours. Compute total budgeted costs at 30,000 direct labor hours. 10-34
Flexible Budgets LO 2 DO IT! 2 Flexible Budgets In Strassel Companys flexible budget graph, the fixed cost line and the total budgeted cost line intersect the vertical axis at $36,000. The total budgeted cost line is $186,000 at an activity level of 50,000 direct labor hours. Compute total budgeted costs at 30,000 direct labor hours. Variable costs: Total budgeted cost line Fixed costs Variable costs at 50,000 hours Activity level at intersect (hours) Variable costs per direct labor hour Direct labor hours
Total variable costs Total fixed costs Total budgeted costs 10-35 $ 186,000 - 36,000 150,000 50,000 $3 x 30,000 90,000 + 36,000 $ 126,000 LO 2 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3
Apply responsibility accounting to cost and profit centers. Accumulating and reporting costs (and revenues, where relevant) on the basis of the manager who has the authority to make the day-to-day decisions about the items. Conditions: 1. Costs and revenues can be directly associated with the specific level of management responsibility. 2. Costs and revenues can be controlled by employees at the level of responsibility with which they are associated. 3. Budget data can be developed for evaluating the managers effectiveness in controlling the costs and revenues. 10-36 LO 3 Responsibility Accounting
Levels of responsibility for controlling costs. Illustration 10-17 10-37 LO 3 Responsibility Accounting 10-38 Responsibility center - any individual who has control and is accountable for activities. May extend to any level of management.
Especially valuable in a decentralized company. Control of operations delegated to many managers throughout the organization. Segment area of responsibility for which reports are prepared. LO 3 Responsibility Accounting Two differences from budgeting in reporting costs and revenues:
1. Distinguishes between controllable and noncontrollable costs. 2. Emphasizes or includes only items controllable by the individual manager in performance reports. 10-39 Applies to both profit and not-for-profit entities. Profit entities: maximize net income. Not-for-profit: minimize cost of providing services. LO 3
Management Insight Proctor & Gamble Competition versus Collaboration Many compensation and promotion programs encourage competition among employees for pay raises. To get ahead, you have to perform better than your fellow employees. While this may encourage hard work, it does not foster collaboration, and it can lead to distrust and disloyalty. Such negative effects have led some companies to believe that cooperation and collaboration, not competition, are essential in order to succeed in todays work environment. As a consequence, many companies now explicitly include measures of collaboration in their performance measures. For example, Procter & Gamble measures collaboration in employees annual performance reviews. At Cisco Systems, the assessment of an employees teamwork can affect the annual bonus by as much as 20%. Source: Carol Hymowitz, Rewarding Competitors Over Collaboration No Longer Makes Sense, Wall Street Journal (February 13, 2006). 10-40
LO 3 Controllable Versus Noncontrollable Revenues and Costs Critical issue is whether the cost or revenue is controllable at the level of responsibility with which it is associated. A cost over which a manager has control is called a controllable cost. 1. All costs are controllable by top management. 2. Fewer costs are controllable as one moves down to each lower level of managerial responsibility. Costs incurred indirectly and allocated to a responsibility level are noncontrollable costs. 10-41 LO 3 Principles of Performance Evaluations
10-42 Management function that compares actual results with budget goals. Includes both behavioral and reporting principles. LO 3 Principles of Performance Evaluation MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION Management by exception means that top managements review of a budget report is focused primarily on differences between actual results and planned objectives.
10-43 MATERIALITY - Without quantitative guidelines, management would have to investigate every budget difference regardless of the amount. CONTROLLABILITY OF THE ITEM - Exception guidelines are more restrictive for controllable items than for items the manager cannot control. LO 3 Principles of Performance Evaluation BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES 1. Managers of responsibility centers should have direct input into the process of establishing budget goals of their area of responsibility.
2. The evaluation of performance should be based entirely on matters that are controllable by the manager being evaluated. 3. Top management should support the evaluation process. 4. The evaluation process must allow managers to respond to their evaluations. 5. The evaluation should identify both good and poor performance. 10-44 LO 3 Principles of Performance Evaluation REPORTING PRINCIPLES 1. Contain only data controllable by manager of responsibility center. 2. Provide accurate and reliable budget data to measure performance. 3. Highlight significant differences between actual results and budget goals.
4. Be tailor-made for intended evaluation. 5. Be prepared at reasonable intervals. 10-45 LO 3 Management Insight Honda Flexible Manufacturing Requires Flexible Accounting Flexible budgeting is useful because it enables managers to evaluate performance in light of changing conditions. But the ability to react quickly to changing conditions is even more important. Among automobile manufacturing facilities in the U.S., few plants are more flexible than Honda. The manufacturing facilities of some auto companies can make slight alterations to the features of a vehicle in response to changes in demand for particular features. But for most plants, to switch from production of one type of vehicle to a completely different one typically takes months and costs hundreds of millions of dollars. At the
Honda plant, however, the switch takes minutes. For example, it takes about five minutes to install different hand-like parts on the robots so they can switch from making Civic compacts to the longer, taller CR-V crossover. This ability to adjust quickly to changing demand gave Honda a huge advantage when gas prices surged and demand for more fuel-efficient cars increased quickly. Source: Kate Linebaugh, Hondas Flexible Plants Provide Edge, Wall Street Journal Online (September 23, 2008). 10-46 LO 3 Responsibility Reporting System 10-47 Involves preparation of a report for each level of responsibility in the company's organization chart.
Begins with the lowest level of responsibility and moves upward to higher levels. Permits management by exception at each level of responsibility. Each higher level can obtain the detailed report for each lower level. LO 3 Illustration 10-18 Partial organization chart
10-48 LO 3 Responsibility Reporting Illustration 10-19 Responsibility reporting system Permits comparative evaluations. Plant manager can rank each department managers effectiveness in controlling manufacturing costs.
10-49 Comparative rankings provide incentive for a manager to control costs. Report A President sees summary data of vice presidents. Report B Vice president sees summary of controllable costs in his/her functional area.
Report C Plant manager sees summary of controllable costs for each department in the plant. Report D Department manager sees controllable costs of his/her department. Illustration 10-19 Responsibility reporting system Report A President sees summary data of vice presidents.
Report B Vice president sees summary of controllable costs in his/her functional area. 10-50 Illustration 10-19 Responsibility reporting system Report B Vice president sees summary of controllable costs in his/her functional area.
Report C Plant manager sees summary of controllable costs for each department in the plant. 10-51 Illustration 10-19 Responsibility reporting system Report C Plant manager sees summary of controllable costs for each
department in the plant. Report D Department manager sees controllable costs of his/her department. 10-52 LO 3 Types of Responsibility Centers Three basic types: 10-53 Cost center
Incurs costs but does not directly generate revenues. Managers have authority to incur costs. Managers evaluated on ability to control costs. Usually a production department or a service department. Profit center
Investment center LO 3 Types of Responsibility Centers Three basic types: Cost center Profit center 10-54
Incurs costs and generates revenues. Managers judged on profitability of center. Examples include individual departments of a retail store or branch bank offices. Investment center LO 3 Types of Responsibility Centers Three basic types:
10-55 Cost center Profit center Investment center Incurs costs, generates revenues, and has investment funds available for use.
Manager evaluated on profitability of the center and rate of return earned on funds. Often a subsidiary company or a product line. Manager able to control or significantly influence investment decisions such as plant expansion. LO 3 Types of Responsibility Centers Illustration 10-20 10-56 LO 3
Types of Responsibility Centers Question Under responsibility accounting, the evaluation of a managers performance is based on matters that the manager: 10-57 a. Directly controls. b. Directly and indirectly controls. c. Indirectly controls.
d. Has shared responsibility for with another manager. LO 3 Types of Responsibility Centers RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTING FOR COST CENTERS 10-58 Based on a managers ability to meet budgeted goals for controllable costs.
Results in responsibility reports which compare actual controllable costs with flexible budget data. Include only controllable costs in reports. No distinction between variable and fixed costs. LO 3 Types of Responsibility Centers Illustration: The following report is adapted from the flexible budget report for Fox Company in Illustration 10-16. Illustration 10-21 10-59 LO 3
Types of Responsibility Centers Illustration: This report assumes: 10-60 Finishing Department manager is able to control all manufacturing overhead costs except depreciation, property taxes, and his own monthly salary of $6,000. Remaining $4,000 ($10,000 - $6,000) of supervision costs are assumed to apply to other supervisory personnel within the Finishing Department, whose salaries are controllable by the manager. LO 3
Types of Responsibility Centers RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTING FOR PROFIT CENTERS 10-61 Based on detailed information about both controllable revenues and controllable costs. Manager controls operating revenues earned, such as sales. Manager controls all variable costs incurred by the
center because they vary with sales. LO 3 RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTING FOR PROFIT CENTERS DIRECT AND INDIRECT FIXED COSTS 10-62 Direct fixed costs Relate specifically to one responsibility center. Incurred for the sole benefit of the center.
Called traceable costs since they can be traced directly to one center. Most direct fixed costs are controllable by the profit center manager. LO 3 RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTING FOR PROFIT CENTERS DIRECT AND INDIRECT FIXED COSTS 10-63 Indirect fixed costs
Pertain to a company's overall operating activities. Incurred for the benefit of more than one profit center. Called common costs since they apply to more than one center. Most are not controllable by the profit center manager. LO 3 RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTING FOR
PROFIT CENTERS RESPONSIBILITY REPORT 10-64 Budgeted and actual controllable revenues and costs. Uses cost-volume-profit income statement format: Deduct controllable fixed costs from the contribution margin. Controllable margin - excess of contribution margin
over controllable fixed costs. Noncontrollable fixed costs are not reported. LO 3 Illustration 10-22 Note the report does not show the noncontrollable fixed costs of $60,000. These costs would be included in a report on the profitability of the profit center. 10-65 LO 3 Types of Responsibility Centers Question In a responsibility report for a profit center, controllable fixed costs are deducted from contribution margin to show: a. Profit center margin
b. Controllable margin c. Net income d. Income from operations 10-66 LO 3 DO IT! 3 Profit Center Responsibility Report Midwest Division operates as a profit center. It reports the following for the year: Prepare a responsibility report for December 31, 2017. 10-67
LO 3 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4 Evaluate performance in investment centers. Return on investment (ROI) is the primary basis for evaluating the performance of a manager of an investment center. 10-68 Shows the effectiveness of the manager in using the assets at his/her disposal.
Factors in ROI formula are controllable by manager. LO 4 Return on Investment (ROI) Illustration 10-23 10-69 Operating assets include current assets and plant assets used in operations by the center and controlled by the manager.
Base average operating assets on the beginning and ending cost or book values of the assets. LO 4 Responsibility Report 10-70 Scope of managers responsibility affects content. Investment center is an independent entity for operating purposes.
All fixed costs are controllable by center manager. Shows budgeted and actual ROI below controllable margin. LO 4 Illustration 10-24 10-71 Illustration: The Marine Division is an investment center. It has budgeted LO 4 and actual average operating assets of $2,000,000. Judgmental Factors in ROI
10-72 Valuation of operating assets. Acquisition cost, book value, appraised value, or fair value. Each provides a reliable basis for evaluating performance. Margin (income) measure. Controllable margin, income from operations, or net income.
Only controllable margin is a valid basis for evaluating performance of investment center manager. LO 4 Improving ROI Improve ROI by increasing controllable margin, and/or reducing average operating assets. Illustration 10-25 Assumed data for Laser Division 10-73 LO 4 INCREASING CONTROLLABLE MARGIN Increase ROI by increasing sales or by reducing variable
and controllable fixed costs. 1. Increase sales by 10%. Sales increase $200,000 and contribution margin increases $90,000 ($200,000 X .45). Thus, controllable margin increases to $690,000 ($600,000 + $90,000). New ROI is 13.8%. Illustration 10-26 10-74 LO 4
INCREASING CONTROLLABLE MARGIN Increase ROI by increasing sales or by reducing variable and controllable fixed costs. 2. Decrease variable and fixed costs 10%. Total costs decrease $140,000 [($1,100,000 + $300,000) X 10%]. Controllable margin becomes $740,000. New ROI becomes 14.8%. Illustration 10-27 10-75
LO 4 REDUCING AVERAGE OPERATING ASSETS Assume that average operating assets are reduced 10% or $500,000 ($5,000,000 x .10). Average operating assets become $4,500,000. Controllable margin remains unchanged at $600,000.
New ROI is 13.3%. Illustration 10-28 10-76 LO 4 Improving ROI Question In the formula for return on investment (ROI), the factors for controllable margin and operating assets are, respectively: a. Controllable margin percentage and total operating assets. b. Controllable margin dollars and average operating assets. c. Controllable margin dollars and total assets. d. Controllable margin percentage and average operating assets. 10-77
LO 4 Accounting Across the Organization Does Hollywood Look at ROI? If Hollywood were run like a real business, where things like return on investment mattered, there would be one unchallenged, sacred principle that studio chieftains would never violate: Make lots of G-rated movies. No matter how you slice the movie businessby star vehicles, by budget levels, or by sequels or franchisesby far the best return on investment comes from the notso-glamorous world of G-rated films. The problem is, these movies represent only 3% of the total films made in a typical year. On the flip side are the R-rated films, which dominate the total releases and yet yield the worst return on investment. A whopping 646 R-rated films were released in a recent year69% of the total outputbut only four of the top-20 grossing movies of the year were R-rated films. This trendG-rated movies are good for business but underproduced, R-rated movies are bad for business and yet overdoneis something that has been driving economists batty for the past several years. Source: David Grainger, The Dysfunctional Family-Film Business, Fortune (January 10, 2005), pp. 2021. 10-78
LO 4 DO IT! 4 Performance Evaluation The service division of Metro Industries reported the following results for 2017. Sales $400,000 Variable costs 320,000 Controllable fixed costs 40,800 Average operating assets 280,000 Management is considering the following independent courses of action in 2015 in order to maximize the return on investment. 1.
Reduce average operating assets by $80,000, with no change in controllable margin. 2. Increase sales $80,000, with no change in the contribution margin percentage. a. Compute controllable margin and the return on investment for 2017. b. Compute controllable margin and the expected return on investment. 10-79 LO 4 DO IT! 4 Performance Evaluation a. Compute controllable margin and the return on investment for
2017. 10-80 LO 4 DO IT! 4 Performance Evaluation b. Compute controllable margin and the expected return on investment. 10-81 LO 4 Copyright Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in
Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make backup copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. 10-82
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