Aggression, Motivation and Social Facilitation

Aggression, Motivation and Social Facilitation

6. AGGRESSION AND MOTIVATION Contents Aggression Classifying Aggression Instinct Theory Social Learning Theory Frustration Aggression Hypothesis Aggressive-Cue Hypothesis Reducing Aggression Motivation Types of motivation Achievement Motivation Characteristics of NACH and NAF Encouraging NACH behaviour Aggression Behaviour which has an intention to harm and is outside the rules of the game Aggression Hostile

Instrumental Assertion Classifying aggression May still be difficult to determine what constitutes aggression so further definitions have been created Ben Flower Hostile Aggression Intention to harm and Outside of rules emotional response to a performer or situation. Sole purpose is to harm. Punching an opponent in Rugby League O'Driscoll Instrumental Aggression spear tackle

Intention to harm and Outside of rules Means to another goal (Aggression is the instrument). Tackling with great force with intention of making them fear you. Aggression or Assertion? Assertion Within the rules of the game May involve the use of physical force Instinct Theory Inherited pre-disposition to be aggressive

Aggression builds up inside us and we require a positive outlet, such as a sporting activity to release it Known as Catharsis e.g. Having a bad week at work so put in an aggressive tackle in a match at the weekend. Criticised for Doesnt consider environment Aggression often increases during sport rather than decreases Different social groups experience different levels of aggression Social Learning Opposes the Instinct theory by suggesting that Aggression is a learned behaviour Copying the behaviour of significant others If an aggressive act is successful or reinforced then it is more likely to be copied

Socialisation Going against your social norms to fit in with the group Linked to idea of Deindividualisation where we behave differently when acting as one of a group Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis Re le a se d CATHARSIS Obstacle Frustrati on Aggressi

on MORE Aggression Re NO le T as ed Drive to a Goal Key suggestion is that frustration always leads to aggression Release leads to Catharsis Not released therefore leads to an increase in aggression Aggressive-Cue Theory Badminton Builds on the Frustration Aggression hypothesis but corrects previous criticism Suggest that when frustration builds performer is ready for aggression rather than it being inevitable

Aggression will only occur if learned cues or triggers are present Aggression-related objects e.g. guns, boxing gloves and bats Aggression-related sports e.g. rugby or boxing Aggression-related people e.g. specific player, coach or fan Aggression-related place e.g. hostile environment or a pitch where an incident has previously occurred Controlling Aggression Punishing aggressive behaviour Individual Peers discouraging Coach/Managers Substitutions Fines Player behaviour contract NGBs Code of conduct Supporting referees Punishing aggressive behaviour Reinforce assertive behaviour Individual Praise others

Coach/Managers Praise and reward assertion Show assertive role-models NGBs Fair play awards Reducing/Controlling arousal Individual Mental Rehearsal Channelling aggression Coach/Managers Avoid over arousing pre game Focus on process as well as outcome Avoid win at all costs ethic and knowing their plays NGBs Educate referees Discuss with coaches Avoiding aggressive situations Individual

Learning to walk away Marking another play if possible Coach/Managers Move player to another role Ask player to take on responsibility Substitute player NGBs Stagger derby matches, playing at neutral grounds Motivation A cause of behaviour which directs and sustains it towards a specific objective In sporting context normally to win, improve performance or reach a specific goal Types of Motivation Intrinsic Extrinsic Internal feeling or drive from

within performer Rewards derived from outside the performer (Can be either Tangible or Intangible) Enjoyment Prizes Praise or pride Awards Recognition of wellbeing Money Satisfaction Feeling

Achievement Motivation Competitiveness is a key factor for distinguishing sport from recreation It has been suggested that in demanding situations performers exhibit either A Need to Achieve (NACH) Or A Need to avoid Failure (NAF) This displays the level of competitiveness shown by an individual Characteristics of NACH and NAF NACH Characteristic NAF Characteristics Shows approach behaviour Shows avoidance behaviour Seeks out challenges Avoids challenge- prefers very easy or very hard tasks (guaranteed success or failure) Is concerned with standards

Avoids situations where success is unknown and could be evaluated Enjoys being evaluated Performs worse while being evaluated Not afraid to fail Tends to be preoccupied with failure Attributes performance to internal factors Attributes performance to external factors High task persistence Lacks task persistence Values feedback from others Doesnt value feedback Encouraging NACH behaviour

Avoidance behaviour arises due to Lack of self confidence High anxiety Learned helplessness Attributing failure internally To generate NACH Approach behaviour Ensure success by setting achievable process goals Steadily increase complexity of task

Raise confidence by giving positive reinforcement Highlight successful role-models with comparable characteristics Attribute internally for success- Ability or Effort

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