Arab Israeli Conflict, 1948-1996 Key Personalities Prepared by Philip Fielden, Head of HSIE, The Hills Grammar School, Sydney, Australia. General Points BIRTH - look at the dates and locations OCCUPATIONS - what were they before they became famous? WHY? - What was their motivation? CAREERS - what did they achieve? LEGACY - what did they leave?
The Middle East - With Political Boundaries, 2003 David Ben Gurion Born in Plonsk, Poland in October 1886 Joined the Zionist Workers movement aged 17 Moved to Palestine in 1906 Made General Secretary of Histadrut Labour Federation in 1921 Formed Mapai in 1930 Made Chairman of the Jewish
Agency in 1935 Declared the state of Israel on May 14th 1948 PM from 1948-1963 (except 195355) Died in December 1973 Gamal Abdul-Nasser Born Alexandria, January 1918 Involved in Free Officers movement Staged bloodless coup dtat, July 1952 and effectively controls Egypt Declared President of Egypt, 1956 Announces nationalisation of Suez
Canal, July 1956 Survives Suez Crisis, Oct 1956 Led United Arab Republic (UAR), 1958-1961 Badly beaten in Six Day War, 1967 Death through massive heart attack, 1970 Hero of Pan-Arab Nationalism Menachem Begin Born in Brest-Litovsk, Poland in August 1913 Aged 16 joined Betar - the Nationalist
youth movement associated with revisionist Zionism Arrested by Russians in 1939, imprisoned in Siberia until 1941 Family died in the Holocaust Led Irgun Zvati Lehi from 1943 in fight against the British in Palestine. Member of Knesset from 1948 Prime Minister, 1977-1983 Signed Camp David Agreement Winner of Nobel Peace Prize in 1978 Ordered Invasion of Lebanon, 1982 Anwar al-Sadat
Born in Mit Abul al-Kum, Egypt in 1918 Joined Nassers Free Officers movement in 1950 Vice-President of Egypt, 1969-1970 President of Egypt from 1970-1980 Launched the Yom Kippur War in 1973 with Syria Made historic visit to Israel in 1977 Signed Camp David Agreement, despite opposition from other Arab states Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978 Assassinated in 1981 President Hafez Assad Born Qardaha, Syria in October, 1930 Joined the Syrian Baath Party , 1946
Helped organise the coupdtat that overthrew the UAR , 1961 Commander of Air Force, 1963 Minister of Defence after another coup dtat, 1966 Took power in 1970, becomes Syrian President in 1971 Sent troops into Lebanon, 1976 Failed to negotiate peace with Rabin during 1990s Yasser Arafat
Born August 1929 in Cairo Achieved Degree in Engineering, 1951 Founded al-Fatah in 1958 Became full-time Palestinian Fedayeen in 1964 Became Chairman of PLO in 1969 Made famous speech to UN in 1974 Expelled from Jordan in 1970 Expelled from Lebanon by Israel in 1982 Signed Oslo Accords in 1993 Awarded Nobel Peace Prize, 1994 Yitzhak Rabin
Born in Jerusalem, 1922 Joined Palmach, 1940 Commanded Harel Brigade fighting for Jerusalem, 1948-49 Army Chief of Staff, 1964-1968 Hero of Six Day War Made Ambassador to USA, 1968 Prime Minister, 1974-1977 Ordered Entebbe assault Minister of Defence, 1984-1990 (Break their bones) Prime Minister, 1992-1995 Signed Oslo Accords, Sept 1993 Assassinated, Nov 1995
King Hussein of Jordan Born in November 1935 in Amman, Jordan Became King in May 1953, aged 17 Educated at Harrow, London and Sandhurst Military College Jordan very poor, but strategically important location. Caught between powerful neighbours, proximity to Israel and large Palestinian population Lost West Bank, 1967
Expelled PLO - Black September, 1970 Tried to remain neutral during Gulf War, 1991 Signed peace with Israel, 1994 Shimon Peres Born Wolozyn, Poland, 1923 Responsible for arms procurement during War of Independence Left Mapai with Ben Gurion in 1965 to form Rafi Returned to Mapai in 1968 Minister of Defence, 1974-1977
Prime Minister, 1984-1986 Foreign Minister, 1986-1988 Signed Oslo Accords, 1993 Prime Minister 1995-1996 Lost PM by <1% in 1996 elections Awarded Nobel Peace Prize, 1994 Ariel Sharon Born Kefar Malal, Palestine, 1928 Enormously successful in wars of 1948, 1956 and 1967 Made Major General in 1967 Key role in formation of Likud in 1973 Minister of Defence, 1981-1983
Blamed for Israeli invasion of Lebanon, 1982 Resigned when criticised for Sabra & Chatila massacres, 1982 Very supportive of Jewish settlers in Occupied Territories Prime Minister, 2001 - Present Benyamin Netanyahu Born Tel Aviv, Israel in October 1949 Family moved to USA, 1963 Army Commando, 1967-1972 Deputy Chief of Mission for Israeli
Ambassador to USA, 1982 Representative to UN, 1984-1988 Leader of Likud, 1993-1999 Elected Prime Minister May 1996 by majority of <1% Frustrated implementation os Oslo Accords Signed Wye River Accord with PLO, Oct 1998 Defeated in elections, 1999 Golda Meir Born Kiev, Russia in May 1898 Moved to USA in 1906 and Palestine, 1921
Worked for Jewish Agency during 1920s-1930s Signed Declaration of Independence Ambassador to Soviet Union, 1948 Vital role in securing arms during War of Independence, 1948 Foreign Minister, 1956 Prime Minister, 1969-1974 Blamed for Israel being surprised by Yom Kippur War, 1973 Dr George Habash Born Lydda, Palestine in 1925/26 to Christian family
Forced to flee Palestine, 1948 Earned Medical Degree, American University, Beirut Active in Youth of Vengeance movement which attacked traditional Arab governments. Formed Marxist PFLP Staged famous Dawsons Field airliner explosions, 1970 Formed Rejection Front in 1973 to criticise any moves for peace Critical of Oslo Accord Levi Eshkol
Born in Oratov, Ukraine in October, 1895 Moved to Palestine, 1914 Worked with Jewish Agency to encourage Jewish settlement of Palestine. Served on Haganah staff during War of Independence, 1948-49 Minister of Defence, 1948-1951 Minister of Finance, 1952-1963 Prime Minister, 1963-1968 Led Israel during victory in Six Day War Criticised for being hesitant to go to war by Ben Gurion and his allies
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