C2 Smart Teach 3: Alkali metals, Halogens and rates of reaction

C2 Smart Teach 3: Alkali metals, Halogens and rates of reaction

C2 Smart Teach 3: Alkali metals, Halogens and rates of reaction Group 1 Elements The elements in group 1 are all called alkali metals They have one electron in their outer shell The react with water to produce hydrogen and a metal hydroxide (these are alkaline)

General word equation Can be applied to any alkali metal Metal + Water Metal hydroxide + Hydrogen Sodium + Water Sodium hydroxide + Hydrogen General symbol equation the balancing can be applied to any alkali metal 2M + 2H2O 2MOH + H2 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 Group 1 elements

a)Describe what you would see when a group 1 element reacts with water fizzing, metal floats, moves round surface of water, metal melts and then disappears. b) Why does the metal float? The heat melts the metal as it has a low melting point,

because it has a lower density than water it floats Group 1 Elements Describe and explain the trend in reactivity of group 1 elements as you go down the group! Group 1 metals become more reactive down the group This is because as you go down the group there is an increased number of shells

This leads to increased shielding therefore it is easier to loose outer electron. Group 8/0 Elements The elements in 8/0 are called the Nobel Gases The Nobel gases have a variety of uses, what property determines their uses? They are inert (unreactive) they have a full outer shell, the

are used in light bulbs Group 7 elements Group 7 metals are called the halogens Halogen Fluorine

State at room temperature Gas Colour Yellow Green Chlorine

Gas Yellow Bromine Liquid

Brown Iodine Solid Grey

Group 7 elements Halogens get less reactive as you go down the group Key term: Halide = a halogen joined to a metal e.g NaF When a metal halide reacts with a halogen this is called a displacement reaction. A reaction will only occur if the halogen in more reactive than the halide.

Group 7 Can you complete these equations Group 7 Halogens react with hydrogen to form hydrogen halides General word equation can be applied to any halogen Hydrogen + Halogen Hydrogen halide

Hydrogen + Chlorine Hydrogen Chloride General Symbol equation Can be applied to any halogen H2 + X2 2HX H2 + Cl2 2HCl Rates of reaction Factor

effect on rate of reaction explanation Use a higher temperature

Speeds up reaction Particles move faster, more frequent collisions, particles have more energy, more successful collisions. Faster rate Use smaller pieces

Speeds up reaction Larger surface area, more frequent collisions, faster rate of reaction Use a higher concentration

Speeds up reaction More particles, more frequent collisions, more successful collisions, faster rate Explain the meaning of the term catalyst increases rate of reaction without being used up its self

Why do we use catalytic convertors speeds up reaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen, prevents harmful gases from entering the air Rate of reaction In many questions you are asked to describe how you would carry out a rates investigation.

For example how the surface area of calcium carbonate affects the rate of a chemical reaction when reacted with HCl In these questions your need to: give volumes used, masses used, method to collect gas, size of chips, method to time, a second experiment with same details that would test the hypothesis., what results would show. Easiest method to remember for collecting gases = Gas Syringe Rates of Reaction

4)Look at this graph of volume of gas produced over time when magnesium powder was reacted with hydrochloric acid Y X Vol of gas Z

Time a)If I increase the temperature I get the line X Rate is faster same amount of gas produced b)If I increase the concentration of the acid I get line Y Rate is faster and more gas is produced because there was more acid to react c) If I use magnesium ribbon instead of powder get line Z Rate is slower, same amount of gas is produced

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