Checkpoint Answers Test 5 Chapter 16 Checkpoint 1 1. Which of the following is NOT a component of respiration? A. gas exchange B. oxygen utilization *C. speech D. ventilation 2. Type I alveolar cells secrete pulmonary surfactant. (T/F) 3. The conducting zone contains all of the following EXCEPT A. the primary bronchi. B. the larynx. C. the terminal bronchioles.
*D. the respiratory bronchioles. 4. The parietal pleura covers the surface of the lungs. (T/F) Checkpoint 2 1. Intrapleural pressure __________ during expiration. *A. increases B. decreases C. remains unchanged 2. What law states that the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume? Boyles 3. Lung compliance increases as the amount of surfactant in the lung increases. (T/F) 4. According to who's law, is the pressure in a small alveolus greater than a large alveolus as long as the surface tension is equal?
A. Boyle's law B. Dalton's law *C. Laplace's law D. Henry's law 5. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is a condition associated with premature babies who lack _surfactant__. Checkpoint 3 1. Contraction of the internal intercostal muscles expands the thoracic cavity. (T/F) 2. Quiet inspiration will _increase_ thoracic and lung volume and __decrease__ intrapulmonary pressure. 3. The volume of gas inspired or expired in a quiet respiration cycle is
the _tidal volume____. 4. The maximum amount of gas that can be inspired after a normal tidal expiration is the inspiratory capacity. (T/F) 5. The total amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration is the _total lung capacity____. Checkpoint 4
1. Who's law states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the pressures that each gas in the mixture would exert independently? Daltons 2. The presence of water vapor in the air will reduce the partial pressure of oxygen. (T/F) 3. Who's law states that the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas? Henrys 4. Normal arterial PO2 is __100mmHg__. 5. Normal alveolar PO2 is __105______. 6. Normal venous PCO2 is __46______. 7. Normal alveolar PCO2 is __40______. 8. Normal venous PO2 is __40______. Checkpoint 5 1. Blood pH is indirectly proportional to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood. (T/F)
2. Peripheral chemoreceptors that can detect changes in blood pH are located in the _carotid bodies_____ and _aortic bodies___ 3. Central chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata directly detect changes in the pH of the _CSF___ 4. Hyperventilation is stimulated by A. increased activity of the apneustic center. B. decreased contraction of the scalenes. *C. hypercapnia D. hypoxemia. 5. The primary drive to breathe is elicited by _increased PCO2__. Checkpoint 6
1. The production of hemoglobin and red blood cells in bone marrow is controlled by a hormone called thymopoietin. (T/F) 2. The form of hemoglobin with iron in a reduced state and bonded to oxygen is *A. oxyhemoglobin. B. deoxyhemoglobin. C. methemoglobin. D. carboxyhemoglobin 3. The affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is _increased__ as the partial pressure of oxygen is raised. 4. Increasing arterial blood temperature decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (T/F) 5. In anemia, 2,3-DPG is _increased__ and oxygen affinity is _decreased__. Checkpoint 7
1. Inhibiting carbonic anhydrase in erythrocytes would cause a decrease in the pH of arterial blood. (T/F) 2. The majority of carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as _bicarbonate ion___. 3. Respiratory acidosis results from hyperventilation. (T/F) 4. The metabolic regulation of blood pH occurs in A. the lungs. B. the liver. *C. the kidneys. D. all organs.
5. Respiratory acidosis would be compensated by increased retention of bicarbonate ions in the kidneys. (T/F) Checkpoint 8 1. During exercise, arterial carbon dioxide is normally increased. (T/F) 2. The immediate increase in ventilation as exercise begins can be explained through both neurogenic and humoral responses. (T/F) 3. Acclimatization to high altitude results in __________ 2,3-DPG in erythrocytes. *A. increased B. decreased C. no change in Chapter 18 Checkpoint 1
1. The gastrointestinal tract generates monomers from polymers by condensation. (T/F) 2. Wavelike muscular contraction of the gastrointestinal tract is called _peristalsis___. 3. The movement of digested food into the blood or lymph is called _absorption___. 4. Place the tunics of the GI tract wall in the correct order from superficial to deep. A. submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis B. mucosa, muscularis, submucosa, serosa C. serosa, submucosa, mucosa, muscularis *D. serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa 5. The intrinsic regulation of the GI tract is conferred by the autonomic nervous system. (T/F) Checkpoint 2
1. The initial phase of deglutition is a voluntary process. (T/F) 2. Chewing of food is called _mastication____. 3. Inhibiting the actions of the parietal cells would stimulate protein digestion. (T/F) 4. The _ECL cells__ of the stomach and intestine secrete histamine and serotonin. 5. Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium associated with *A. peptic ulcers. B. hiatal hernia.
C. acid reflux. D. pancreatitis. Checkpoint 3 1. The brush border is a term used to describe the mucosa of the small intestine. (T/F) 2. Protein digestion would decrease if lactase were not present on the brush border. (T/F) 3. The mixing movement of the small intestine is called _segmentation__. 4. The primary function of the large intestine is *A. water and electrolyte reabsorption. B. mineral absorption. C. hormone degradation. D. degrading toxins.
5. The intestinal microbiota have a mutualistic relationship with humans. (T/F) 6. Normal levels of intestinal microbiota help protect us from pathogenic bacteria. (T/F) Checkpoint 4 1. Bile is produced by the gallbladder. (T/F) 2. Blood from the digestive organs enters general circulation and eventually reaches the liver for processing.(T/F) 3. The enterohepatic circulation is between the _liver_ and _intestines_. 4. Bile is derived from cholesterol. (T/F) 5. Zymogens are inactive forms of _pancreatic_ enzymes. Checkpoint 5
1. The first of the three phases of extrinsic control of gastric function is the gastric phase. (T/F) 2. The major stimulus for the secretion of HCl during the cephalic phase of gastric regulation is A. the smell of food. B. vagal stimulation of chief cells. *C. release of histamine by ECL cells. D. vagal stimulation of parietal cells. 3. The arrival of chyme into the duodenum begins the __intestinal__ phase of stomach function. 4. Enterogasterone will _inhibit__ gastric function. 5. Secretin stimulates chief cells to secrete pepsinogen. (T/F) Checkpoint 6
1. Digestion of starch starts in the stomach. (T/F) 2. Carbohydrate digestion occurs in the _mouth_ and _duodenum__. 3. Protein digestion begins in the stomach, but most protein digestion occurs in the _duodenum__ and _jejunum__. 4. Fats are digested into fatty acids and glycerol.(T/F) 5. Low-density lipoproteins functions to remove and degrade cholesterol. (T/F) 6. Protection against atherosclerosis is believed to be associated with an *A. elevated HDL-cholesterol. B. elevated LDL-cholesterol. C. elevated total cholesterol. D. elevated VLDL-cholesterol.
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