Comparing the Colonies

Comparing the Colonies

Comparing the Colonies SS4H3 The student will explain the factors that shaped British colonial America. New England Colonies Massachusetts New Hampshire

Connecticut Rhode Island New England Geography Rocky soil Rocky beaches Mountains and valleys Rivers and bays

New England Climate Warm summers Humid summers Bitterly cold, long winters Snowy winters New England Farming Poor

soil, poor climate Poor natural features Crops could grow for 4-5 months Small farms New England Industry An industry is all of the businesses that

make one kind of product or provide one kind of service. Because farming was so difficult in New England, many colonists specialize to earn a living.

basketweaver blacksmith Specialization When a person specializes in a job, he or she only does one thing instead of everything.

A farmer specializes in what he grows. A saddler specializes in making horse saddles. A cooper specializes in making barrels. A wigmaker specializes in making wigs. Trade A

farmer trades the crop hes grown with someone else who has the good or service he needs. A trade can be done by barter. When two people barter, they trade two different things to meet their needs and wants. A trade can also be done by exchanging money for the good or service.

Goods and Services GOODS SERVICES Food Education Clothing

Health Tools Animals Buildings Paper and pens Books

Furniture Ships care Protection Transportation Government Entertainment Interdependence When

people specialize, then they become interdependent. They need goods and services from each other. How are the farmer, shoemaker, weaver, sailor, and ironworker interdependent? FARMERS

Worked USI.5C the land according to the region Relied on family members for labor GREEN ACRES (1)

11 Merchants * Merchants were people who ran the business and did the trading. * An apothecary was a merchant who sold medicines. * A milliner was a woman merchant

who sold fabrics and clothing. Harbors For merchants to trade their goods, they needed a way to get their goods from one place to another. There werent any trains, cars, or

airplanes in colonial times. Ships were the most common method used to transport goods. Harbors were places where the ocean and land made a good port for ships. New England Economics Many New Englanders

specialized in fishing and shipbuilding. The rocky coast had many good harbors. Thick forests provided wood for building ships. New England Economics

Ships would come to the port to get the goods that New Englanders wanted to ship to England. This is called exporting. The ships would also bring in the goods from England to New

England. This is called importing. New England Economics The fish industry became very important. Cod was the most common

fish caught. The whaling industry also was important because of the whales oil. cod

Opportunity Cost Opportunity cost is what it costs to give up the second best choice. The New England land was so poor for farming the colonists had to get food from the southern colonies. As a result, they developed many industries so that they had goods to

trade for food. Their opportunity cost for having industry was the need to pay for food. Triangle Trade Route New The manufactured goods came to the colonies after they went to Africa. Africa

was like a pit stop. England merchants exported goods to Europe. They traded these goods for imports to bring back to the colonies. Manufactured goods, tea, spices, and

slaves were the most common imports. Manufactured Goods A manufactured good is something that is made. Furniture, clothing, dishes, pots and pans, paper, plows, and tools are all examples of manufactured goods.

Videos of how tools are used. http://www.memorialhall.mass.edu/activities/tools/index.html Broad axe Flintlock musket Carding tool Triangular Trade Route

Textiles are things made from cloth: rugs, clothing, sheets, blankets, and so forth. Rum is an alcoholic drink made from sugarcane. Middle Passage The Middle Passage is the name that was given to the forced transportation of Africans to the Colonies. The Middle Passage was the middle part of the Triangular Trade Route.

Middle Atlantic Colonies New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware Middle Atlantic Geography Fertile

soil Sandy beaches Rolling hills and Coastal Atlantic Plain Rivers and bays Middle Atlantic Climate Warm

summers Humid summers Cool to cold winters Sometimes snowy Middle Atlantic Farming Very good farming region Much longer growing season than

New England Many sunny days and plenty of rain Crops could grow for 5-7 months Medium-sized farms Middle Atlantic Industry Even though farming was more easy in the Middle

Atlantic colonies than the New England colonies, people still specialized in various industries. An artisan was a skilled worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. Some of these artisans included wigmakers, wheelwrights, gunsmiths,

coopers, and weavers. ARTISANS USI.5C Worked as craftsmen in towns and on plantations Lived in small villages and cities

HAKUNA MATATA (1) (click) MATERIAL GIRL (1) (click) 27 Artisan: Cooper

(Barrel maker) Artisan: Gunsmith (Gun maker) Artisan: Saddler (Saddle maker) Artisan: Shoemaker

Artisan: Tailor (Clothing maker) Artisan: Weaver (Cloth maker) Artisan: Wheelwright

(Wheel maker) Artisan: Wigmaker Middle Atlantic Economics Wide rivers and bays made excellent transportation routes for trade Iron working, shoes, glass, pottery, leather and wood goods all became

important industries Founder (Iron worker) Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina

Georgia Southern Geography Very watery with rivers, bays and wetlands Tidewater (water in rivers and streams rises and falls every day with the oceans tides) Sandy beaches

Southern Climate Warm most of the year Just a little cooler for winter Rarely any snow Southern Farming Excellent

for farming Many colonists grew cash crops Crops could grow for 7 or 8 months There was plenty of rain Very large farms were called plantations Plantation

LARGE LANDOWNERS Lived mainly in the South Relied on indentured servants and/ or slaves for labor Were educated Rich social cultures 43

SLAVES Captured in Africa and shipped to colonies and sold Owned as property for life with no rights Children of slaves were born into

slavery 44 Cash Crops for Trade tobacco cotton indigo INDENTURED SERVANTS

Consisted of men and women who did not have money for passage to the colonies; they worked for passage Free at end of their contract (Usually 7 years) 46

Southern Economics The waterways were excellent to ship crops to markets for trade Plantations needed many workers so slaves or indentured servants were needed Cash crops made the most money for farmers

Opportunity Cost Southern colonists could grow wheat. But, the opportunity cost for growing wheat was high. Farmers who specialized in tobacco earned more money than farmers who grew wheat. So if a farmer grew wheat, a good food crop, he didnt

earn as much if he had grown tobacco. Comparing Geography New England: rocky, mountains Middle: fertile soil, sandy beaches, rolling hills and Atlantic Coastal Plain South: wetlands, tidewater, sandy

beaches ALL: rivers and bays Comparing Climate New England : warm summers, bitterly cold, snowy winters Middle : warm summers, cool to cold winters, sometimes snowy South : warm most of the year, just a

little cooler for winter, rarely any snow ALL: humid Comparing Farming New England : very poor soil and climate, 4-5 months growing season, small farms that grew just enough for own family Middle : very good farming region, 5-7 months growing season,

medium-sized farms South : excellent farming region and climate, fertile soil, 7-8 months growing season, many plantations and cash crops Comparing Economics New England : trees, fish and seafood provided the most natural resources

for producing goods Middle : wide rivers and bays were great for transportation with excellent hunting and trapping South : plantations needed many workers and cash crops were shipped on the waterways Fall Line The

fall line is about 100 miles inland from the shore. Rivers from higher land flow to lower land and form waterfalls. The fall line follows the eastern edge of the Appalachians, from the Southern Colonies to New England.

Fall Line The higher land on the other side of the fall line was known as the backcountry. The backcountry was in back of

the area where most colonists settled. Fall Line and Mills The fall line provided an excellent place for settlers to build mills. A mill is a building that grinds wheat, rice, or corn grain into flour.

The rushing water would turn a water wheel. The water wheel would turn an axle. The axle would run the machines that would power the mill to grind the grain. Mills Fall Line Why are there so

many big cities built along the fall line? Ports Why were so many cities and ports built where the harbors were? Philadelphia

Boston

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