COPPER (Cu)

COPPER (Cu)

Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Manganese (Mn) Atomic No. 25 Atomic mass.55 Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan

Distribution Total body contents = 12 20 mg Mainly concentrated in liver and kidney Human Blood Contains 5-20 ug/dl Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Dietary source

Best: Nuts, Grains, Legumes, Soybean, Coffee & Tea Good: Fruits, Vegetables Poor: Meat, Sea food, Poultry and Fish Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan RDA 2.5 5.0 mg/day provides a margin of safety

Infants 0 0.5 0.5 1.0 = = 0.5 0.7 0.7 1.0

Children 13 46 7 10 11+ = = = =

1.0 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 3.0 2.5 5.0 Adults 2.5 5.0 Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan

Absorption and Excretion Poorly absorbed (3-4 %) Mostly from small intestine

Transmanganin, a globulin binds and transports Major uptake site are mitochondria Excreted mostly in feces via bile

Very little through kidneys Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Important functions Essential for many species including human. Vital component of many enzyme system Protein metabolism, Hexokinase,Arginase, Choline Esterase and Pyruvate Kinase

Energy metabolism, Oxidatative Phosphorylation Synthesis of muco-polysaccharides (cartilage) Glyco-proteins (prothrombin) Gluconeogenesis Probable role in Hb and Cholesterol synthesis Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Factors Affecting Absorption High Amount of dietary Iron , Calcium

and Phosphorous interfares with Mn absorption from GIT. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Related Diseases Deficiency in human not yet established In animals Poor reproduction Growth retardation Congenital malformation

Abnormal bones and cartilage Impaired glucose tolerance Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Related Diseases Toxicity in human seen when exposed to Mn dust for a long duration. Excessive amounts accumulate in liver and CNS which leads to Neuro- muscular disorder Parkinsonism Anorexia,impotence and leg cramps are the

early sighns of over dose. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan MOLYBDENUM (Mo) Atomic No. 42 Atomic mass.96 Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan

Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Dietary sources Some rich sources include organ meat , legumes, and whole-grain cereals. Molybdenum content of foods varies with the concentration of the element in soil. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Safe and adequate intake

For adults is approximately between 0.15 and 0.50 mg per day. Excessive intake i.e. 10 -- 15 mg/ day, produce like, symptoms. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan gout Distribution

Mostly concentrated in liver and kidney Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Important functions of Molybdenum Essential component of the enzymes; Xanthine oxidase Aldehyde oxidase, and Sulfite oxidase, needed for the oxidation of xanthines, aldehydes, and sulfites,

respectively. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Important functions of Molybdenum Mo is present in nitrate reductase in plants and nitrogenase in microorganisms, where it functions in nitrogen fixation. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan

Related disease In areas where the soil has a high molybdenum content cattles develop a syndrome called Teart which is characterized by: Weight loss, Brittle bones and De-pigmentation. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan

SELENIUM (Se) Atomic No. 34 Atomic mass.79 Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Dietary sources Good dietary sources include

Both animal and plants sources Seafood, Liver and Kidney are best sources Meat and Milk are poor sources. Cereals , pulses, vegetables , and fruits are fair sources Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Safe & adequate dietary intake A level of 0.1ug per gram of diet is considered adequate for optimal growth and reproductions,

with 50 to 200 g. Per day being safe and adequate for adults A level of selenium in excess of 5 ppm in foods is considered dangerous. Toxicity occurs when the drinking water contains more than 2 g/L or the diet has more than 3 g per gram. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Distribution

Selenium is widely distributed throughout the body, with highest concentrations found in the kidneys liver, pancreas, and pituitary. The amount of selenium in foods is proportional to the soil content in the area where the food is grown. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Important functions Although recognized as an essential element for

many animal species, selenium has not yet been clearly established as essential for humans. The best known biochemical function of this element is as part of the enzyme glutathione peroxide, which protects vital components of the cell e.g. membrane lipids and hemoglobin) against oxidative damages. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Important functions

It may also be involved in other important biologic processes, immune mechanisms and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Required for normal growth and development in animals. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Deficiency manifestation

Liver necrosis Pancreatic degeneration, Muscular Dystrophy, Heart enlargement, Cardiac arrythmias,

RBC fragility and infertility are the deficiency manifestations of selenium Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan KESHAN DISEASE Naturally occuring Se deficiency disease in human. Reported in Keshan province of N.E China. Low contents of Se in soil is the basic reason.

Disease is characterized by acute or chronic heart enlargement , cardiac arrhythmias and ECG changes. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Related disease in animals A syndrome termed alkali disease has been reported among cattle consuming feed high in selenium. Concentrations in the range of 5 to 15 ppm have been shown to be toxic to animals.

Deficiency occurs when the concentration is less than 0.02 to 0.05 ug per gram of diet Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Related disease in animals Selenium has been found to cure some, but not all, of the deficiency symptoms produced in animals by vitamin E deficiency, It is thought that this is due to the similarity between the action of selenium and that of vitamin

E as antioxidants. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Selenium Toxicity Chronic Toxcity ..Selenosis Its Signs are : Dullness

Weight Loss Hair Loss Impaired Vision and Liver Necrosis Not seen in human, however Glass, ceramic and paints industry workers are at risk Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Protective Role Selenium supplementation is thaught

to reduce the risk of cancer in human. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan Interference from other elements Sulfur is an antagonist to selenium in that it competes with this element for reactive sites in enzymes. Peshawar Medical College NWFP Pakistan

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