Diagnostic Horizons - University of Florida

Diagnostic Horizons - University of Florida

Exam III Office hours: Wednesday in Class today 12:30 1:30 tomorrow 10:00 - 12:00 5:00 5:30 E-mail to make other arrangements Soil Taxonomy and Taxonomic Names Soil Orders in Florida Entisols little development, usually A-C horizons, ochric epipedon Inceptisols A little more development, Bw horizons, ochric, umbric epipedon Alfisols Argillic/Kandic horizon (Bt) less than 2 m, base saturation is > 35% Ultisols Argillic/Kandic horizon (Bt) less than 2 m, base saturation is < 35% Mollisols Mollic epipedon, dark, high organic matter Spodosols Spodic horizon (Bh), illuvial O.M., ochric, umbric epipedon Histosols Organic soil, histic epipedon

Soil Orders Weathering and development slight Entisols Histosols Inceptisols Andisols Gelisols Aridisols Vertisols Alfisols Mollisols Ultisols Spodosols Strong Oxisols The Florida state soil is a spodosol: Myakka fine sand Extent of Florida Soil Orders Spodosols

8.4 million acres Entisols 7.5 Ultisols 6.9 Alfisols 4.6 Histisols 4.0 Inceptisols

1.0 Mollisols 1.0 Myakka fine sand Taxonomy The last syllable in the taxonomic name indicates the soil order Apopka loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic grossarenic paleudult Ledwith fine, smectitic, hyperthermic mollic albaqualf -ent -oll

-od -ept Soil Taxonomy Order 12 Soil forming processes / diagnostic horizons Suborder 63 Great group 250 Sub group

1400 Family 8000 Series 19,000 Genetic similarity: Wetness, climate, vegetation Moisture Conditions Suborder Wet Dry Aquic poor aeration, reduced iron Udic- dry < 90 total days

Order Ustic - limited but is present Aridic- moist <90 total days Xeric - dry Suborder Great group Temperature Conditions cold Hot Family Cryic icy cold Frigid lower than 8oC Mesic between 8 and 15oC Thermic between 15 and 22oC Hyperthermic - > 22oC

Sub group Family Series Suborders moisture, diagnostic horizons Suborder Examples Aquod Udult Udoll Xeroll Psamment Ochrept Umbrept Alboll very wet spodosol wet ultisol wet mollisol dry mollisol sandy entisol

Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family Series Soil Taxonomy Order 12 Suborder 63 Great group 250

Sub group 1400 Family 8000 Series 19,000 Soil forming processes / diagnostic horizons Soil moisture conditions, diagnostic horizon Arrangement of Diagnostic horizons, age Great Groups Based on diagnostic horizons and their arrangements or other features like age, color, texture Arg - argillic horizon present

Pale - old Kand - kandic horizon present Hapl - minimum horizonation quartzi quartz sand Hum - humid Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family Series Suborder Great Group Udult paleudult

Aquoll argiaquoll Suborder Udalf paleudalf Great group Udult hapludult Aquic poor aeration, reduced iron Udic- dry < 90 total days Ustic - limited but is present Aridic- moist <90 total days Xeric - dry

Order Sub group Family Series Sub group Expresses the core concept of the great group Moisture, sandiness, depth, color Typic (typifies the great group) Arenic (sandy) Grossarenic (deep sandy) Aquic (aquic moisture) Rhodic (red color) Typic hapludult Grossarenic quartzipsamment Order Suborder

Great group Sub group Family Series Families Properties important to growth of plant roots Particle size mineralogy Sandy Loamy Fine loamy Clayey Siliceous Kaolinitic Smectitic Oxidic

temperature oC Frigid < 8 Mesic 8-15 Thermic 15-22 Hyperthermic > 22 Series Horizon number, order, thickness, texture, structure, Color, Organic matter, pH, accumulations Order Mollisol Sub-order G. Group Aquoll Argiaqoll Sub-group typic Argiaquoll

Family Series typic argiaquoll Brookston loamy siliceous Cordova Westland Alachua County Apopka loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic grossarenic paleudult Ledwith fine, smectitic, hyperthermic mollic albaqualf Surrency loamy, siliceous, thermic, arenic paleaquult Pomona sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic, ultic, haplaquod paleudult order Suborder great group sub-group

family albaqualf paleaquult haplaquod Alachua County Order paleudult Suborder Great group suborder order Great group Sub group albaqualf Family

Great group suborder order Series Summary of Taxonomy Posted on Website

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