Diapositiva 1 - ESPON

Diapositiva 1 - ESPON

KIT Knowledge, Innovation and Territory ESPON 2013 Programme Internal Seminar Crossing Knowledge Frontiers Serving the Territories 17-18 November 2010 Liege, Belgium The project team Lead Partner (LP): BEST, Politecnico di Milano, Italy: Project Coordinator: Prof. Roberta Capello (Full Professor in Regional Economics) Project Manager: Camilla Lenzi (Assistant Professor) Prof. Roberto Camagni (Full Professor in Urban Economics) Ugo Fratesi (Assistant Professor), and Andrea Caragliu (Post-Doc Fellow) Project Partner 2 (PP2): CRENOs, University of Cagliari, Italy: Prof. Raffaele Paci (Full Professor of Applied Economics) Francesco Pigliaru (Full Professor of Economics) and Stefano Usai (Associate Professor of Economics) Alessandra Colombelli (Post-Doc Fellow) Matteo Bellinzas (Research assistant) Project Partner 3 (PP3): AQR, University of Barcelona, Spain: Prof. Rosina Moreno (Full Professor in Applied Economics) Prof. Jordi Suriach (Full Professor in Applied Economics) Prof. Ral Ramos (Associate Professor in Applied Economics) Ernest Migulez (Technical Researcher and PhD student) The project team Project Partner 4 (PP4): LSE, Great Britain: Dr. Riccardo Crescenzi (Lecturer in Economic Geography) Prof. Andrs Rodrguez-Pose (Professor in Economic Geography) Prof. Michael Storper (Professor in Economic Geography) Project Partner 5 (PP5): University of Bratislava, Slovakia: Prof. Milan Buek (Full Professor in Regional Economics and Policy) Dr. Miroslav ipikal (Coordinator - Senior Lecturer) Dr. Rudolf Pstor (Researcher) Project Partner 6 (PP6): University of Cardiff, Great Britain: Prof. Phil Cooke (Full Research Professor in Regional Economic Development) Julie Porter (Coordinator Senior Researcher/Lecturer) Selyf Morgan (Researcher) General Goal (1) To contribute to the understanding of: - diffusion processes of knowledge and innovation and the socio-economic impacts of innovation and knowledge in space, by identifying the different territorial patterns of innovation in Europe. A territorial pattern of innovation is defined as a combination of context conditions and of specific modes of performing the different phases of the innovation process. General Goal (2) The general phylosophy of the project is in line with the words of Danuta Hbner (2009): Innovation is not considered as a linear process that starts with research, eventually leading to development, translated later into growth in the territories that have more capabilities. Instead, it is the product of a policy mix, including several bodies and stakeholders in which the territories, their specificities and conditions are paramount. General Goal (3) In our project: -> we do not look for the territorial capabilities that allow territories (in general) to exploit innovation and knowledge; -> instead, we look for territorial specificities (context conditions) that are behind different modes of performing the different phases of the innovation

process through the identification of territorial patterns of innovation. Requirements Requirements for achieving this goal: - a consistent database for the state of the art in innovation and knowledge; comparison with the EU and national data; identification of the most important inter-regional spillover mechanisms; the identification of new development opportunities through innovation for Europe and its territories; an inventive framework for a scientific answer to the policy questions. Structure of the project A) Main spatial trends of innovation and knowledge. B) Territorial elements explaining spatial trends. (both endogenous knowledge creation and flows from outside) Different modes of innovation and knowledge creation and diffusion. Output: typologies of innovative regions A comparison with other regional knowledge economies in more advanced and emerging countries WP 2.1 and 2.2 C) Impact of the different modes of innovation and knowledge on regional performance. Output: typologies of regional performance based on innovation and knowledge Output: typologies of territorial patterns of innovation WP 2 3.1 and 2.5 D) Case studies WP 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 E) Policy implications for the development of a successful knowledge economy WP 2.6 WP 2.3.2 A) Knowledge Economy and its Spatial Trends (I) Basic idea: knowledge-based economy has not got a unique interpretative paradigm. Different approaches are necessary: A1. Sectoral approach (presence in the region of science-based, high-technology sectors). A2. Functional approach (presence in the region of functions like R&D and high education). A3. Relation-based approach (presence in the region of interactive and collective learning processes). A) Knowledge Economy and its Spatial Trends (II) Spatial elements matter:

- high-technology firms cluster along valleys, corridors, glens and high-tech districts to exploit the innovative atmosphere (technologically advanced regions); - high-education and research functions cluster in space since physical proximity acts as a driver of knowledge (scientific regions); - geographical areas characterised by cognitive proximity (shared behavioural codes, common culture, mutual trust and sense of belonging) show wider collective learning processes (networking regions). A1) The sectoral approach: a typology Specialisation in HT manufacturing HT manufacturing Technologically Advanced Regions (TAR) Specialisation in HT services EU average Low tech regions HT services A1) The sectoral approach Indicators to be collected and computed: 1. Regional specialization in HT manufacturing As measured by employment in HT manufacturing according to Eurostat definition 2. Regional specialization in HT services As measured by employment in knowledge intensive HT services according to Eurostat definition Source: Eurostat A1) The sectoral approach High-tech manufacturing High-tech services Reykjavik ! Reykjavik ! Canarias Canarias Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Runion Martinique Martinique

Runion Helsinki ! Helsinki Oslo ! Oslo Guyane ! Guyane ! Stockholm Tallinn ! Stockholm Tallinn ! ! ! Madeira Riga Madeira ! Riga ! Kbenhavn ! Dublin ! Kbenhavn ! Dublin Vilnius ! Minsk Vilnius ! ! ! Minsk Acores ! Acores

Amsterdam London Berlin ! Warszawa ! ! ! Kyiv Bruxelles/Brussel ! ! Paris This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Berlin ! ! Warszawa ! Kyiv ! Bruxelles/Brussel ! Paris Praha Luxembourg Amsterdam ! London This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Praha Luxembourg ! ! ! ! ! ! Wien Bratislava !

Kishinev ! WienBratislava ! ! Budapest Vaduz Bern ! Kishinev Budapest Vaduz Bern ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Ljubljana ! Zagreb ! Ljubljana Zagreb Bucuresti Beograd ! ! ! ! Bucuresti Beograd Sarajevo ! ! ! Sofiya ! Sarajevo !

! Madrid Roma ! Lisboa Podgorica ! Madrid Sofiya Podgorica ! Lisboa Roma ! Skopje Skopje ! ! Ankara Tirana ! ! ! ! ! Ankara Tirana ! ! ! Athinai ! El-Jazair ! Athinai ! Ar Ribat ! El-Jazair ! Nicosia Tounis Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010 !

! Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010 Technologically-advanced regions LQ manufacturing (w.r. to the EU) NA 0 - 0.50 0.51 - 1 1.01 - 2.94 2.95 - 5.37 Valletta 0 250 500 km Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano, 2010 Origin of data: EUROSTAT, 2007 EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries Nicosia ! ! ! ! Ar Ribat Tounis ! Technologically-advanced regions LQ services (w.r. to the EU) NA 0 - 0.50 0.51 - 1 1.01 - 1.78 1.79 - 3.14 Valletta 0 250 500 km Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano, 2010 Origin of data: EUROSTAT, 2007 EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries A1) The sectoral approach: a typology Reykjavik ! Canarias Guadeloupe Runion Martinique Helsinki

! Oslo ! Guyane Tallinn Stockholm ! ! Madeira Riga ! Kbenhavn ! Dublin Vilnius ! ! Minsk ! Acores Amsterdam London Berlin ! Warszawa ! ! ! Kyiv ! Bruxelles/Brussel ! Paris This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Praha Luxembourg ! ! ! WienBratislava ! Kishinev

! Budapest Vaduz Bern ! ! ! ! Ljubljana ! Zagreb ! Bucuresti Beograd ! ! Sarajevo ! Sofiya Podgorica ! Madrid ! Lisboa Roma ! ! Skopje ! Ankara Tirana ! ! ! Athinai ! El-Jazair ! Nicosia Tounis ! ! Ar Ribat ! ! Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010

Technologically-advanced regions Location quotient w.r. to the EU NA Low-tech regions High.tech manufacturing regions High-tech services regions Technologically-advanced regions Valletta 0 250 500 km Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano, 2010 Origin of data: EUROSTAT, 2007 EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries A2) The functional approach: a typology Research activities Research intensive regions Scientific regions Human capital Regions with other specialisations than R&D EU average Human capital intensive regions A2) The functional approach Indicators to be collected and computed: Research and development Expenditures; Expenditure as share of GDP; Expenditures per capita (1000 inhab.), Personnel in R&D as share of total employment Sources: Eurostat, ISTAT, Institut National de la Statistique et des tudes conomiques Patents Number of patents; Patents per capita; Patents per capita percentage variation Source: OECD REGPAT Human capital Share of population with degree (ISCED 5-6) Source: Eurostat Fifth Framework Program Participations; Funding; Funding per capita (Source: CORDIS) A2) The functional approach: Human capital Tertiary education (% over population), 2005-2007 A2) The functional approach: R&D expenditures RD expenditure % of GDP, Average 2006-2007 A2) The functional approach: Patents per capita Number of patents per 1000 Pop, Average 2005-2006 A3) The relational approach: a typology Spatial approach Localised knowledge spillovers regions

Cooperative neighbouring regions e.g. knowledge spillovers e.g. collaboration in research projects among local actors Unintentional relationship Informal networking regions e.g. scientific associations Formal networking regions Intentional relationship e.g. collaboration in research projects A-spatial approach A3) The relational approach Possible indicators to be collected and computed: Participations in the 5FP projects in the neighbouring regions Average funding in the 5FP in the neighbouring regions Average funding (per capita over total population) in the 5FP in the neighbouring regions Product+process innovations developed by other regions discounted by distance Number of patent citations on total patents Number of in-migrant and out-migrant inventors on total population Number of co-patents on total patents Sources: OECD - REGPAT, Cordis (Crenos elaboration) Thi s m ap d oes no t n ecessari ly reflect the opi ni on o f the E SP ON M oni tori ng Co m m ittee A3) The relational approach: Knowledge spillover regions Reykjavik ! Canarias ! Guadeloupe Martinique ! Runion ! ! Helsinki ! Tallinn Oslo !

! Stockholm Guyane ! ! Riga ! Madeira ! Kbenhavn Vilnius ! ! Minsk ! Dublin ! ! ! ! ! Acores Warszawa Berlin Amsterdam London Kyiv ! ! Bruxelles/Brussel ! Praha Luxembourg Paris ! ! ! Wien ! ! Kishinev ! Budapest ! Bern Vaduz ! !

! Zagreb ! Bucuresti Beograd ! ! Sarajevo ! Sofiya Podgorica ! Roma Madrid ! Skopje Ankara ! ! Tirana ! ! ! Lisboa ! Athinai ! Nicosia ! El-Jazair ! Tounis ! ! Valletta KIT Proyect, 2010 0 275 550 km Regional level: NUTS 2 Source: Cordis, 1998-2002 Origin of data: own calculations EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries Average number of participants in FP

in the neighbouring regions less than 93 93 to below 227 227 to below 385 385 to below 653 653 and more A4) Spatial trends of innovation in Europe Indicators to be collected and computed: Innovation Technological innovation Product innovation Process innovation Marketing and/or organisational innovation Adoption Innovation adoption Product innovation adoption Process innovation adoption Source: CIS/EUROSTAT A) Spatial trends of innovation in Europe Technological innovation Product innovation Reykjavik Reykjavik ! ! Canarias Canarias Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Runion Martinique Runion Martinique Helsinki ! Oslo Helsinki ! Oslo ! ! Guyane Tallinn ! Stockholm ! Guyane Tallinn Stockholm ! !

Madeira Riga Madeira ! Riga ! Kbenhavn ! Dublin Kbenhavn ! Vilnius ! Dublin ! ! Minsk Vilnius ! ! Minsk ! Acores Acores Amsterdam London Amsterdam ! London ! Berlin Warszawa ! ! Kyiv ! Bruxelles/Brussel ! This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Warszawa ! ! Kyiv

Bruxelles/Brussel ! ! This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Praha Luxembourg Paris ! ! ! Praha Luxembourg Paris Berlin ! ! ! ! WienBratislava ! ! Bratislava Wien ! ! Budapest ! Vaduz ! Bern ! ! Kishinev Budapest Vaduz Bern Kishinev ! ! ! ! !

Ljubljana Zagreb ! ! Ljubljana ! Zagreb ! Sofiya Podgorica ! Roma ! ! ! Madrid Sofiya Podgorica ! Madrid ! ! ! Sarajevo Lisboa ! Bucuresti Beograd Sarajevo Bucuresti ! Beograd ! Roma ! Lisboa ! ! Skopje ! ! Ankara Tirana ! ! !

Skopje ! Ankara Tirana ! ! Athinai ! El-Jazair Athinai ! ! ! Nicosia Tounis ! ! ! Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010 ! ! Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010 Valletta 0 250 500 km Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano, 2010 Origin of data: CIS, 2004-2006 data EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries CIS NUTS0 Technological innovation 16.10 - 24.75 24.76 - 37.01 37.02 - 43.29 43.30 - 52.47 52.48 - 65.12 ! ! Ar Ribat El-Jazair ! Ar Ribat Nicosia Tounis CIS NUTS0

Product innovation NA 0 - 3.28 3.29 - 8.59 8.60 - 15.73 15.74 - 25 25.01 - 37.77 Valletta 0 250 500 km Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano, 2010 Origin of data: CIS, 2004-2006 data EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries A) Spatial trends of innovation in Europe Process innovation Marketing and org. innovation Reykjavik ! Reykjavik ! Canarias Guadeloupe Canarias Runion Martinique Guadeloupe Helsinki Helsinki ! Oslo ! ! Guyane Tallinn Stockholm ! Runion Martinique Oslo ! Guyane Tallinn ! Stockholm

! ! Madeira Madeira Riga ! Riga ! Kbenhavn ! Kbenhavn ! Dublin ! Vilnius ! Dublin Vilnius ! ! Minsk Minsk ! ! Acores Amsterdam ! London Berlin ! ! Warszawa ! Kyiv Bruxelles/Brussel ! ! ! Amsterdam London Berlin ! Warszawa ! !

! Kyiv Bruxelles/Brussel ! ! Praha ! Luxembourg Paris ! Acores This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Praha Luxembourg Paris ! ! ! WienBratislava Bratislava Wien ! ! ! Kishinev ! Budapest ! Vaduz Bern ! Ljubljana ! ! ! Podgorica ! Sofiya Sofiya ! Podgorica ! Madrid Skopje !

Roma ! Lisboa Ankara ! Tirana ! ! Athinai ! El-Jazair ! Nicosia Tounis ! ! Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010 Nicosia Tounis ! ! Ar Ribat ! ! NA 0 - 6.29 6.30 - 10.58 10.59 - 14.06 14.07 - 17.00 17.01 - 31.49 Ankara Tirana Athinai ! ! Process innovation ! Skopje ! ! ! El-Jazair CIS NUTS0 !

! ! ! Ar Ribat ! Bucuresti Beograd Sarajevo Sarajevo ! Roma ! ! Zagreb Bucuresti ! Beograd ! Kishinev ! ! ! ! Madrid ! Budapest Vaduz Bern ! Ljubljana ! Zagreb Lisboa ! This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Valletta ! 0 250 500 km Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano, 2010

Origin of data: CIS, 2004-2006 data EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010 CIS NUTS0 Marketing and organizational innovation NA 0 - 14.38 14.39 - 23.07 23.08 - 29.69 29.70 - 36.41 36.42 - 46.96 Valletta 0 250 500 km Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano, 2010 Origin of data: CIS, 2004-2006 data EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries A) Spatial trends of innovation in Europe Facing some statistical difficulties at NUTS 2 Official NUTS2 data available in a few countries Product innovation only and process innovation only available for IT and RO Product innovation and process innovation available for CH, CZ, DK, PL, UK (NUTS1) RIS data (DG Enterprise, JRC and MERIT) and Regional Innovation Potential (DG Regio) to be checked and validated further. ESPON contact points have already been involved. A) Social innovation adoption and use broadband penetration rate on-line orders Reykjavik Reykjavik ! ! Canarias Canarias Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Runion Martinique Helsinki Helsinki ! Oslo ! Oslo !

Guyane Tallinn Stockholm Runion Martinique ! Guyane Tallinn Stockholm ! ! ! ! Madeira Madeira Riga Riga ! ! Kbenhavn Kbenhavn ! ! Dublin Dublin Vilnius ! Vilnius ! ! Minsk ! Minsk ! ! Acores Acores Amsterdam London

Berlin ! Warszawa ! ! ! Kyiv Bruxelles/Brussel ! ! London Warszawa ! ! Kyiv Bruxelles/Brussel ! ! This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Praha Luxembourg Paris ! ! Berlin ! ! Praha Luxembourg Paris This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Amsterdam ! ! ! ! WienBratislava

WienBratislava ! ! ! Kishinev Budapest Vaduz Bern ! Bern ! ! Kishinev Budapest Vaduz ! ! ! ! ! ! Ljubljana Zagreb Ljubljana Zagreb ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Bucuresti Beograd Bucuresti Beograd Sarajevo Sarajevo !

! Sofiya Sofiya Podgorica ! Madrid Roma ! Lisboa Podgorica ! ! Madrid Skopje ! ! Roma ! Lisboa Ankara Tirana ! ! ! Athinai Athinai ! ! El-Jazair ! ! Nicosia Tounis ! ! Nicosia Tounis ! ! Ar Ribat ! !

! Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010 Social dimension of innovation Broadband penetration rate NA 0 - 34 35 - 53 54 - 68 69 - 87 Ankara Tirana ! El-Jazair Ar Ribat ! Skopje ! ! ! ! Valletta 0 250 ! 500 km Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano, 2010 Origin of data: EUROSTAT ICT usage survey, 2009 EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries Valletta 0 Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010 Social dimension of innovation 500 km Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano, 2010 Origin of data: EUROSTAT ICT usage survey, 2009 EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries Individuals who ordered goods or services over the Internet NA 0 - 24 25 - 44 45 - 61 62 - 80 250 A) Environmental innovation Reykjavik !

Canarias Guadeloupe Runion Martinique Helsinki ! Oslo ! Guyane Tallinn ! Stockholm ! Madeira Riga ! Kbenhavn ! Dublin ! Vilnius ! Minsk ! Acores Amsterdam ! London ! Berlin ! Warszawa ! Kyiv ! Bruxelles/Brussel ! Paris ! This map does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the ESPON Monitoring Committee Praha ! Luxembourg ! Bratislava Wien ! ! Kishinev ! Budapest

! Vaduz ! Bern ! Ljubljana ! Zagreb ! Bucuresti ! Beograd ! Sarajevo ! Lisboa ! Podgorica ! Madrid ! Roma ! Sofiya ! Skopje ! Ankara ! Tirana ! Athinai ! El-Jazair ! Nicosia ! Tounis ! Ar Ribat ! ! Politecnico di Milano, Project KIT, 2010 OECD green technologies Patents per 1,000 population NA 0 - 0.003 0.004 - 0.008 0.009 - 0.022 0.023 - 0.051 Valletta 0 250 500 km

Regional level: NUTS2 Source: Politecnico di Milano and CRENOS, 2010 Origin of data: OECD REGPAT database, 2000-2006 EuroGeographics Association for administrative boundaries A5) Comparison with US, China and India Innovation Patents (source: OECD - REGPAT) R&D (sources: Standard & Poors Compustat for US; China Statistical Yearbook on Science and Technology: Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India) Social Filter Education: bachelors, graduate or professional degrees Education: college level education Agricultural Labour Force Unemployment Rate Young People Sources: US-Census data; Chinese statistical resources website, National Bureau of Statistics of China; Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India, Central Statistical Organization (CSO), Census of India Structure of the local economy Domestic migration Population density % regional of national GDP Krugman index of specialisation Sources: US-Census data; Chinese statistical resources website, National Bureau of Statistics of China; Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India, Central Statistical Organization (CSO), Census of India A5) Top 20 performers in US, China and India (patents on population) China 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 India USA China India USA Beijing Delhi San Jose-San FranciscoOakland, CA 11 Chongqing Himachal Pradesh Reno-Sparks, NV Shanghai Haryana San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA 12 Heilongjiang

West Bengal New York-NewarkBridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Appleton-OshkoshNeenah, WI 13 Sichuan Kerala Gainesville, FL Guangdong Chandigarh Tianjin Maharashtra Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI 14 Shaanxi Punjab Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA Zhejiang Andhra Pradesh Boston-WorcesterManchester, MA-NH 15 Jilin Uttar Pradesh Boise City-Nampa, ID Fujian Karnataka Cincinnati-MiddletownWilmington, OH-KY-IN 16 Hainan Jharkhand Chicago-NapervilleMichigan City, IL-IN-WI Jiangsu Goa Rochester-BataviaSeneca Falls, NY 17 Hubei Rajasthan Houston-BaytownHuntsville, TX Liaoning

Gujarat Austin-Round Rock, TX 18 Shanxi Madhya Pradesh Hartford-West HartfordWillimantic, CT Shandong Tamil Nadu Philadelphia-CamdenVineland, PA-NJ-DE-MD Inner Mongolia Jammu & Raleigh-Durham-Cary, Kashmir NC Hunan Pondicherry Albany-SchenectadyAmsterdam, NY Xinjiang Orissa 19 20 Santa Fe-Espanola, NM B) Territorial patterns of innovation A territorial pattern of innovation is a combination of context conditions and of specific modes of performing the different phases of the innovation process. Context conditions: Internal generation External attraction of knowledge and innovation Different phases of the innovation process: - from information to knowledge - from knowledge to innovation - from innovation to regional performance B1) A totally endogenous innovation pattern Territorial preconditions for knowledge creation Knowledge output Tacit knowledge REGION I Territorial preconditions for innovation Innovation Economic efficiency Collective

learning Education, human capital, accessibility, urban externalities Product and process innovation Codified knowledge Territorial preconditions for innovation adoption Entrepreneurship Best practice governance Economic efficiency B2) An endogenous innovation pattern in a dynamic area Territorial preconditions for knowledge creation Knowledge output Territorial preconditions for innovation Innovation Territorial preconditions for innovation adoption Economic efficiency REGION J Education, human capital, accessibility, urban externalities Territorial preconditions for interregional knowledge flows and innovation diffusion Territorial accessibility Physical proximity Tacit knowledge Collective learning Product and process innovation REGION I

Codified knowledge Entrepreneurship Best practice governance Economic efficiency B3) An endogenous innovation pattern in a scientific network Territorial preconditions for knowledge creation REGION J Education, human capital, accessibility, urban externalities Territorial preconditions for interregional knowledge flows and innovation diffusion Knowledge output Innovation Territorial preconditions for innovation adoption Economic efficiency Tacit knowledge Codified knowledge Territorial receptivity Territorial relational capital Tacit knowledge REGION I Territorial preconditions for innovation Collective learning Education, human capital, accessibility, urban externalities Product and process innovation Codified

knowledge Entrepreneurship Best practice governance Economic efficiency B4) An exogenously driven innovation pattern Territorial preconditions for knowledge creation Knowledge output Territorial preconditions for innovation Innovation Territorial preconditions for innovation adoption Economic efficiency REGION J Education, human capital, accessibility, urban externalities Territorial preconditions for interregional knowledge flows and innovation diffusion REGION I Tacit knowledge Codified knowledge Territorial creativity Product and process innovation Best practice governance Economic efficiency B5) An imitative pattern of innovation Territorial preconditions for knowledge creation Knowledge output Territorial preconditions for innovation Innovation

Territorial preconditions for innovation adoption Economic efficiency REGION J Education, human capital, accessibility, urban externalities Territorial preconditions for interregional knowledge flows and innovation diffusion Tacit knowledge Codified knowledge Collective learning Product and process innovation Entrepre neurship Territorial attractiveness REGION I Product and process innovation Best practice governance Economic efficiency B6) An integrated innovation pattern Territorial preconditions for knowledge creation Knowledge output Territorial preconditions for innovation Innovation Territorial preconditions for innovation adoption Economic efficiency REGION J Education,

human capital, accessibility, urban externalities Territorial preconditions for interregional knowledge flows and innovation diffusion REGION I Education, human capital, accessibility, urban externalities Tacit knowledge Codified knowledge Territorial relational capital Collective learning Product and process innovation Entrepre neurship Territorial creativity Territorial attractiveness Territorial receptivity Tacit knowledge Codified knowledge Collective learning Product and process innovation Entrepreneurship Best practice governance Economic efficiency C) Impact of innovation and knowledge on regional growth This WP will identify: - the role of innovation and knowledge on the performance of different territories; -

the return of investments in regional innovation and knowledge in different territories; - the role of knowledge spillovers in the economic performance of different territories. D) Case studies 2 case studies per PP on regional best practices in knowledge creation 2 case studies per PP on regional best practices in knowledge spillovers Overall 12 case studies 1. Regions selection according to two dichotomies (see the next slide): Concentrated vs diversified Traditional vs advanced 2. Aim of the case studies: - to strengthen the role of territorial elements in knowledge and innovation creation and knowledge spillovers according to the conceptual framework used in the project of territorial pattern of innovation - to highlight the governance elements related to knowledge and innovation diffusion 3. Knowledge spillovers among regions and not only within regions 4. Agreement on the interview protocol, target groups of the planned interviews and selection process of the interviewees (to be provided in the Interim Report) D) Case studies TRADITIONAL SECTORS ADVANCED SECTORS CONCENTRATED AREAS DIVERSIFIED AREAS Wood processing industry Banska Bystrica region Automotive - Bratislava Food- Wales Wine Tuscany Automotive Piemonte Biotechnology Oxford ICT Koice ICT Bratislava Digital Media/TV Cardiff (Wales) Media Milan (Lombardy) ICT Cambridge Arno Valley High tech (Tuscany) E) Policy recommendations The aim of the project is to produce policy recommendations on the achievement of a smart growth for Europe, intended as an economic growth based on knowledge and innovation. In EU2020 this priority rejects a one size fits all approach. Recommendations in this field have to: be tailored on each territorial pattern of innovation be based on specific policy interventions reinforce territorial preconditions that strengthen each innovation pattern in terms of economic performance.

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