Electroencephalography - Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging
Methods for Dummies 15.02.2012 Basis of the EEG/MEG signal Marcos Economides Spas Getov Electroencephalography Pros Good time resolution, ms compared to s with fMRI Portable and affordable More tolerant to subject movement than fMRI
EEG is silent and so useful for studying auditory processing Can be combined with fMRI or TMS Con s Low spatial resolution Artifacts / Noise History Richard Caton (1842-1926) from Liverpool published findings about electrical phenomena of the exposed cerebral hemispheres of rabbits and monkeys in the British Medical Journal in 1875.
In 1890 Adolf Beck published findings of spontaneous electrical activity and rhythmic oscillations in response to light in the brains of rabbits and dogs. In 1912 Vladimir Vladimirovich Pravdich-Neminsky published the first animal EEG study described evoked potential in the mammalian brain. In 1914 Napoleon Cybulski and Jelenska-Macieszyna photographed EEG recordings of experimentally induced seizures. History 1929: Hans Berger developed electroencephalography, the
graphic representation of the difference in voltage between two different cerebral locations plotted over time He described the human alpha and beta rhythms Continuous EEG recording F = frontal, T = temporal, C = central, etc International 10-20 system ensures consistency Even number = right side of head, Odd number = left side Digital vs. Analogue Conventional analogue instruments consist of an amplifier, a galvanometer
(a coil of wire inside a magnetic field) and a writing device. The output signal from the amplifier passes through the wire causing the coil to oscillate, and a pen mounted on the galvanometer moves up and down in sync with the coil, drawing traces onto paper. Digital EEG systems convert the waveform into a series of numerical values, a process known as Analogue-to-Digital conversion. The rate at which waveform data is sampled is known as the sampling rate, and as a rule should be at least 2.5 times greater than the highest frequency of interest. Most digital EEG systems will sample at 240Hz. The accuracy of digital EEG waveforms can be affected by sampling skew a small time lag that occurs when each channel is sampled sequentially. This can be reduced using burst mode reduced the time lag between successive channel sampling.
Be aware of the relationship between sampling rate, screen resolution and the EEG display. If there are more data samples than there are pixels then this will have the effect of reducing the sampling rate and the data displayed will appear incomplete. However, most modern digital EEG systems will draw two data samples per screen pixel. EEG Acquisition Electrodes: Usually made of silver (or stainless steel) active electrodes placed on the scalp using a conductive gel or paste. Signal-to-noise ratio (impedance) reduced by light abrasion. Can have 32, 64,128, 256 electrodes. More electrodes = richer data set. Reference electrodes
(arbitrarily chosen zero level, analogous to sea level when measuring mountain heights) commonly placed on the midline, ear lobes, nose, etc. Amplification: one pair of electrodes make up one channel on the differential amplifier, i.e. there is one amplifier per pair of electrodes. The amplifier amplifies the difference in voltage between these two electrodes, or signals (usually between 1000 and
100 000 times). This is usually the EEG records differences in voltage: the way in which the signal is viewed can be set up in a variety of ways called montages Bipolar montage: Each waveform in the EEG represents the difference in voltage between two adjacent electrodes, e.g. F3-C3 represents the difference in voltage between channel F3 and neighbouring channel C3. This is repeated across the whole scalp through the entire array of electrodes. Reference montage: Each waveform in the EEG represents the difference in voltage between a specific active electrode and a designated reference electrode. There is no standard position for the reference, but usually a midline electrode is chosen so as not to bias the signal in any one hemisphere. Other popular reference signals include an average signal from electrodes placed on each ear lobe or mastoid. Average Reference montage: Activity from all electrodes is measured, summed and then averaged. The resulting signal is then used as a reference electrode and acts as input 2 of the amplifier. The use can specify which electrodes are to be included in this calculation.
Laplacian montage: Similar to average reference, but this time the common reference is a weighted average of all the electrodes, and each channel is the difference between the given electrode and this common reference. Montages (continued) In digital EEG setups, the data is usually stored onto computer memory in reference mode, regardless of the montage used to display the data when it is being recorded. This means that remontaging, i.e. changing the montage either on-line or off-line, can be done via a simple subtraction which cancels out the common reference. E.g. F3 Reference
- = F3 F4 F4 Reference What does the EEG record? Volume conduction Ions are constantly flowing in and out of neurons to maintain resting potential and propogate
action potentials. Movement of like-charged ions out of numerous neighbouring neurons can create waves of electrical charge, which can push or pull electrons on scalp electrodes, creating voltage differences. In summary, the EEG signal represents the deflection of electrons on the scalp electrodes, caused by cortical dipoles (the summed activity within a specific area of cortex that creates a current flow). Neural basis of the EEG (1) Action Potentials Rapid, transient, all-or-none nerve impulses that flow from the body to the axon terminal of a neuron. They are generally too short in duration (a few ms) and to deep to contribute significantly to the EGG signal. In addition they create 2 dipoles = quadrupole
Finally, synchronous firing is unlikely preventing the summation of potentials Neural basis of the EEG (2) Post-synaptic potentials Scalp EEG is
a summation of non- propogating dendritic and somatic postsynaptic potentials which arise relatively slower than action potentials (approx 10ms). EPSPs Excitatory Post Synaptic Potentials IPSPs Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potentials Post synaptic potentials summate spatially and temporally A single pyramidal cell may have more than 104 synapses distributed over its soma and dendritic surface. Neural basis of the EEG (3)
Synapse Dendrites + When an EPSP is generated in the dendrites of a neuron, Na+ flow inside the neurons cytoplasm creating a current sink. The current completes a loop creating a dipole further away from the excitatory input (where Na+ flows outside the cell as passive return current), which can be recorded as a positive voltage difference by an extracellular electrode. Large numbers of vertically oriented, neighbouring pyramidal neurons create these
field potentials. Thus, EEG detects summed synchronous activity (PSPs) from many thousands of apical dendrites of neighbouring pyramidal cells (mainly). It takes a combined synchronous electrical activity of approximately 108 neurons in a minimal cortical area of 6cm2 to create visible EEG Olejniczak, J. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2006. Neural basis of the EEG (4) The closer a dipole is to the centre of the head, the broader the distribution and the lower the amplitude Introduction to EEG and MEG, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Olaf Hauk, 03-08 Neural basis of the EEG (5)
Pyramidal neurons, the major projection neurons in the cortex, make up the majority of the EEG signal (particularly layers III, V and VI), because they are uniformly orientated with dendrites perpendicular to the surface, long enough to form dipoles. We can assume that the EEG signal reflects activity of cortical neurons in close proximity to the given electrode. The thalamus acts as the pacemaker ensuring synchronous rhythmic firing of pyramidal cells. Activity from deep sources is harder to detect as voltage fields fall off as a function of the square of distance.
EEG Rhythms: can characteristically be broken down into different frequency bands Attenuated during movement Seen during alertness, active concentration Relaxation, closing of the eyes Control of inhibition Drowsiness, meditation, action inhibition Continuous attention, slow wave sleep
Mu (8 13 Hz): Rest state motor neurons Gamma (30 100+ Hz): Cross-modal sensory processing, short-term perceptual memory EEG Analysis (1) Evoked Potentials stereotyped early responses time and phase-locked to the presentation of a physical stimulus Event-related Potentials
stereotyped late (?) responses time and phase-locked to stimuli, but often associated with higher cognitive processes, e.g. attention, expectation, memory, or top-down control Both require averaging the same event over multiple trials (typically 100+), in order to average out noise/random activity, but preserve the signal of interest. If the signal of interest is roughly known a priori then filters can be applied to suppress noise in frequency ranges where the amplitude is low or are of no interest. E.g. High-pass, low-pass, band-pass EEG Analysis (2) Induced Activity stereotyped responses time but not phase-locked to the presentation of a physical stimulus, i.e. there is some jitter in the response between epochs. Averaging over trials would not be appropriate. Instead, the signal amplitude for different frequency bands is computed for every epoch. This type of analysis only considers frequency amplitude and not phase.
EEG Analysis (3) Evoked Response / Event related potential Grand mean ERP in response to visual oddball paradigm subjects are asked to react when they see a rare occurrence amongst a series of common stimuli, e.g. rotating arms of a clock It produces a stereotyped
evoked response over parieto-central electrodes at around 300ms (termed P300 component) that is largest after seeing the rare target stimulus Rangaswamy & Porjesz. From event-related potentials to oscillations. Alcohol Research & Health, 2008 EEG Analysis (4) Time-Frequency Analysis Tells you which frequencies are present/dominant in the signal over a given time. Can be for one single electrode or the average across multiple electrodes.
Useful for: Analysing induced activity that isnt phase-locked, i.e. that would be averaged out with conventional event-related analysis Characterising and understanding typical responses to specific events e.g. significant increase in gamma band activity 20-60 ms following an auditory stimulus EEG Analysis (3) Artifacts Physiological Eye blinks and eye movements Muscle artifacts
Heart artifacts Environmental Momentary changes in electrode impedance Dried electrode gel Electrode wire contact Baseline Correction the EEG signal can undergo small baseline shifts away from zero due to sweating, Poor grounding can give a 50/60 Hz signal muscle tension, or other sources of noise. Removal of artifacts can be done manually, e.g. epoching the signal and manually removing contaminated trials; OR through automated artifact rejection techniques build into the software.
EEG Pros Good time resolution, ms compared to s with fMRI Portable and affordable More tolerant to subject movement than fMRI EEG is silent and so useful for studying auditory processing Can be combined with fMRI or TMS
Con s Low spatial resolution Artifacts / Noise Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Electromagnetism Hans Christian Orsted (1777 1851) Current passing through a circuit affects a magnetic compass needle (1819) Electromagnetism (2)
An electrical dipole is always surrounded by a corresponding magnetic field The polarity of the field is determined by the direction of the current Apical dendrites of pyramidal cells also act as dipoles (more of this later) Biomagnetic Fields But The magnetic fields generated by the brain are minute: 100 million times weaker than the earths magnetic field, one million times
weaker than the magnetic fields generated by the urban environment. By way of contrast, MRI scanners generate a magnetic field of between 3 to 3.5 tesla. Early Recordings of Biomagnetic Fields First recording of biomagnetic field generated by the human hart (Gerhard Baule and Richard Mcfee, 1963) Two copper pick-up coils twisted round a ferrite core with 2 million
turns. The two coils were connected in opposite directions so as to cancel out the background fluctuations. Never the less, they had to conduct their experiment in the middle of a field because the signal was still very noisy. A group working in the Soviet Union (Safonev et al, 1967) produced similar results but in a shielded room: reduced background noise by a factor of 10. Recording Biomagnetic Fields From the Brain 1968 David Cohen and
colleagues make measurements using a copper induction coil in a magnetically shielded room in University of Illinois. Measurements were too noisy for useful analysis Two key problems: 1. Sensors sensitive enough to record tiny changes in magnetic flux 2. Eliminate noise from other environmental fluctuations in Superconductivity - When cooled to -269C, solid mercury suddenly lost all resistance to the flow of
electric current (Heike Onnes, 1911) . Superconductivity -Later found in other materials, such as tin and metal alloys. - When two superconducting materials are separated by a thin insulating layer a tunnel effect is produced which enables the flow of electrons - even in the absence of any external voltage. This is a Josephson Junction (Brian Josephson 1962). Recording a Weak Signal: SQUIDs Create a superconducting loop and measure changes in interference of quantum-mechanical electron waves circulating in this loop as magnetic flux in loop changes Invented at Ford Research Labs in 1964/1965 by Jaklevic, Lambe, Silver,
Mercerau and Zimmerman Two types: DC and RF SQUIDs. RF squids generally used to make measurements of biomagnetism (less sensitive but much cheaper). Niobium or lead alloy cooled to near absolute zero with liquid helium Can measure magnetic fields as small as 1 femtotesla (10-15) Recording Biomagnetic Fields From the Brain 1972 David Cohen, now at MIT, used one of the first SQUIDs to record a cleaner MEG signal.
By now they had designed a better magnetically sheilded room. Used one SQUID only, which was moved around to different positions Modern MEG Since 1980s multiple SQUIDs arranged in arrays to allow measurement over the whole scalp surface The helmet-shaped dewar of current systems typically contains around 300 sensors (connected to SQUIDs) and
contains liquid helium to keep the sensors cooled enough to superconduct. Carefully designed and constructed magnetically shielded rooms. Different metals used to shield different frequencies of magnetic interference. Minimising Noise Flux Transformers Convert changes in magnetic flux to changes in current. Magnetometers: pick up environmental noise Gradiometers: two or more coils magnetic interferance from distant sources uniform across them while interferance from close by isnt Changes in output from gradiometer to SQUID are caused mainly by changes
in flux close-by (in subjects brain). Only a small percentage of the external noise arrives at the SQUID. Neural Basis of the MEG Signal Magnetic fields are produced by same electrical changes recorded by EEG Again, the main source is post-synaptic currents flowing across pyramidal neurones as previously described However, there are some key differences: 1. Magnetic field is perpendicular to current If the current is running parallel to the scalp the magnetic field exits the head from one side of the dipole and re-enters on the other side and so can be measured.
But if the current is perpendicular to the scalp the magnetic field does not leave the scalp and cannot be measured. 2. Differential sensitivity by brain region MEG is more sensitive to activity of pyramidal cells in the walls of the sulci. MEG registers no information from radially aligned axons (unlike EEG) MEG signal decays more quickly with distance (in proportion to distance2) so problems recording deep
(subcortical) areas http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/MEG 3. MEG signal is less distorted by skull/ scalp anatomy Bone is transparent to magnetism and magnetic fields are not smeared by the resistance of the skull. Accurate reconstruction of the neuronal activity that produced the external magnetic fields therefore requires simpler models than with EEG 4. Different problems of source localisation Differences discussed in last slide mean that we can make stronger
inferences about the origin of the signals in MEG. The Forward and Inverse Problems The Forward and Inverse Problems 1. Forward modelling generates expected signal 2. Compare model to actual recorded signal 3. Use difference between the two to work backwards and refine understanding of where signal comes from Forward Modelling: 1. Dipolar source models can explain many configurations of electrical current caused by groups of neurones and measured at ~ 2cm 2. Volume conductor models modelling effects of cranial anatomy (simpler for MEG).
The Inverse Problem A given magnetic field recorded outside head could have been created by an enormous number of possible electrical current distributions Theoretically ill-posed as there are many possible solutions Source localisation models require assumptions about brain physiology to make the problem soluble Many algorithms of source reconstruction exist. This will be covered in a future talk Dipole Fitting Minimum norm approaches Beamforming Brookes et al 2010 (http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/MEG) MEG: Overview
http://web.mit.edu/kitmitmeg/whatis.html Advantages/Disadvantages of MEG http://web.mit.edu/kitmitmeg/whatis.html EEG vs. MEG EEG Cheap Large Signal (10 mV) Signal distorted by skull/scalp Spatial localization ~1cm Sensitive mostly to radial dipoles (neurones on gyri) Allows subjects to move Sensors attached to head Can be done anywhere MEG
Good temporal resolution (~1 ms) Problematic spatial resolution (forward & inverse problems) No structural or anatomical information Expensive Tiny Signal(10 fT) Signal unaffected by skull/scalp Spatial localization ~1 mm Sensitive mostly to tangential dipoles (neurons in sulci) Subjects must remain still Sensors in helmet Requires special laboratory with magnetic shielding
EEG vs. MEG The sensors do not need to come into direct contact with the scalp. Unlike EEG, MEG does not mess up your hair! Less preparation time, more child-friendly. MEG/EEG and Other Experimental Approaches ADVANTAGES OF M/EEG Non-invasive (records electromagnetic activity, does not modify it).
More direct measure of neuronal function than metabolismdependent measures like BOLD signal in fMRI Can be used with adults, children, clinical population. High temporal resolution (up to 1 millisecond or less, around 1000x better than fMRI) => ERPs study dynamic aspects of cognition. Allow quiet environments. Subjects can perform tasks sitting up- more natural than in MRI scanner DISADVANTAGES OF M/EEG Problematic source localisation (forward & inverse problems) Limited spatial resolution (especially EEG) Anatomical information not provided Multimodal Imaging
http://www.neuroscience.cam.ac.uk/directory/profile.php?RikHenson References/suggested reading Andro,W. and Nowak, H, (eds) (2007) Magnetism in Medicine. Wiley - VCN Handy, T. C. (2005). Event-related potentials. A methods handbook. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Luck, S. J. (2005). An introduction to the event-related potential technique. Cambridge, Massachussets: The MIT Press
Rugg, M. D., & Coles, M. G. H. (1995). Electrophysiology of mind: Event-related brain potentials and cognition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Hamalainen, M., Hari, R., Ilmoniemi, J., Knuutila, J. & Lounasmaa, O.V. (1993). MEG: Theory, Instrumentation and Applications to Noninvasive Studies of the Working Human Brain. Rev. Mod. Phys. Vol. 65, No. 2, pp 413-497. Olejnickzac, P., (2006). Neurophysiologic basis of EEG. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 23, 186-189. Silver, A.H. (2006). How the SQUID was born. Superconductor Science and Technology. Vol.19, Issue 5 , pp173-178.
Sylvain Baillet, John C. Mosher & Richard M. Leahy (2001). Electromagnetic Brain Mapping. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. Vol.18, No 6, pp 14-30. Basic MEG info: http://www1.aston.ac.uk/lhs/research/facilities/meg/introduction/ http://web.mit.edu/kitmitmeg/whatis.html http://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/martinos/research/technologiesMEG.php
http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/MEG References/suggested reading EEG Speckmann & Elger. Introduction to the Neurophysiological Basis of the EEG and DC Potentials. 2005 Williams & Wilkins. Electroencephalography: basic principles, clinical applications, and related fields. 15-26, 1993 Introduction to EEG and MEG, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Olaf Hauk, 03-08
Olejniczak, J. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2006 Davidson, RJ, Jackson, DC, Larson, CL. Human electroencephalography. In: Cacioppo, JT, Tassinary, LG, Bernston, GG, editors. Nunez, PL. Electric fields of the brain. 1st ed. New York, Oxford University Press, 1981. Introduction to quantitative EEG and neurofeedback. Evans, James R. (Ed);Abarbanel, Andrew (Ed) San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press. (1999). xxi 406 pp. Goldman et al. Acquiring simultaneous EEG and functional MRI. Clinical
Neurophysiology, 2000 Handy, T.C. (2004) Event-Related Potentials: A Methods Handbook. MIT Press. Engel AK, Fries P, Singer W. (2001) Dynamic predictions: oscillations and synchrony in top-down processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2(10):704-16. Lachaux JP, Rodriguez E, Martinerie J, Varela FJ. (1999) Measuring phase synchrony in brain signals. Human Brain Mapping. 8(4):194-208. http://www.ebme.co.uk/arts/eegintro/index.htm
EP vs. ERP / ERF evoked potential short latencies (< 100ms) small amplitudes (< 1V)V) sensory processes event related potential / field longer latencies (100 600ms), higher amplitudes (10 100V)V) higher cognitive processes
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