Evaluating translation processes: Opportunities and challenges

Evaluating translation processes: Opportunities and challenges

Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow & Gary Massey Seminar on Empirical and Experimental Research in Translation UAB, Barcelona, 2-3 July 2013 1 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond Focus on the situated activity of translation realist social theory (Carter & Sealey 2000) domain theory (Layder 1998) people / agency (psychobiography of translator) situated activity (computer workplaces) social settings (staff or freelance) contextual resources (information, economic, personnel) effect of processes on quality of products translation competence and emergent practices mixed-method approach 1st-4th levels of Progression Analysis (Perrin 2003) 2 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 1st level of Progression Analysis: translation situation participants linguistic and educational background participant observation at translation workplaces controlled recordings at translation institutes usability lab library, classrooms, and computer rooms (students) mobile workplace (students and freelance translators) industry partners offices (staff professionals) status of translation job temporal and economic constraints 3

Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 1st level of Progression Analysis: translation situation students at different points in their translation careers beginners, advanced/MA, graduates six different language combinations (G-E, E-G, F-G, G-F, I-G, G-I) translation into L1 or L2 professionals with different levels of experience juniors and seniors at industry partner (translation into L1) free-lancers (translation into L1 or L2) 4 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 2nd level of Progression Analysis: activities and practices keystroke logging InputLog 4.0 (van Waes & Leijten 2006) S-notation (Kollberg & Severinson-Eklundh 2001) positions and order of insertions and deletions progression graphs (Perrin 2003) development of target text over time screen recordings of translation processes all screen events (typing, searches, formatting, etc.) eye-tracking of translation processes location, focus, movements, etc. 5 2nd level of Progression Analysis: keystroke logging Writing Mode 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 2 5 2 2 2 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 2 5 Output StartClock A

00:11:21.125 c 00:11:21.437 c 00:11:21.609 o 00:11:21.718 r 00:11:21.875 d 00:11:22.156 i 00:11:22.281 n 00:11:22.484 g 00:11:22.578 SPACE 00:11:22.703 t 00:11:22.953 o 00:11:23.093 SPACE 00:11:23.281 t 00:11:23.671 h 00:11:23.796 e 00:11:23.937 SPACE 00:11:24.078 ALT + TAB 00:11:24.671

LEO Ergebnisse fr "beanstanden" - Mozilla 00:11:24.671 Firefox Movement 00:11:25.578 Commissioner Meglena Kuneva - Mozilla Firefox 00:11:25.578 Left Button 00:11:27.484 Movement 00:11:27.578 Left Button 00:11:29.359 "maglena kuneva - Google-Suche - Mozilla00:11:29.359 Firefox Movement 00:11:29.453 Left Button 00:11:30.656 r 00:11:31.890 a 00:11:32.015 p 00:11:32.250 e 00:11:32.406 x 00:11:32.671 rapex - Google-Suche - Mozilla Firefox 00:11:32.671 ENTER 00:11:32.828 Movement 00:11:32.921

StartDocument.doc - Microsoft Word 00:11:32.921 StartTime 681125 681437 681609 681718 681875 682156 682281 682484 682578 682703 682953 683093 683281 683671 683796 683937 684078 684671 684671 685578 685578 687484 687578 689359 689359 689453 690656 691890 692015 692250 692406

692671 692671 692828 692921 692921 EndClock EndTime ActionTime PauseTime 00:11:21.250 681250 125 1969 00:11:21.531 681531 94 312 00:11:21.734 681734 125 172 00:11:21.875 681875 157 109 00:11:21.984 681984 109 157 00:11:22.296 682296 140 281 00:11:22.375

682375 94 125 00:11:22.687 682687 203 203 00:11:22.718 682718 140 94 00:11:22.859 682859 156 125 00:11:23.125 683125 172 250 00:11:23.250 683250 157 140 00:11:23.421 683421 140 188 00:11:23.812 683812 141 390 00:11:23.968 683968 172 125

00:11:24.093 684093 156 141 00:11:24.218 684218 140 141 00:11:24.828 684828 157 593 00:11:24.671 684671 0 0 00:11:27.437 687437 1859 907 00:11:25.578 685578 0 0 00:11:27.578 687578 94 47 00:11:29.296 689296 1718 0 00:11:29.437 689437 78

63 00:11:29.359 689359 0 0 00:11:30.578 690578 1125 16 00:11:31.187 691187 531 78 00:11:32.046 692046 156 703 00:11:32.140 692140 125 125 00:11:32.375 692375 125 235 00:11:32.515 692515 109 156 00:11:32.812 692812 141 265 00:11:32.671 692671

0 0 00:11:32.921 692921 93 157 00:11:40.078 700078 7157 93 00:11:32.921 692921 0 0 Temporal information about translation process from the logfile (ET0413_GE) 6 2nd level of Progression Analysis: S-notation {insertions} [deletions] Dangerous Toys from China (...)1[=|1]1 In EU 2[me|2]2states, more and more dangerous toys 3[e|3]3and electronic devices from China have to 5[b4[y |4]4e taken out ]5|66{be withdrawn from}6|77[of]7 circulation.|5 Last 8 [Year|8]8year, EU authorities banned approximately one third more ever9[ |9]9y day goods from stores than in 2005, 10[an|10]10reported EU11[-|11]11 commissioner for consumer affairs, Meglena Kuneva53{,}53|5412{ in Brussels}12 on Thursday.|12 For instance, plush bears, hair dryers, cleansing agents and ski bindings have 13[pro|13]13proven dangerous. Almost half of the over 920 24{rejected }24|25goods 14[c|14]14,15[were impo|15]15,17{18[about which the EU comp|18]18in the EU 20[about which there had been complaint19[s|19]19|20]20|21}17,21 [had]21| 22 23 23 22,25

{had}25 been imported from China. (...16[=|16]16)|17 22 { [that had|23] |24} According to the 28{EU }28rapid aler26[s|26]26t s27[i|27]27ystem|28 54{ RAPEX}54|55,36[ ]36|3737{ 55[in 2006]55|5638[ ]38|39}37|3839[29[2006|29]29,31 {for the first time}31|32]39|40 32[in 2006]32,34{35[ in 2006|35]35| 34,57 [, ]57toys ha30[v|30]30d proven more dangerous than electronic devices33[ |31in 2006]33|34 40{ 36} for the first time}40,56{ in 2006}56|57. |33 (...) 41[P|41]41,42[T|42]42Particularly 44[for s43[am|43]43mall children, |44]44small child45[e|45]45ren were in danger of swallowing loose parts, 46[da|46]46said the EU commission. The electronic d47[i|47]47evices with48[r|48]48drawn fro49[ m|49]49m circulation 7 threatened to cause electric shocks and51[ 50{i}50|51]51|5252{, in part, }52were not fire proof.|50 2nd level of Progression Analysis: S-notation {insertions} [deletions] Dangerous Toys from China (...)1[=|1]1 In EU 2[me|2]2states, more and more dangerous toys 3[e|3]3and electronic devices from China have to 5[b4[y |4]4e taken out ]5|66{be withdrawn from}6|77[of]7 circulation.|5 Last 8 [Year|8]8year, EU authorities banned approximately one third more ever9[ |9]9y day goods from stores than in 2005, 10[an|10]10reported EU11[-|11]11 commissioner for consumer affairs, Meglena Kuneva53{,}53|5412{ in Brussels}12 on Thursday.|12 For instance, plush bears, hair dryers, cleansing agents and ski bindings have 13[pro|13]13proven dangerous. Almost half of the over 920 24{rejected }24|25goods 14[c|14]14,15[were impo|15]15,17{18[about which the EU comp|18]18in the EU 20[about which there had been complaint19[s|19]19|20]20|21}17,21 [had]21| 22 23 23 22,25 {had}25 been imported from China. (...16[=|16]16)|17 22 { [that had|23] |24} According to the 28{EU }28rapid aler26[s|26]26t s27[i|27]27ystem|28 54{ RAPEX}54|55,36[ ]36|3737{ 55[in 2006]55|5638[ ]38|39}37|3839[29[2006|29]29,31 {for the first time}31|32]39|40 32[in 2006]32,34{35[ in 2006|35]35| 34,57

[, ]57toys ha30[v|30]30d proven more dangerous than electronic devices33[ |31in 2006]33|34 40{ 36} for the first time}40,56{ in 2006}56|57. |33 (...) 41[P|41]41,42[T|42]42Particularly 44[for s43[am|43]43mall children, |44]44small child45[e|45]45ren were in danger of swallowing loose parts, 46[da|46]46said the EU commission. The electronic d47[i|47]47evices with48[r|48]48drawn fro49[ m|49]49m circulation 8 threatened to cause electric shocks and51[ 50{i}50|51]51|5252{, in part, }52were not fire proof.|50 2nd level of Progression Analysis: progression graph According to the 28{EU }28rapid aler26[s|26]26t s27[i|27]27ystem|28 54{ RAPEX}54|55,36[ ]36|3737{ 55[in 2006]55|5638[ ]38|39}37|3839[29[2006|29]29,31 {for the first time}31|32]39|40 32[in 2006]32,34{35[ in 2006|35]35| 34,57 [, ]57toys ha30[v|30]30d proven more dangerous than electronic devices 33[ |31in 2006]33|34 36} 40 { for the first time}40,56{ in 2006}56|57. |33 Position in text Order of revisions Translation into L2 (G-E) ET0413_GE Revisions 29-40 Revisions 54-57 9 2nd level of Progression Analysis: screen and ET Revisions 29-40 Translation into L2 (G-E) ET0413_GE

10 2nd level of Progression Analysis: screen and ET Revisions 54-57 Translation into L2 (G-E) ET0413_GE 11 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 3rd level of Progression Analysis: translation strategies eliciting cue-based retrospective verbal protocols (RVPs) replays of screenshot recordings to elicit verbalizations analyzing transcripts (e.g. problem areas in progression graphs and/or rich points) coding of propositions and practices (HyperResearch) inferring strategies from practices and propositions 12 3rd level of Progression Analysis: RVPs According to the 28{EU }28rapid aler26[s|26]26t s27[i|27]27ystem|28 54{ RAPEX}54|55,36[ ]36|3737{ 55[in 2006]55|5638[ ]38|39}37|3839[29[2006|29]29,31 {for the first time}31|32]39|40 32[in 2006]32,34{35[ in 2006|35]35| 34,57 [, ]57toys ha30[v|30]30d proven more dangerous than electronic devices 33[ |31in 2006]33|34 36} 40 { for the first time}40,56{ in 2006}56|57. |33 <00:11:59>here comes the part I actually thought about the mostwhich information should come where in the English sentence. At the end I still wasnt really convinced of my solution and I changed it around at the end. I probably would do it another way again tomorrowlaughs.

<00:12:26>ok, that is the first variant, then another one, a second and a thirdI find it difficult to place all these adverbials in English putting it at the beginning of the sentence might work with one but with two it gets harder. .. <00:18:46>and now I fiddled around with it again...yeah, I somehow have the feeling that a native speaker could say this better it probably wouldnt be a problem for them putting things in the right order. This is exactly the handicap I have as a non-native speaker. Translation into L2 (G-E) ET0413_GE 13 3rd level of Progression Analysis: analyzing RVPs According to the 28{EU }28rapid aler26[s|26]26t s27[i|27]27ystem|28 54{ RAPEX}54|55,36[ ]36|3737{ 55[in 2006]55|5638[ ]38|39}37|3839[29[2006|29]29,31 {for the first time}31|32]39|40 32[in 2006]32,34{35[ in 2006|35]35| 34,57 [, ]57toys ha30[v|30]30d proven more dangerous than electronic devices 33[ |31in 2006]33|34 36} 40 { for the first time}40,56{ in 2006}56|57. |33 <00:11:59>here comes the part I actually thought about the mostwhich information should come where in the English sentence. At the end I still wasnt really convinced of my solution and I changed it around at the end. I probably would do it another way again tomorrowlaughs. <00:12:26>ok, that is the first variant, then another one, a second and a thirdI find it difficult to place all these adverbials in English putting it at the beginning of the sentence might work with one but with two it gets harder. .. <00:18:46>and now I fiddled around with it again...yeah, I somehow have the feeling that a native speaker could say this better it probably wouldnt be a problem for them putting things in the right order. This is exactly the handicap I have as a non-native speaker. Translation into L2 (G-E)

problem identified (2 time adverbials) ET0413_GE source of problem identified (translation into L2) 14 3rd level of Progression Analysis: coding comments Number of comments related to each category (n=112; translation into L2; G-E) 15 3rd level of Progression Analysis: inferring strategies ET0413_GEs apparent strategies during different phases Orientation phase: - read through the text to get the main message - organize workplace and open up dictionaries that might be needed Translation phase: - translate the title at the end unless it seems very straightforward - translate literally whenever possible - do research to get the details right - consider formulations more carefully when translating into the L2 Revision phase: - use cursor as a guide when checking the TT for errors 16 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 4th level of progression analysis: translation products intermediate versions revision analysis (choice of lexis, formulation of individual sentences, etc.) target texts overall quality solutions to specific translation problems 17

4th level of Progression Analysis: revision analysis ET01413_EG 00:12:37 According to the EU rapid alert system, inserts for the first time in 2006, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices 00:12:54 cuts for the first time in 2006, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices 00:12:55 pastes for the first time, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices in 2006 00:13:12 writes for the first time, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices in 2006. 00:13:14 cuts for the first time, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices in 2006. 00:13:15 pastes

for the first time in 2006, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices. 00:13:20 deletes for the first time in 2006, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices. 00:13:22 inserts in 2006 for the first time, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices. 00:13:23 cuts in 2006 for the first time, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices. 00:13:27 pastes in 2006, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices for the first time. (continues translating rest of source text) 00:18:48 cuts in 2006, toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices for the first time.

00:18:50 pastes , toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices for the first time in 2006. 18 4th level of Progression Analysis: target texts Translation into L2 by ET0413: toys had proven more dangerous than electronic devices for the first time in 2006. Translation into L1 by nine professionals: in 2005 [sic], toys for the first time overtook electrical appliances as the most dangerous products. toys were found to be more dangerous than electrical equipment in 2006 for the first time. toys were found to be more dangerous than electronic equipment fort he [sic] first time in 2006. toys turned out to be more dangerous than electrical appliances for the first time in 2006. toys showed themselves to be more dangerous than electrical goods for the first time in 2006. toys were first identified as being more dangerous than electric appliances in 2006. 2006 was the first year in which toys were found to be more dangerous than electrical goods. 2006 was the first year that toys proved to be more dangerous than electrical appliances. 2006 saw toys being branded as more dangerous than electrical equipment for the first time. 19 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond CTP corpus Type of information Experience level Beg Adv Pro Personal background

194 112 39 Typical approach 194 112 39 - 96 139 Lab processes 194 112 29 Cue-based retrospection (lab processes) 194 112

29 Workplace processes 500 200 325 - - 18 Tools and resources Cue-based retrospection (workplace processes) Data collection instrument* Form of data** questionnaire semi-structured interview online questionnaire journalistic texts with SCR, KSL, ET audio recorded over SCR various genres of

source texts with SCR audio recorded over SCR transcript transcript statistics, comments ST, TT, logs of keystrokes and pauses, XML transcripts ST, TT, RVP, XML transcripts ST, TT, XML transcripts of selected processes ST, TT, RVP, XML transcripts * SCR=screen recordings; KSL=keystroke logging; ET=eye tracking; ST=source text; TT=target text; RVP=retrospective verbal protocol 20 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond Research questions driving the CTP project 1. What are the differences between the strategies and practices of beginner, novice and professional translators? 2. How conscious are translators with different levels of experience of their strategies and practices? 3. Which translation strategies and practices, if any, are unique to particular language combinations? 4. How much of the translation process is actually devoted to revision and how does this change as translators gain experience? 5. How do translators with different levels of experience compensate target language competence when translating into their L2? 6. In what ways are translation processes in the workplace comparable

to translation processes in a controlled setting? 21 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 1. Differences based on experience n E-G Beg Adv Pro G-E Beg Adv Pro Translation direction 15 8 L2-L1 L2-L1 11 L2-L1 11 L1-L2 11 8

L1-L2 L2-L1 Number of actions in the process Orientation phase (sec) Title (hh:mm:ss) 101.3 100.1 90.6 192.1 122.6 80.4 TT words/m Consults Writes Revises Pauses 00:03:10 00:01:32 00:01:20 4.0 4.5

5.6 22.0 13.4 12.7 26.4 31.0 26.7 21.1 27.3 27.1 22.1 24.8 28.9 00:02:30 00:02:07 00:01:37 2.9 4.5 7.5 20.9 22.1 13.0 17.9 26.1 27.4 14.7

19.1 34.4 19.1 19.5 24.3 Results for first 15 minutes of lab translation processes (Whale/Wale STs) 22 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 1. Differences based on experience Pauses Consults Beg MA Pro Writes Revises 0 5 10 15 20 25

30 35 Activities in first 15 minutes of lab translation processes (E-G; Whale ST) 23 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 1. Differences based on experience Duration of consults activities (average in seconds; Whales ST) 24 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 1. Differences based on experience Duration of writing activities (average in seconds; E-G; Whale ST) 25 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 2. Awareness of strategies and practices E-G / Setting Level Direction Words & phrases Sentence structures

Text quality Loyalty to ST Readership Accountability Beg Adv Pro Pro L2-L1 L2-L1 L2-L1 L2-L1 44 50 25 38 33 25 75 88 33 25 88 100

0 50 50 100 78 63 88 75 22 25 25 88 Beg L1-L2 50 75 75 0 38 0 Lab Adv Pro

L1-L2 L2-L1 38 29 50 71 63 100 25 86 38 86 13 33 Work Pro L2-L1 83 83 83 83

67 100 Lab Work G-E / Setting Percentage of each group that mentioned concerns with different aspects of the process 26 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 3. Strategies and practices unique to particular combinations very often or often Italian 56% French 63% English 91% Online multilingual resource use by language in version 27 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 4. Revision in the translation process Progression graphs of a beginner, advanced student, and professional (G-E; RAPEX ST) 28 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 5. Compensation when translating into L2

Categories of comments about the translation process in relation to translation direction 29 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond 6. Comparability of lab and workplace settings Percentages of activities during the translation processes in the lab and workplace (n=14) 30 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond Some good performance guidelines from the CTP project: use internal resources more (think more) identify problem types and use appropriate external resources process larger stretches of text reduce self-revision to a minimum after the drafting phase reduce mental overload by concentrating on one activity at a time become more aware of translation practices by observing own and peer processes be aware that translation is not just an act but an event involving multiple responsibilities, actors, and factors diagnostics, teaching, curriculum design 31 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond New questions arising from the CTP project: importance of research and revision during the drafting phase need for different tools? usability of tools and ergonomics

optimal access to aids within the process? development of translation competence / expertise fostered through non-routine tasks? possibility of deliberate practice and feedback? translator self-concept use of own resources encouraged? autonomy and responsibility? Cognitive and Physical Ergonomics of Translation (ErgoTrans) 32 Capturing Translation Processes and Beyond Acknowledgements Swiss National Foundation CTP grant 13DFD3_124653/1, 2 (2009-12) ErgoTrans grant CR13I1_143819/1 (2013-14) Industry partner: Participants: Professionals, students, IUED translation teachers CTP research team: Andrea Hunziker Heeb, Peter Jud, Kathrin Lohse, Annina Meyer, Daniel Perrin, Alexander Knzli, Gabriel Zuberbhler 33 References Carter, B., & Sealey, A. (2000). Language, structure and agency. What can realist social theory offer to sociolinguistics? Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4(1), 3-20. Ehrensberger-Dow, M. & Knzli, A. (2010). Methods of accessing metalinguistic awareness: a question of quality? In: Gpferich, S., Alves, F. & Mees, I.M. (eds), New Approaches in Translation Process Research. (Copenhagen Studies in Language 39). Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur. 113-132. Ehrensberger-Dow, M. & Massey, G. (2008). Exploring translation competence by triangulating empirical data, Norwich Papers, 16, 1-20. Ehrensberger-Dow, M. & Massey, G. (2013) Indicators of translation competence: Translators self-concepts and the translation of titles, Journal of Writing Research, 5 (1), 103-131.

Ehrensberger-Dow, M, & Perrin, D. (2009). Capturing translation processes to access metalinguistic awareness, Across Language and Cultures, 10 (2), 275-288. Ehrensberger-Dow, M. & Perrin, D. (2013). Applying newswriting process research to translation, Target (Special Issue on Transdisciplinary Research), 25(1), 77-92. Hofer, Gertrud & Ehrensberger-Dow, M. (2011). Evaluation of translation processes: Applying research techniques to professional development programs. In: Schmitt, Peter A., Herold, Susann & Weilandt, Annette (eds). Translationsforschung. Tagungsberichte der LICTRA IX. Leipzig International Conference on Translation & Interpretation Studies 19.-21.5.2010. (Leipziger Studien zur angewandten Linguistik und Translatologie, 10). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. 321-332. Hunziker Heeb, A. (2012). The problem-solving processes of experienced and non-experienced translators. In: Kersten, Saskia, Ludwig, Christian, Meer, Dorothee, & Rschoff, Bernd (eds). Language learning and language use - applied linguistics approaches. Duisburg: UVRR. 177-186. Kollberg, P. & Severinson-Eklundh, K. (2001). Studying writers' revising patterns with S-notation analysis, in Olive, T. & Levy, C.M. (eds), Studies in Writing: Vol. 10. Contemporary tools and techniques for studying writing, 89-104. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. 34 References (contd) Layder, D. (1998). The reality of social domains: Implications for theory and method. In: May, T. & Williams, M. (eds), Knowing the Social World. Buckingham: Open University Press. 86102. Massey, G. & Ehrensberger-Dow, M. (2010). Investigating demands on language professionals, Bulletin suisse de linguistique applique (Special issue), 2010/1, 127-141. Massey, G. & Ehrensberger-Dow, M. (2011). Commenting on translation: implications for translator training, Journal of Specialised Translation 16, 26-41. Massey, G. & Ehrensberger-Dow, M. (2011). Investigating information literacy: A growing priority in translation studies. Across Languages and Cultures, 12 (2), 193-211. DOI 10.1556/Acr.12.2011.2.4 Massey, G. & Ehrensberger-Dow, M. (2011). Technical and instrumental competence in the translators workplace: Using process research to identify educational and ergonomic needs, ILCEA Revue, 14, [online]. http://ilcea.revues.org/index1060.html Massey, G. & Ehrensberger-Dow, M. (2012). Evaluating the process: implications for curriculum development. In: Zybatow, Lew, Petrova, Alena, & Ustaszewski, Michael (eds.) (2012): Translationswissenschaft interdisziplinr: Fragen der Theorie und der Didaktik. Frankfurt am Main u.a.: Peter Lang. 95-100. Massey, G. & Ehrensberger-Dow, M. (forthcoming/2013) Evaluating translation processes: opportunities and challenges. In: Hansen-Schirra, Silvia, Kiraly, Don, & Maksymski, Karin (eds). Innovation in Translation and Interpreting Pedagogy [Translation Studies Series edited by Franz Pchhacker and Klaus Kaindl]. Gunter Narr.

Perrin, D. (2003). Progression analysis (PA). Investigating writing strategies at the workplace. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(6), 907-921. Van Waes & Leijten, M. (2006). Logging writing processes with Inputlog. In: Van Waes, L., et al. (eds), Writing and Digital Media. Oxford: Elsevier. 158-165. 35

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