Social Psychology an attempt to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1954) https:// sites.uni.edu/harton/socialsyll19.htm Journals Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (PSPB)
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (JESP) Social Psychological and Personality Science (SPPS) Psych Bull, Psych Review, Psych Science, PSPR, AESP Societies Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Society of Experimental Social Psychologists (SESP) www.socialpsychology.org
History Why learn about the history of SP? What is social psychology (and what is it not)? What determines what topics are studied or no longer studied? How/When did SP start? How/why does SP reflect whats going on in the outside world? Brief history of Social Psychology
Greek philosophers Psychology begins in 1800s 1864 Cattaneo uses social psych for group emergence 1871 mentioned in Linders textbook 1876 Ringlemann study 1898 Triplett study
First textbooks1908 (McDougall, Ross) Floyd Allports text in 1924 Experiments are kingThe psychology of groups is the psychology of the individuals Journal of Abnormal Psych becomes J of Ab Psych and Social Psych in 1921 30s and 40s vs. behaviorism and psychoanalysis WW2 and Nazis
Gestalt psych Practical applications Kurt Lewin Studies/Theories Katz & Braley 1933 ethnic stereotypes Meads 1934 looking glass self Newcomb 1943 Bennington College students
LaPiere 1934 attitudes and behavior Aschs 1946 warm vs. cold study Deutsch 1949 studies of cooperation/competition 50s-60s 1947 SPSP starts, 1965JPSP and JESP 50s/60sgroup dynamics wanes. Individuals and attitudes become more prominent GI Bill, boom time for social psychologists
First handbook 1954 Leon Festingerexperimental revolution 50s-60s Studies/Theories Sherif 1954 Robbers Cave Heiders 1958 balance theory Festingers 1957 cognitive dissonance theory Thibaut & Kelleys 1959 interdependence theory
Asch 1956 studies of conformity Festinger, 1954 social comparison theory Milgrams 1963 obedience studies Hovland and Yale attitude change program, 1960s Hastorf and Cantril 1954 Princeton/Dartmouth game Schachter & Singer, 1962, two factor theory of emotion Heiders 1958 attribution theory
Jones and Daviss 1965 theory of correspondent inferences Kelleys 1967 covariation model Brehm, 1966 Reactance theory Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968 Self-fulfilling prophesy 70s 70s cognitive revolution Paper and pencil are king!
Gergen, social psych as history McGuireneed more diverse methods IRBs, better data analysis techniques EJSP and JASP 1971 PSPB 1975 70s studies/theories Bem, 1972, Self-perception theory Latan and Darleys 1970 research on bystander
intervention Byrne 1971 similarity and attraction Berscheid & Walster, 1974 physical attractiveness Gergen 1973 Tversky & Kahneman 1973 heuristics Ajzen & Fishbein, 1974 Theory of reasoned action 80s 80s new topics like love and relationships, evolutionary
psychology, the self 1980 JPSP split into 3 parts Studies/Theories Petty & Cacioppo, 1986 Elaboration likelihood model Higgins 1987 self-discrepancy theory Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986 terror management theory Tesser 1988 Self-evaluation maintenance theory
Swann, 1983 Self-verification theory Tajfel & Turner, 1979 Social identity theory Barron & Kenny, 1986 mediation vs. moderation 90s decade of the brain Evolutionary psych Social neuroscience 00s influence of culture
2000 SPSP conferences began Multidisciplinary Nonconscious approaches Internet 10s and beyond Big data R
Replication crisis What are some big events leading to the crisis? What are some responses to the crisis? What do the authors think of the crisis? Researcher degrees of freedom Questionable research practices (QRPs) Pre-registration
Power Badges Direct vs. conceptual replications Issues with meta-analyses Visions from 20 yrs ago Interdisciplinary Bigger theories
Religion Intergroup relations, prejudice Funding issues Broadening the discipline Social neuroscience Emphasis on culture and how it evolves Spatial analyses
Links to other areas (business, law, health) More multidisciplinary research Broadening perspectives Evolutionary psychology Social identity theory Terror management theory Dynamical systems Broadening methods
Advanced statistics, going beyond ANOVA Computer simulation Internet data collection Broadening globally Influencing and being influenced by other social psychologies (European = more sociological) Growth! 2800 to >7000 members of SPSP in less than 20 yrs from all over world Things we didnt really anticipate
Big data Replication crisis Impact of blogs, social media, etc. Anything else? Replication crisis timeline
2001 Karen Ruggiero UT-Austin/Harvard made up data 2011 Bem ESP studies 2011 Diederik Stapel fraud in at least 54 papers 2011/2 Simonsohn accuses Dirk Smeesters of fraud 2011+ Open Science Framework gains in popularity, talk of badges, QRPs, false positives 2012 Doyen et al and Harris et al fail to replicate Bargh classic old people study 2012/3 Bargh responds, fights ensue, more replication issues for priming studies 2012 Open letter to priming scientists from D. Kahneman 2015 LaCour case 2015 Open Science article in Science Controversies and resolutions Construal vs. behaviorism Basic vs. applied
Do attitudes predict behavior? Wicker, 1969 Person vs. situation Mini-theory criticism Evolution vs. culture (proximate vs. ultimate causes) Still going on: IAT, free will, replication crisis McGuires (1973) koan the sound of one hand clappingand the wrong hand
In this nettle chaos, we discern this pattern, truth We need to get away from simple, linear models Observe. But observe people not data We put too much emphasis on testing hypos, not enough on generating them We need to remember that data come from people To see the future in the present, find the present in the past We need to put together more data archives and do more longitudinal studies
The new methodology where correlation can indicate causation The riches of poverty Its okay that some of these recommendations conflict with each other. Ellworth, 2004 response See the advantages of decreased funding (get more personal with your research, think about it more) The opposite of a great truth is also true
We should use ANOVAs less and other techniques that let us deal with messier data more. How well were we doing then? Are we doing any better now? Are we demonstrating or testing? What are other major takeaways from her article? Theories (Van Lange, 2013) Theres nothing so practical as a good theory. Kurt Lewin What is a theory? What are the purposes of theories?
When are theories useful? What makes a theory good? How can theories help us deal with the replication crisis? Van Lange, 2013 Truth Abstraction Progress
Applicability How do we design studies with these in mind? In social psychology Are we too theory focused or not enough? What are levels of theories and what level should we be theorizing at? What are the advantages and disadvantages of theorybased research? Theory-driven research vs. HARKing (Kerr, 1998)
More terms Induction vs. deduction Effect sizes Power analysis Mediation Moderation Possible perspectives (Motyl et al., 2017) rotten to the core
it can get better its not so bad its getting worse Where do you guess the people whose work you read this week fall? Studies Study 1survey Issues?
Table 1, Figures Study 2archival How do we know if something replicates? Measures TIVA P-curve (p-hacking) Z-curve
Post hoc power N-pact R-index Issues Table 3 and Findings Why are average ES smaller at Time 2?
Is replication crisis discussion responsible for these changes What studies are more or less likely to replicate? This may be why some studies havent replicated. Only 11%-25% of drug studies replicated in private labs. Only 59% of highly cited clinical research studies replicated. Only 44% of associations replicated in genetic studies. Only 25-63% of studies replicated in economics (some using the same data!) Only 39% subjectively rated as replicated in psychology, and 62% from Nature/Science Prinz, Schlange, & Asadullah, 2011; Begley, & Ellis, 2012; Camerer et al., 2018; Ioanndis, 2005; Lohmueller, Pearce, Pike, Lander, & Hirschhorn, 2003; Dewald, Thursby, & Anderson, 1986; Chang & Li, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015 How do we improve SP? Next week
The self Chapter TMT Marshmallow test Ego depletion
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