Improving the Scalability of Data Center Networks with ...

Improving the Scalability of Data Center Networks with ...

Cloud Computing: Concepts Source: Cloud Computing Architecture, IT Security, & Operational - NASA What is Cloud Computing? What is Cloud Computin g?

Cloud Computing NIST Definition: A model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction

Shared / pooled resources Broad network access On-demand self-service Scalable and elastic Metered by use Five Key Cloud Attributes

What is Cloud Computing? Shared / Pooled Resources: Resources are drawn from a common pool Common resources build economies of scale Common infrastructure runs at high efficiency What is Cloud Computing? Broad Network Access: Open standards and APIs

Almost always IP, HTTP, and REST Available from anywhere with an internet connection What is Cloud Computing? On-Demand Self-Service: Completely automated Users abstracted from the implementation Near real-time delivery (seconds or minutes) Services accessed through a self-serve

web interface What is Cloud Computing? Scalable and Elastic: Resources dynamically-allocated between users Additional resources dynamically-released when needed Fully automated

What is Cloud Computing? Metered by Use: Services are metered, like a utility Users pay only for services used Services can be cancelled at any time What is Cloud Computing? Three Service Delivery Models IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service

PaaS: Platform as Service SaaS: Software as Service Virtual Machines Virtual Networks Auto Elastic Continuous Integration IaaS

PaaS Built for Cloud Uses PaaS SaaS What is Cloud Computing? Service Delivery Model Examples

Amazon Google Microsoft Salesforce SaaS PaaS

IaaS Products and companies shown for illustrative purposes only and should not be construed as an endorsement Deployment Models Public Clouds Private Clouds Hybrid Clouds

Network Functions Virtualization Source: Network 101 vs. Reality Traditional view: Dumb network

Reality: Lots of in-network processing Appliances or Middleboxes: IDS, Firewall, Proxies, Load balancers. 14 Background: Network Functions (Middleboxes) are Ubiquitous Perform tasks other than packet forwarding Security Network Function

Firewall IDS Acceleration Network Function WAN Optimizer Proxy

Middleboxes Galore! Data from a large enterprise Type of appliance Number Firewalls 166 NIDS

127 Media gateways 110 Load balancers 67

Proxies 66 VPN gateways 45 WAN Optimizers 44

Voice gateways 11 Total Middleboxes Total routers Survey across 57 network operators 636

~900 APLOMB (SIGCOMM13) 16 Traditional Network Functions: hardware IDS WAN Optimizer

Proxy Long development cycle Telco Cycle Idea !! Telco Operators AVAILABLE Deploy

Demand n tor era Op 2 tor era Op r1 rato

Ope Equipment Vendors Idea !! Service Providers AVAILABLE Develop

Deploy Publish 2-6 Months Sell Drive Standardise SDOs

Service Providers Cycle Critical mass of supporters Implement 2-6 Years 2-6 years 2-6 months

Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV Background: Policy Chain Http Firewall IDS Non http Firewall

Correctness: sequential order Efficiency: not traverse unnecessary ones Proxy Background: Network Functions Placement Policy chain Http Firewall

Proxy IDS Placement Firewall Proxy S2

S1 S3 S4 The NFV Concept A means to make the network more flexible and simple by minimising dependence on HW constraints v

v Traditional Traditional Network Network Model: Model: APPLIANCE APPLIANCE APPROACH APPROACH


BRAS SGSN Firewall PE Router DPI BRAS Firewall CG-NAT


Network Functions are based on specific HW&SW One physical node per role STANDARD HIGH VOLUME SERVERS Network Functions are SW-based over well-known HW Multiple roles over same HW

Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV Benefits & Promises of NFV Reduced equipment costs (CAPEX) through consolidating equipment and economies of scale of IT industry. Increased speed of time to market by minimising the typical network operator cycle of innovation. Availability of network appliance multi-version and multi-tenancy, allows a single platform for different applications, users and tenants.

Enables a variety of eco-systems and encourages openness. Encouraging innovation to bring new services and generate new revenue streams. Source: NFV Benefits & Promises of NFV

Flexibility to easily, rapidly, dynamically provision and instantiate new services in various locations Improved operational efficiency by taking advantage of the higher uniformity of the physical network platform and its homogeneity to other support platforms.

Software-oriented innovation to rapidly prototype and test new services and generate new revenue streams More service differentiation & customization Reduced (OPEX) operational costs: reduced power, reduced space, improved network monitoring IT-oriented skillset and talent Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV NFV and SDN

NFV and SDN are highly complementary Both topics are mutually beneficial but not dependent on each other Creates competitive supply of innovative applications by third parties Open Innovation

Software Defined Networking Network Functions Virtualization Source: NFV Creates network

abstractions to enable faster innovation Reduces CAPEX, OPEX, Space & Power Consumption First: A Few Challenges Achieving high performance virtualised network appliances portable between different HW vendors, and with different

hypervisors. Co-existence with bespoke HW based network platforms enabling efficient migration paths to fully virtualised network platforms. Management and orchestration of virtual network appliances ensuring security from attack and misconfiguration. NFV will only scale if all of the functions can be automated. Appropriate level of resilience to HW and SW failures. Integrating multiple virtual appliances from different vendors. Network operators need to be able to mix & match HW, hypervisors and virtual appliances from different vendors,

without incurring significant integration costs and avoiding lock-in. NFV and SDN Remarkable Enabling Technologies Minimalistic OS ClickOS Improving Linux i/O Netmap, VALE, Linux NAPI Programmable virtual switches / bridges

Open vSwitch Exploiting x86 for packet processing Intel DPDK Some example start-ups LineRate Systems, 6WIND, Midonet, Vyatta (bought by BCD) Image source: NEC Improving the Scalability of Data Center

Networks with Traffic-aware Virtual Machine Placement Source: VM placement overview Virtual to Request Cloud

Tenant Interface Easy to express tenants requests Abstraction model #VMs, network performance, availability Fast to place VMs on physical networks Optimize network performances

Physical Datacenter Networks Top-of-rack Switch Server 1

Rack 1 Server n Server 1 . Server n

Rack 2 Server 1 Server n Rack m In-network traffic More

Bandwidth&latency Cross-rack Traffic In-rack Traffic

a Rack 1 c d Rack 2

. b Rack m Reducing cross-rack traffic In-rack traffic is more preferred than cross-rack traffic Switch can forward in-rack packets at line-rate between different ports Oversubscription is common in current DCNs

Cross-rack traffic is a level of oversubscription. Packet-drop will occur for high cross-rack traffics DATA CENTER TRAFFIC PATTERN EXAMINATION Uneven distribution of traffic volumes from VMs DATA CENTER TRAFFIC PATTERN EXAMINATION Stable per-VM traffic at large timescale

DATA CENTER TRAFFIC PATTERN EXAMINATION Weak correlation between traffic rate and latency Background - Architecture Old style Background - Architecture VL2 Background - Architecture

Portland Bcube Problem statement Traffic-aware VM Placement Problem (TVMPP) given: traffic matrix , cost matrix Goal: minimize cost

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