Inclusive Course Design: Strategies In The Online Environment

Inclusive Course Design: Strategies In The Online Environment

USING UDL PRINCIPLES TO IMPROVE STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Sandra Law (CLDD) Focused on the future of 10-Dec-2015 Polling question When I mention the term universal design for learning (UDL) what comes to mind? Agenda Welcome

What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)? Why is UDL important in online distance education at the post-secondary level? What do we mean by at-risk student? By high-risk courses? How does engagement fit into UDL and support at-risk students? Strategies and tools to increase engagement Questions What is UDL? A framework to improve and optimize teaching and learning for all people based

on scientific insights into how humans learn. There are three main principles Provide multiple means of representation Provide multiple means of action and expression Provide multiple means of engagement UDL guidelines I. Provide multiple means of representation II. Provide multiple means of

action and expression III. Provide multiple means of engagement 1. Provide options for perception 4. Provide options for physical action

7. Provide options for recruiting interest Options that customize the display of information Options that provide alternatives for auditory information Options that provide alternatives for visual information Options in the mode of physical response Options in the means of navigation

Options for accessing tools and assistive technologies Options that increase individual choice and autonomy Options that enhance relevance, value, and authenticity Options that reduce threats and distractions 2. Provide options for language and symbols

5. Provide options for expressive skills and fluency 8. Provide options for recruiting interest

Options that define vocabulary and symbols Options that clarify syntax and structure Options for decoding text or mathematical notation Options that promote cross-linguistic understanding Options that illustrate key concepts nonlinguistically 3. Provide options for comprehension

Options that provide or activate background knowledge (review) Options that highlight critical features, big ideas, and relationships (concepts map, flowchart) Options that guide information processing Options that support memory and transfer Options in the media for communication

Options in the tools for composition and problem solving Options in the scaffolds for practice and performance 6. Provide options for executive functions

Options that guide effective goal-setting Options that support planning and strategy development Options that facilitate managing information and resources Options that enhance capacity for monitoring progress Options that heighten salience of goals and objectives Options that vary levels of challenge and support Options that foster collaboration and communication

Options that increase mastery-oriented feedback 9. Provide options for self-regulation Options that guide personal goal-setting and expectations Options that scaffold coping skills and strategies Options that develop self-assessment and reflection

Why is UDL important in online and distance PSE? Recommends strategies and tools to support a diverse range of students: With disabilities (e.g. mobility, learning, deaf and hard of hearing, low vision, psychiatric conditions, older adults) Students with differing types and levels of educational preparation (e.g. international students, indigenous students, refugees, incarcerated students, students with disabilities) Context for discussion

of UDL Before we get to how UDL can promote engagement amongst at risk students I will provide some context for the discussion Diverse student body Some statistics Distance education context AU students registered with ASD AU students registered with ASD in 2011

in 2012 one disability in 2013 multiple disabilities in 2014 0 500 1000

1500 2000 2500 AU students registered with ASD Other Psychiatric Mobility/Functional

Blind/Partially Sighted in 2014 in 2013 in 2012 in 2011 Learning Disability Deaf/Hard of Hearing Chronic Medical/Systemic Attention-Deficit I Hyperactivity Disorder Acquired Brain Injury

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

800 900 Challenges of distance education Online communication tools (chat/discussion boards, audio/video conference) Website and LMS accessibility

Document accessibility Graphical & multimedia content ICT function/compatibility

Instructions & study skills What is an at risk student? A student is at risk of not achieving academic success if their skills, knowledge, motivation and/or academic ability is significantly below that of the typical student in PSE (Maxwell, 1997, p.2) These students have low academic self-concept, unrealistic grade expectations, governed by extrinsic motivation, low self-efficacy,

inadequate skills for college success, belief that learning is memorizing and who has a history of passive learning (Ender & Wilkie, 2000, p. 134-135) Examples of at risk students Lack necessary preparation for postsecondary study Have a diagnosed disability but do not disclose (e.g. learning disability)1 Have an undiagnosed disability Students with a history of academic failure Students with emotional or behaviourial

problems (e.g. anxious students) Adult learners returning to PSE after an extended absence Low motivation/engagement Lack of psychological attachment to school Learning Challenge Prototype Reading issues Writing issues Connecting background knowledge to new concepts With some reading skills, esp. in new content With reading fluency

Comprehension skills Mastering new vocab. Retention Identifying core ideas/research topics Linking new ideas to prior knowledge Applying new concepts to examples and new reading Organizing ideas and/or writing Drafting Using feedback constructively in revisions

Time and energy use Researching issues Planning projects Selecting research topics Identifying search constructs Using strategies and tools to efficiently gather information Organising information Combining components into final product Managing time to complete work by deadline What is a high risk

course? Online self-paced courses can have high attrition rates. Lack of interaction can lead to reduced student satisfaction and persistence. (Croxton, 2014) Typically high risk courses have 30% D or F grades or withdrawls (Feldman, 2005). Inclusive education and student engagement Disengagement from school whether a student leaves or struggles through to graduation is also a significant source of inequity in Canadian society, not only because it places a large number of students at a disadvantage as they move into adult roles, but because disengagement is

disproportionately experienced by students living in poverty, students with disabilities, and students from ethnic minority and Aboriginal communities. (p. 7) From Willms et al. (2009, p. 7) III. Multiple means of engagement Engagement 7. Provide options for recruiting interest Optimize individual choice and autonomy Optimize relevance, value, authenticity Minimize threats and

distractions 8. Provide options for sustaining effort and persistence Heighten salience of goals and objectives Vary demands and resources to optimize challenge Foster collaboration and community Increase masteryoriented feedback 9. Provide options for selfregulation

Promote expectations and beliefs that optimize motivation Facilitate personal coping skills and strategies Develop selfassessment and reflection 7. Provide options for recruiting interest Optimize individual choice and autonomy Practice opportunities, reward type, information gathering/production, design/layout of graphics, sequence for

completing tasks Optimize relevance, value and authenticity Personalization, relevance to individual learner, culturally and socially relevant, supports diversity Minimize threats and distractions Accepting environment, vary level of novelty and risk, vary level of sensory stimulation Individual choice and autonomy Self-quizzes or exams (with immediate and helpful feedback) Flexible assignments (e.g. open-ended

assignments) RSS feeds give students freedom to explore a topic Optimize relevance, value & authenticity Authentic activities (contextualized to learners life) Include tasks that allow learners to actively participate and reflect on their learning (e.g. journals, blogs) Design activities that allow learners to engage in creative problem-solving (e.g. real world problems in mathematics)

Appropriate for diverse audiences Example - Simulation Ardcalloch simulation Examples of authentic learning activities Problem-based learning Case studies

Simulation & role play Literature reviews Portfolios Minimize threats & distractions Ambiguity. Novices generally have a low tolerance for ambiguity and making mistakes (Cox, 2009). Consistency of presentation (e.g. between courses) In paced courses use calendars and schedules to increase predictability of activities

Use advanced organizers to help learners anticipate what is coming Introducing novel experiences can help motivate learners to maintain interest 8. Provide options for sustaining effort and persistence Heighten salience of goals and objectives Achievable goal setting, scaffolding to visualize desired outcome, exemplars Vary demands and resources to optimize challenge

Flexibility in tools, emphasize process, rubrics Foster collaboration and community Group work ground rules, support learning communities Increase mastery-oriented feedback Encourage self-awareness, provide targeted & substantive feedback, identify success Example Mind Map Example Concept Map Heighten salience of goals and objectives

Guide students to set realistic learning goals around their work and personal lives. Direct students to time management resources by including HTML blocks with links Encourage students to use scheduling apps to send themselves reminders of assignment deadlines Use calendar in the LMS to sync the individuals start date to recommended milestones Provide exemplars of excellence Provide rubrics that make goals and objectives Example HTML Block

URLs for rubrics Online discussion Projects (e.g. sciences) Collaboration Lab reports Mathematical proofs E-portfolios

Research paper Example Mathematical proof rubric Vary demands and resources to optimize challenge Engage most able students as well as those less able by Offering certain number of flexible, openended assignments Flexible deadlines (built into the self-paced environment) Use question and assignment banks with variable levels of difficulty and complexity

Dont insist that students use particular tool to complete assignment (unless necessary for instructional / learning goals) Foster community and collaboration Difficult but not impossible especially for high enrollment self-paced courses Encourage students to work with study buddies or groups Provide guidelines for students if they are expected to work in groups Encourage students to develop learning networks outside the course (e.g. volunteer in community, join professional organization,

interact with an expert) Encourage students to form special interest group in courses allowing students to join like-minded individuals Learning Networks NOAA Tools that can support collaboration Game-based learning and participatory research apps and sites Asynchronous discussion forums in LMS. Instructors and tutors can model effective communication with their postings (Croxton, 2014; Gunawardena, 2010)

Course or program group on the Landing or website Special Interest Groups (SIGs) in courses facilitated through groupings and signup sheets in Moodle Group project collaboration through Moodle wikis, Google Docs, Skype, etc. eteRNA XMind Example Learning Communities

Increase mastery-oriented feedback Provide detailed and strategic feedback for assessments: Automatically self-tests using Moodle quiz features Use comments feature in the assignment drop box (try using alternate formats, e.g. recording audio feedback) Focus on providing feedback that identifies patterns of errors and guides learners towards positive strategies for success Carol Dwecks Comments

Students who are mastery-oriented think about learning, not about proving how smart they are. When they experience a setback, they focus on effort and strategies instead of worrying that they are incompetent. URL of transcript of interview with C. Dw eck 9. Provide options for selfregulation Promote expectations and beliefs that optimize motivation Provide prompts and reminders to increase on-task orientation, provide

coaches/pedagogical agents that model goal setting Facilitate personal coping skills and strategies Provided differentiated scaffolds and feedback to minimize frustration, help students to develop internal controls Develop self-assessment and reflection Provide tools that allow students to monitor their own behaviour (e.g. charts, aids) Promote expectations that optimize motivation Provide learners with rubrics and checklists that promote an on-task orientation

Include assessments that require students to set goals and engage in self-reflection (e.g. blogging or journaling) Model the process of goal-setting (e.g. as a mentor in a graduate level course) Facilitate Personal Coping Skills / Strategies Provide models, scaffolds and feedback to reduce Frustration Equip students with coping skills AU has resources

Provide links to these resources in your courses (e.g. HTML block linking to various student services like study skills, time management, writing skills) Range of student services / supports Link to AU Resources Study Skills Time management Study schedule Goal setting Note taking

LSS Counselling, ASD, Advising Library tutorials Math Site Write Site Program websites Student Success Centre Develop selfassessment and reflection Progress tracking can help students to maintain motivation (because they can see what they have accomplished and what they still have to do) Use templates (progress tracking, goal-setting) to help students become

more effective learners. Learner journals or blogs in Moodle or on Landing Academic Time Budget Procrastination Management Polling question Can you think of ways that you might incorporate UDL in your courses. Could you give an example? UDL Not an extra

burden UDL is not an extra burden. Rather I would say that universal design for learning helps you maintain a high level of expectation and assessment and at the same time it helps students to reach those high standards and to achieve greater learning outcomes. Dr. Sandra Yang, Cal Poly Pomona on applying UDL in her course Introduction to Music Impact UDL Conference Some great keynotes will be delivered by experts in the field like Sam Johnston

Features work of your colleagues at AU and other Alberta post-secondary institutions Benefit from the experience of academics, professionals and service personnel from other provinces within Canada and the US. Remember to register for the conference @ For more information about Impact UDL Conference: Sandra Law [email protected] Carrie Anton

[email protected] Any questions? Resources UDL on Campus CAST Washington University DO-IT Accessible Campus Council of Ontario Unive rsities UDL-Universe National Centre for Accessible Media CLDD Accessibility Guidelines ASD Office Athabasca University Landing Accessibility Gr oup

References Canadian Council on Learning. (2007). Equality in the classroom: The educational placement of children with disabilities. Retrieved from http:// 2_Disability_Provincial_differences.html Croxton, R.A. (2014). The role of interactivity in student satisfaction and persistence in online learning. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(2), 314-324. Ender, S.C. and Wilkie, C. J. (2000). Advising Students with Special Needs. In V.N. Gordon, W.R. Habley, & Associates (Eds.), Academic Advising: A comprehensive handbook (pp. 118-143). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. - See more at:

rticles/At-Risk-Students.aspx#sthash.1KfUyVaf.dpuf References (cond) Feldman, R. S. (2005). Improving the First Year of College: Research and Practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ, USA. Gradel, K. & Edson, A.J. (2009-2010). Putting universal design for learning on the higher ed agenda. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 38(2), 111-121. Gunawardena, C.N. Linder-VanBerschot, J.A., LaPointe, D.K. & Rao, L. (2010). Predictors of learner satisfaction and transfer of learning in a corporate online education program. American Journal of Distance Education, 24(4), 207-226. doi:10.1080/08923647.2010.522919

References (cond) Kraglund-Gauthier, W.L., Young, D.C. & Kell, E. (2014). Teaching students with disabilities in post-secondary landscapes: Navigating elements of inclusion, differentiation, universal design for learning, and technology. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching & Learning Journal, 7(3), 1-9. Lee, E., Pate, J.A. * Cozart, D. (2015). Autonomy support for online students. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 59(4), 54-61. DOI: 10.1007/s11528-015-0871-9. Maxwell, M.(1997). Improving Student Learning Skills. Clearwater FL: H & H Publishing. - See more at: ew-Articles/At-Risk-Students.aspx#sthash.1KfUyVaf.dpuf

Resources (cond) Willms, J. F., Friesen, S., & Milton, P. (2009). What did you do in school today? Transforming classrooms through social, academic, and intellectual engagement. (First National Report) Toronto: Canadian Education Association.

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