Human Resource Management By Dr. Debashish Sengupta Human Resource Planning 3 CHAPTER Human Resource Management Key Terms
Human Resource Function Markov Analysis Supply Forecasting International labor Organization (ILO)
Qualitative Methods The Macro Environmental Factors 3 Human Resource Management Human Resource Function In leading firms today, the role of the human resource function is growing with the realization that people and their costs are critical to organizational success. If the planning and development of human resources is
guided by strategic plans, shaped by organizational needs, and closely integrated with both shortterm and long-range company objectives, the importance of the human resource function to corporate success will be demonstrable, and recognized by top management (Manzini, Gridley). 4 Human Resource Management Management must be able to guarantee that the
organization will have the right number and the right kind of people at the right place and time (Alpander, 1980). Acute social and economic strains are liable to occur whenever plans do not pay enough attention to the need for jobs, and popular support, which is so necessary in carrying out a plan, is not forthcoming as a result (Mouly). Human Resource Planning has been defined as the management process of analyzing an organizations human resource needs under changing conditions and developing the activities
necessary to satisfy these needs (Walker, 1980). 5 Human Resource Management Planning for the corporation so as to have the right numbers of people at the right time, at the right place and with the right skills. It is a simple definition, but not so simple to put into practice as many human resource and business planners know (Burack, 1985). Viewed broadly, human resource planning can be
defined as the function that coordinates the identification of the organizations future human resource requirements, oversees the development of plans and programs to fulfill those requirements, and evaluates the results (Hestwood, 1984). 6 Human Resource Management Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Planning is much broader and more profound than its predecessor, manpower planning. First, a human resource plan includes all employees. Second, it must encompass consideration of both casual and end-result variables that describe and define the state of an organizations human resources. The casual variable consists of factors over which management has control. The end-result variable consists of the effects of these factors on people, which lead to the achievement of organization goals (Lopez, 1981). 7
Human Resource Management Planning for the right numbers at the right place and time will continue to be important; however, human resource planning will become more concerned with training potential job applicants, attracting them, and managing a workforce that is highly diverse in terms of backgrounds, needs, sex, age, country of origin and values (Schuler). Human resource planning is directly tied to strategic business planning. Strategic business plans define steps that the organization will take to meet the demands of the
future. Human resource plans assure that the right number and the right kind of people become available at the right time and place so that organizational needs can be met (Alpander, 1980). 8 Human Resource Management Key Elements of HR Planning A good human resource plan shall be derived from the strategic plan of organization. There are three key elements of human resource planning:
Forecasting labor demand. Forecasting labor supply (both external and internal). Analyzing the gap and developing HRP programs to fill these gaps. 9 Human Resource Management Implications of HR Planning on Organisation Human Resource Planning programs have
primarily three implications on any organization a. Cost implications b. Talent implications c. Organizational Readiness 10 Human Resource Management Factors Affecting Human Resource Planning Multiple factors affect human resource planning of a
company. Broadly these factors can be grouped under three heads: 1. The macro environmental factors, 2. The micro environmental (industry specific) factors, and 3. Company specific factors. 11 Human Resource Management The Macro Environmental Factors
The macro environmental factors could have impact in the way a company does its human resource planning. 12 Human Resource Management The Micro (Industry Specific ) Factors The Micro (Industry specific) factors affecting
human resource planning of a company could be identified as primarily four a. b. c. d. Industry growth Industry attractiveness Technology Competitive climate
13 Human Resource Management Factors Affecting HR planning 14 Human Resource Management Industry Size of the Automobile And Auto Components Sector
15 Human Resource Management Industry Size of the Electronics & IT Hardware Sector 16 Human Resource Management
Industry Size of the Building, Construction Industry & Real Estate Services Sector 17 Human Resource Management Exports of Leather and Leather Products from India (US $million) 18 Human
Resource Management Industry Growth & Size of Organized Retail 19 Human Resource Management Insurance Segment- Growth in insurance premium (2002-2008)
20 Human Resource Management The Company Specific Factors The company-specific factors affecting the Human Resource Planing of a Company include: a. b. C. Strategy
Human Resource Inventory Human Resource Mobility 21 Human Resource Management Demand Forecasting Workforce demand forecasting is done by companies and they employ different methods ranging from qualitative to quantitative methods. The choice of method generally depends upon the size and
complexity of the firm. Smaller firms usually have more informal form of human resource planning and hence many times rely on more qualitative methods. Whereas, larger firms usually having multiple departments, levels and higher mobility of workforce both within and outside the firm, generally use more quantitative methods. 22 Human Resource Management
Manpower Requirement (Auto & Auto Components Industry) 23 Human Resource Management Manpower Requirement (Electronics & IT Hardware Industry) 24 Human
Human Resource Management Demand & Gap Analysis of Human Resource in 9 Selected Industries 32 Human Resource Management A.
Qualitative Methods a. Judgemental Methods: Employee and anagerial judgement are used to forecast the demand of labour. The approach could differ from choosing to employ only managerial judgment (more of a top to down driven forecasting) to something like using a combination of employee and managerial judgement (more of a down-up driven approach). b. Delphi Technique: The Delphi technique employs the judgement of the experts. Generally a
panel of experts is chosen. They are then polled for their forecasts. The average of such forecasts is then taken as the demand of workforce in that firm. 33 Human Resource Management B. Quantitative Methods Qualitative methods have their own limitations and hence reliance is more on more hard-data driven
forecasts. Two commonly used quantitative techniques are: a. Trend Analysis: In trend analysis first a business factor relevant to human resource needs is chosen, for example sales, production etc. After this a historical trend of the business factor in relation to number of employees is plotted. 34 Human
Resource Management b. Workload Analysis: In workload analysis, after considering the workload, the planned man-hours are calculated. Then the productive hours per worker is estimated. The total planned-man-hours is divided by the productive hours per worker to forecast the demand of workers. 35 Human
Resource Management Supply Forecasting The internal supply forecast essentially draws upon the number of outflows and number of inflows of human resources. Such outflows & inflows have to mapped for individual jobs. The most commonly supply of labor is Markov Analysis. 36 Human Resource Management
Markov Analysis Markov Analysis, also known transition probability matrix or renewal/ replacement analysis is a very useful way to forecast the internal supply of labor. No workforce is ever static. Employees are hired, they retire, they are promoted, they resign or are terminated etc. Markov Analysis attempts to project how the current workforce of a firm would look like if the current process of mobility continues. 37
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