Learning and Writing - MSU Billings

Learning and Writing - MSU Billings

Learning and Writing EDU 221 Bluebook Anticipatory Set Essay Questions You are interviewing for a 3rd grade teaching job in SD2. You are to respond in writing to the following question: If you had to choose the three most important concepts in teaching writing in third grade, what would they be and why? When finished, fill in your Bluebook chart (essay questions) Learning and Writing

Chapter 4 Bluebook Essay Reading to Learn cont. HYLA1 Interview re: Reading Habits Learning and Writing Group Presentations Reading to Learn Prior Knowledge: Influences what is remembered (learned) Topic Priming

Topic Priming: Title of Text Comprehension and Recall Scores for the Passage No Topic Topic After Topic Before Maximum Score Comprehension ratings 2.29

2.12 4.50 7.00 Number of Idea Units recalled 2.82 2.65 5.83

18.00 Bransford and Johnson (1972) Using Prior Knowledge Using prior knowledge provides us with context and meaning while we are Therefore, we must provide reading. background knowledge. Background knowledge is imperative to effective learning. Class discussions and activity

increases comprehension. If we have no prior knowledge to hook our new information into, we will be challenged to understand, comprehend, or learn. What people know influences what they will remember about a passage Make sure it is appropriate Make sure it is interesting At grade level Reading to Learn

Prior Knowledge: Influences what is remembered (learned) Topic Priming Inference Making: Drawing conclusions beyond the text Background Knowledge Making Inferences This is the cornerstone of reading comprehension Keys: This skill improves as children develop It improves with TRAINING and assisted performance Teach students to begin to generate their own

questions about a passage It helps for them to practice and explain how inferences are made [Gregory, A. & Cahill, M.A.(2010) K-schema, connections, visualize, ask questions, infer] Reading to Learn Prior Knowledge: Influences what is remembered (learned) Priming exercise Topic Priming Inference Making: Drawing conclusions beyond the text Background Knowledge

Comprehension Monitoring: Teach strategies Reading and Vocabulary Development Content Comic Books Rare words/1000 Childrens Books Preschool Books 30.9

53.5 16.3 Prime-time Adult TV Prime-time Childrens TV 22.7 Conversation College Grad (spouse/friends) 17.3 20.2

Reading and Academic Achievement Rank Minutes/Day Words/Year 65 4,358,000 98% 21.1

1,823,000 90% 9.6 622,000 70% 4.6 282,000 50%

1.3 106,000 30% (standardized exams) Reading and Literacy Early exposure predicts school success Reading as both Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing Comprehension comes with experience and training Reading strongly promotes Vocabulary Development Direct relationship between time spent reading and standardized achievement

10 Ways to Get Your Child to READ and READ and READ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Let your child see you read and read and read Read to you child every day

Make reading for pleasure part of your daily routine Read to your child every day Make books available to your child Read to your child every day Talk about books with your child Read to you child every day Take your child to the public library on a regular basis Read to your child every day (thanks to Dr. Bohlmann for use of some of her lecture slides, 2010) The storytelling problem Good Writers Have.. Knowledge Language

Topic Audience Cognitive Processes in Writing The writing process Planning in Writing Parts of planning Generating Organizing Goal-Setting Global v. local planning Pianko study Effects of Planning on Written Work

(Kellogg, 1994) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Quality None

Generating Listing Outlining Translating (draft writing) Write for ideas first then update focus Dont be Constrained by Graphic- layout, spacing, spelling Syntactic- grammar, punctuation, sentence organization Semantic- convey intended meaning Textual- sentences fit to create a cohesive

paragraph Contextual- appropriate style Research on Draft Writing Total Number of Arguments Arguments Mechanical per Sentence Errors per Sentence Polished 1st draft 2.9

.38 .43 Unpolished 1st draft 8.0 .85 .23 Glynn et al., (1982)

Implications for instruction (translating phase of writing) Constraints of writing process can inhibit the process Mechanics Spelling Penmanship This can load the working memory beyond capacity and interfere with high-level planning. Older writers/ more experienced writers are more automatic with mechanics, integration and completion of ideas Reviewing Reread

Revise and Edit now focus on Graphic, syntactic, semantic and textual norms Contextual fit Conferencing An external reviewer Again focus on Graphic, syntactic, semantic and textual norms Contextual fit Reader/writer Listener/Helper Come with a purpose

Read my story to L/H Listen while the R/W reads Talk and ask questions Look at the writing Help Revise and Edit Give Compliments Ask Questions Make Suggestions Error Detection in Writing Referent Errors Syntax Errors Writers own text In other texts Bartlett, 1982

17% 53% 73% 88% The Writing Process Planning Translating (draft)

Conferencin g Final Copy Reviewing Scaffolding Student Writing Building Early Literacy Skills The use of mediators (tools) Scaffolding Student Writing Building Early Literacy Skills The use of mediators (tools)

Scaffolding Student Writing Building Early Literacy Skills The use of mediators Inventive spelling 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Non-alphabetic markings Initial sounds semi-phonetic Initial and final sounds - phonetic

Medial vowels - transitional Moves toward conventional spelling Ouellette & Senechal, 2008 Invented spelling Phoneme awareness Drawing Letter sounds (ns) 19.96

20.78 19.74 Invented spelling* 40.04 32.48 30.52 Phonological Awareness*

33.70 32.52 30.26 Awareness of Vowels* 6.17 5.43 5.04 Reading

practiced words* 2.65 1.65 1.65 Reading new words (ns) 1.22 1.04 1.35

Scaffolding Student Writing Building Early Literacy Skills The use of mediators Inventive spelling Using Rubrics As a guide In grading Learning and Writing

Chapter 4 Bluebook Multiple Choice Reading to Learn cont. Learning and Writing Group Presentations For Thursday: Read Chapter 5, work on presentation Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Nelson Mandela

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