Main presentation title goes here. - University of Bristol

Main presentation title goes here. - University of Bristol

The Ethics of Inclusive Research: Dialogue and Doing Better Melanie Nind, Professor of Education [email protected] University of Bristol GSoE Ethics Research Day 11 March 2015 1. Defining & situating inclusive research 2. Inclusive research as an

ethical response 3. Some conundrums from the field 4. What is it we want research to do for us? 2 1. Defining and situating inclusive research 3

Inclusive research participatory research research emancipatory partnership & user-led research child-led peer

community decolonizing activist scholarship participatory action research democratic dialogue 4 Democratisation is about net movement toward broader, more equal, more

protected, and more mutually binding consultation (Tilly 2007, p.59) the capacity to participate in the critical decisions that affect our lives - democratic institutions should be designed to enable our participation. (Smith 2009) 5 Changing dynamics and discourse Research that in some Discourse changing

way changes the dynamic between research/researchers and the people who have traditionally been the subjects of that research. from research on people who are the objects or subjects of research, to research

with those people, and perhaps by or for them. 6 The big questions Who owns this research problem? Who is the initiator of the project? In whose interests is the research? Who has control over the processes and outcomes? How is the power and decisionmaking negotiated?

Who produces the knowledge claims and owns the research? 7 Participatory research involves democratic relationships to produce knowledge which incorporates participants everyday knowledge to solve problems (Cancian 1989) research participants in the decision-making and conduct of the research (Bourke 2009) meaningful partnership and meaningful social transformation (Byrne et al 2009)

de-privileging academic knowledge & bringing it into dialogue with the knowledge held by experts by experience 8 Emancipatory research involves not sharing the control of the research, but control being taken over by those who are implicated in it - controlling the knowledge generated about you activists angry at the way research has traditionally placed a professional gaze on them, with academics seen as studying them for their own benefit and adding to

their oppression less changing the rules of the game and more changing to a different game altogether (Oliver 1997) Empowerment/emancipation 9 Inclusive research: a definition Walmsley & Johnson (2003: 16): must address issues which really matter and which ultimately leads to improved lives must access and represent their

views and experiences & reflect that people with learning disabilities need to be treated with respect by the research community 10 Drivers for inclusive research grass roots anger and impetus political moves & global directives e.g. UNCRC, UNCRDP technology/social media/democratisation of knowledge qualitative research concern with voice & perspective

emergence of international development, participatory rural appraisal, disability studies, childhood studies need for impact 11 2. Inclusive research as an ethical response 12 The right thing to do!

The right thing to: redress wrongs (labelling, pathologizing, colonizing) tackle marginalisation of certain voices engage meaningfully with the people the research is about 13 Innovation & inclusive research Hesse-Biber & Leavy (2008: 12) innovation in the practice of social research is crucial for enhancing our understanding of the human condition.

Lincoln (2005: 165-6) an attraction of qualitative research is the promise and democratic and pluralistic ethics of qualitative practices with a fresh cadre of methodologists committed to seeing social science used for democratic and liberalizing social purposes Denzin (2010) argues addressing social justice should characterise researchers innovations & ethical responsibilities. 14 Drivers for innovation in methods: ethics

NCRM study 3 cases: netnography, child-led research, creative methods Innovation should be rooted in genuine attempt to improve some aspect of the research process (not just gimmickry or innovation for innovation sake) Methodological development pushing forward ethical research practice - and institutionalised research ethics practices pushing back methodological developments Ethics as a driver not limiter of innovation 15 Case study 1 Kozinets

acutely aware of the potential in online research to mine data from online forums, but argued that it is better research and more respectful of the people within online communities to participate as a typical blog reader or a member of that community member would, thereby following communal rules. For Kozinets, participation doesnt necessarily mean interfering in some way, it means living as a culture member does. ethical response to a challenge arising from the fact that other, similar approaches do not address the ethical & procedural issues he seeks to solve

16 Case study 2 Gauntlett partly motivated by a desire to avoid research where you sort of go in, get data, and leave concerned with creating a fair kind of relationship and an interesting and meaningful experience for participants. Lego levelling the field of research methods a material everyone can use regardless of professional or other status wanting participants to interpret their own Lego

constructions as they were the expert on their own lives 17 Case study 3 Kellett acting responsibly in child-led research - provide more opportunities for CYP to train as researchers while retaining the purity of the ideas, not diluting them. commitment to working with children in a much more engaged, equal way (Disc2) and the drive to put children at the centre of research that is innovative, rather than the idea itself; about getting marginalised groups heard

(Int2) extremely good example of taking childrens voice very seriously (Exp3). 18 3. Some conundrums from the field 19 Participation v rigour

who gets to count as a credible researcher child-led research highlights tension between participation and rigour (Disc2) who is the real expert? who gets funded? who gets published? what is the quality? 20 Surveillance & protection Kellett covers ethics in the first day of her three-day training for child-researchers and aims at the same

level of ethics as adult research. Seeing children as un/ethical beings Managing ethics approvals is a role the academy retains Ethics committees usually concerned with protecting children from researchers not reviewing research by children this turns some of the surveillance-protection discourses and practices on their head. 21 Inclusive research in risky domains

Does being ethical mean needing to be inclusive in research? Is being inclusive in research risky? Is being risky in research ethical? Common across the 3 case studies is that they were operating in what are often perceived as ethically risky domains: the internet, children, and visual methods How common/problematic is this for inclusive research? 22 Managing risk

Case study innovators were involved in managing (not eliminating) risk Being inclusive as a researcher means making oneself vulnerable and judged in new ways Inclusive research needs to be dangerous enough but not too dangerous! 23

Some conundrums from the field 4. What is it we want research to do for us? 24 Do we want research to Build our careers? Get our PhDs?! Solve our problems? Improve our lives?

Make us feel powerful? 25 Or do we want research to Serve others interests? Get results for them? Solve our research partners problems? Improve their lives? Make them feel powerful? Work for all of us?

26 I want research to work for us, not limit us I now prefer to talk about doing research inclusively rather than doing inclusive research as it lessens the gaze of judgment and widens the options of acting ethically and inclusively This can unshackle us from the dogma or maybe just protect us in the battleground It gives permission for exploration, diversity, development & helps with keeping it fluid,

unfixed, but still ethical 27 Ethical inclusive research is about Shared and individual goals Dialogue between ways of knowing rather than privileging anyones knowledge Grappling with the difficult stuff Setting judgment aside Retaining criticality

Not creating researchers in my likeness 28 Vision for a new generation of inclusive research Less preoccupied with our different expertise, more focused on our need to learn from and with each other Valuing diversity of ways in which we might work Tensions between different ways of knowing regarded as valuable in the search for better understandings Recognition that dialogic engagement will lead to collaborative and separate sense-making, with some but not all - of our purposes shared.

29 Key references www.doingresearchinclusively.org Nind, M., Wiles, R.A., Bengry-Howell, A. & Grow, G.P. (2013) Methodological Innovation and Research Ethics: Forces in tension or forces in harmony? Qualitative Research 13(6) 650667. Nind, M. & Vinha, M. (2014) Doing research inclusively: Bridges to multiple possibilities in inclusive research, British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 102-09.

Nind, M. (2014) What is Inclusive Research? London: Bloomsbury. 30

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