Monogastric Nutrition Nutrient Requirements Simple Stomached Require readily digestible feed Cannot use complex carbohydrates Cellulose, hemicellulose, etc. Require essential amino acids Cannot synthesize amino acids Poor quality protein, NPN Water Water Important nutrient 55-80% of animal is water
Depends on age Uses Hydration, medium for moving wastes into and out of body Component of milk, lubricates joints, cushions nerves, disperses heat, protects developing fetuses Water Free access to water Cool, Clean, Abundant Pigs will consume 1-1.5 quarts / pound of feed Limiting water intake results in poor production Decreased intake Poor feed efficiency Reduced milk production
Energy Required for basic processes Acquired from carbohydrate, fat, protein metabolism Obtained from Corn, Soybean meal, fat Some cases, energy may be limiting factor for growth Energy Energy requirements Influenced by: Weight (Direct influence on maintenance) Genetic ability to produce lean tissue Environmental temperature Most often expressed as
Digestible Energy (DE) Metabolizable Energy (ME) For all weight classes, ME requirement is approx. 96% of the DE requirement Energy Daily Nutrient Requirements of Swine Fed Ad Libitum Swine Liveweight Intake and Performance Levels Lb 2.2-11 11-22 22-44 44-110 Expected weight gain per day Expected feed intake per day Expected efficiency (gain/feed)
Expected efficiency (feed/gain) Digestible energy intake (kcal/day) Metabolizable energy intake (kcal/day) Energy concentration (kcal ME/lb ration) Protein per day Table 23-1 0.4 0.6 0.800 1.25 850 805 1461
10570 10185 1486 0.9 Energy Daily Energy and Feed Requirements of Pregnant Gilts and Sows Weight of Bred Gilts and Sows at Mating Intake and Performance Levels Lb 265 309 353 Mean gestation weight Energy Required: Maintenance
Gestation weight gain Total Feed required per day Table 23-3 (Mcal DE/day) (Mcal DE/day) (Mcal DE/day) 314.2 358.3 402.3 4.53
Energy Daily Energy and Feed Requirements of Lactating Gilts and Sows Weight of Lactating Gilts and Sows at Postfarrowing Intake and Performance Levels Lb 320 364 408 Milk Yield Energy Required: Maintenance Milk Production Total Feed required per day
12.5 17.5 5.5 15.0 20.5 9.7 11.7 13.5 Energy Nutrient Requirements in the Ration of Breeding Swine Bred Gilts Lactating
Sows, and Gilts and Intake Levels Adult Boars Sows Digestible energy Metabolizable energy Crude Protein Table 23-6 (kcal/lb ration) (kcal/lb ration) (%) 1515 1456
12 1515 1456 13.0 Protein & Amino Acids Protein makes up portions of muscle, blood, enzymes, hair, etc. 7-9% of the pigs body is edible protein Protein consists of 22 different amino acids For growth to occur at a rapid rate, the ration must supply 10 of the 22 amino acids Protein & Amino Acids Essential amino acids: One in which the body cannot manufacture in sufficient
quantity to permit maximum growth and performance Non-Essential amino acids: Amino acids which can be synthesized in large enough amounts to permit maximum growth as long as sufficient Nitrogen is present. Protein & Amino Acids Essential Non-essential Arginine Alanine Histidine Aspartic acid Isoleucine Asparagine Leucine
Cysteine Lysine Cystine Methionine Glutamic acid Phenylalanine Glutamine Threonine Glycine Tryptophan Hydroxyproline Valine Proline Serine Tyrosine Protein & Amino Acids Lysine is the #1 essential or limiting amino acid in
swine diets Lysine concentration is high in muscle Lysine content of most feedstuffs is low Feeding high quality proteins is essential Contains all essential amino acids in the correct proportions and amounts Possible to perform better on a 12% CP vs. 16% CP Protein & Amino Acids Soybean meal Used as the primary protein source in swine diets 85% of lysine digested & absorbed by pig Versus 65% of lysine in meat & bone meal Complements corn well in the diet
Swine diets formulated approximately 79% corn to 20% soybean meal. (+/- 1-2 %) Trying to correct the deficiencies in the cereal grain Vitamins & Minerals Pigs are most likely to suffer from vitamin & mineral deficiencies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Primarily fed cereal grains low in minerals, particularly calcium
Skeleton supports greater weight in proportion to its size than other farm animals Fed to grow at a maximum rate and are marketed before they mature Reproduce at a younger age Raised in a confinement setting. Vitamins & Minerals Minerals Very important functions Required only in very small amounts Pigs require 13 different minerals in the diet
Minerals deficient in corn & soybean meal diets Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Sodium (Na), Chlorine (Cl), Trace minerals: Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Iodine (I), Selenium (Se) Vitamins & Minerals Minerals Calcium & Phosphorus are the most critical and are required in the greatest amounts Adequate levels will provide a strong skeletal structure Deficiencies will lead to poor bone mineralization Important when raised in confinement on concrete floors Ideal ratios of Ca:P should lie between 1:1 and 1.25:1
Vitamins & Minerals Vitamins Complex organic compounds needed in minute amounts, which are essential for health and normal body functions Pigs require 15 vitamins in very small amounts Many of these are likely to be deficient in corn & soybean meal diets Vitamins & Minerals Vitamins likely to be deficient in corn and corn plus soybean meal (44% protein) for the growing pig Corn + Soybean Meal Requirement Vitamin Corn (79% corn + 19.5% SBM)
(50-lb pig) Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamin A, IU/lb Vitamin D, IU/lb Vitamin E, IU/lb Vitamin K, mg/lb Water-soluble vitamins, mg/lb Vitamin C B-complex Riboflavin Pantothenic acid Niacin Vitamin B 12 Choline Pyridoxine Thiamin Folacin
1.9 0.16 0.05 1.1 4.6 4.5 0.005 136 0.5 0.5 0.14 0.02 Table 19-6, R.O. Kellems and D.C. Church Additives
Substances added to swine rations to enhance performance Feed-grade fat Can be added at 5% of the total ration Added as an energy source Reduces dustiness of feed and increases palatability To be economical, cost must be no more than 2.5 to 3.0 times the cost of corn Additives Supplemental fat for growing-finishing swine fed a corn-soybean meal diet
Added Fat (%) Item 0 5 Daily gain, lb Daily feed, lb Feed:gain ratio Carcass backfat, in. Ham-loin, % of carcass 1.68 5.44 3.24 1.2 43.4 Table 19-10, R.O. Kellems and D.C. Church
1.77 5.22 2.95 1.31 42.3 Additives Antimicrobial agents, anthelmintics Antimicrobials Added to stimulate growth and feed efficiency, and to reduce mortality Low levels (Subtherapeutic) Promote growth Moderate-to-high levels (Prophylaxis) Prevention of disease in exposed animals High levels (Therapeutic) Treatment of disease
Additives Anthelmintics Used to prevent or remove internal parasites Roundworms & Lungworms Some will control external parasites Lice, Mange Ivermectin Considered drugs and are regulated by the FDA Only certain types, levels, and combinations are approved for use in swine diets Additives Effects of anitbiotics in the feed at breeding on reproductive performance Item Control
Antimicrobial Farrowing Rate, % Live pigs per litter 75.4 10 Table 19-15, R.O. Kellems and D.C. Church 82.1 10.4 Additives Antimicrobial agents in the prefarrowing and lactation diet for sows Item Control
Antimicrobial Live pigs born per litter Pigs weaned per litter Survival, % Average pig weaning weight, lb 10.3 8.2 84.9 10.6 8.6 87.1 10.23
10.34 Table 19-16, R.O. Kellems and D.C. Church Management 75-80% of the total cost associated with swine production are feed costs Intense management is required Feed manufacturers and producers must evaluate the cost effectiveness and feed value in order to formulate cost effective and nutritionally adequate swine diets Generic diet formulation may be a problem in formulating cost effective gains Management
Phase Feeding Adjusting the ration according to the individual pigs nutrient needs as it grows Depending on the intensity of the management system, rations can also be adjusted based on sex of the pig Management Type of Diet Starter 1 Starter 2 Starter 3 Grower 1 Grower 2 Finisher 1 Finisher 2 Finisher 3
20 18 16 14-16 13-14 12-13 13 16 Management The end goal of the feed manufacturer and producer is to cost effectively produce pigs which will reach market weight (250-280 lbs) in the shortest amount of time with a minimum amount of fat and maximum amount of lean tissue your genetics will allow.
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