Cell Membrane Animal Cell Cell Membrane of a

Cell Membrane Animal Cell Cell Membrane of a

Cell Membrane Animal Cell Cell Membrane of a Neuron Ion Channels Cell membrane proteins that pass ions in and out of the cell Voltage-Gated Ion Channels

gates are regulated by membrane voltage Chemical-Gated Ion Channels (Receptors) gates are regulated by neurotransmitters Ionotropic fast Metabotropic (G-protein coupled) requires second messenger cascade slow

Electrochemical Gradient Inside the Cell Outside the Cell More K+ More Na+ Less Na+ Less K+ Ion Flow Mantra: Na+ In, K+ out

Depolarization/Hyperpolarization 2 Action Potential Phases Rapid 3

1 Threshold Phase 4 Ion responsible

Threshold Rapid Depolarization Repolarization After Hyperpolarization Na+ Na+ K+ K+

Ion Channel Responsible Chemical-gated Na+ channel Voltage-gated Na+ channel Voltage -gated K+ channel Na+/K+ pumps Na+/K+ Pumps After the Action Potential,

Na+/K+ pumps move Na+ ions back out of the cell and move K+ ions back into the cell The movement is against the concentration gradient of each ion so it requires energy (ATP) The pumps move 3 Na+ ions for every 2 K+ ions

Unmyelinated Propagation Myelinated Propagation Synaptic Action Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

Synaptic Potentials: EPSP IPSP Synaptic Potentials Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP) triggered by excitatory neurotransmitters open ligand-gated Na+ channels allows Na+ to flow inside the cell causing a slight depolarization of the postsynaptic cell

moves the postsynaptic cell closer to firing an action potential Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) triggered by inhibitory neurotransmitters open ligand-gated K+ channels or Cl- channels allows K+ to flow out of the cell or Cl- to flow inside the cell causing a slight hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic cell moves the postsynaptic cell further from firing an action potential The Battle to -55mV

IPSP EPSP

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