Opening/Closing Title

Opening/Closing Title

How to think about interaction Recap HCI has moved beyond designing interfaces for desktop machines About extending and supporting all manner of human activities in all manner of devices Facilitating user experiences through designing interactions:

Make work effective, efficient and safer Improve and enhance learning and training Provide enjoyable and exciting entertainment Enhance communication and understanding Support new forms of creativity and expression 3 Outline for today

Problem Space Conceptual Models Interaction Types Paradigm, et al. Problem Space A representation of the issues and concerns related to the interaction Must be judged against:

Requirements Job or Task System Understanding the problem space What do you want to create? What are your assumptions and claims? Will it achieve what you hope it will?

www.id-book.com 6 What is an assumption? taking something for granted when it

needs further investigation Heads up displays will increase car safety. 7

What is a claim? stating something to be true when it is still open to question Pick a claim from any of your classes: What evidence do you have? Where is the issue still open? 8 Activity

What are the assumptions and claims made about 3D TV? www.id-book.com 10 Activity Problem space for designing an app to

Schedule classes Announce campus activities New messaging system for friends

Find restaurants Other possibility? Conceptual Models Conceptual model A conceptual model is: a high-level description of how a system is organized and operates (Johnson and Henderson, 2002, p26)

Enables designers to straighten out their thinking before they start laying out their widgets (Johnson and Henderson, 2002, p28) www.id-book.com 13

Components Metaphors and analogies understand what a product is for and how to use it for an activity Concepts that people are exposed to through the product taskdomain objects, their attributes, and operations (e.g.

saving, revisiting, organizing) Relationship and mappings between these concepts www.id-book.com 14 First steps in formulating a

conceptual model What will the users be doing when carrying out their tasks? How will the system support these? What kind of interface metaphor, if any, will be appropriate? What kinds of interaction modes and styles to use? - always keep in mind when making design decisions how the user will understand the underlying conceptual model

15 Activity Describe the components of the conceptual model underlying a website or app. Present to class 16

Activity Let us develop a conceptual model for our app Interface Metaphors Interface metaphors Conceptualizing what we are doing, e.g. surfing the web A conceptual model instantiated at the interface, e.g.

the desktop metaphor Visualizing an operation, e.g. an icon of a shopping cart for placing items into www.id-book.com 19 Material Metaphors

The card is a very popular UI Why?: Has familiar form factor Material properties are added, giving appearance and physical behavior, e.g. surface of paper www.id-book.com 20

Activity Identify interface metaphors Find webpage or app. Examine how the app develop use a metaphor from other ways of interaction to develop their interaction Identify strengths and weakness of the metaphor Activity

What interface metaphors do we want on our app? Likert vs. Visual Analog Scale Interaction Types Interaction types Instructing

issuing commands and selecting options Conversing interacting with a system as if having a conversation Manipulating interacting with objects in a virtual or physical space by manipulating them Exploring

moving through a virtual environment or a physical space www.id-book.com 25 Activity Find at least one example of each type of interaction

Instructing Conversing Manipulating Exploring

Activity What interaction type do we want for our app? Conceptual models: interaction and interface Interaction type: what the user is doing when interacting with a system, e.g. instructing, talking, browsing or other

Interface type: the kind of interface used to support the mode, e.g. speech, menu-based, gesture www.id-book.com 28

Many kinds of interface types available including Command Speech Data-entry Form fill-in Query Graphical Web

Pen Augmented reality Gesture www.id-book.com 29 Which interaction type to choose?

Need to determine requirements and user needs Take budget and other constraints into account Also will depend on suitability of technology for activity being supported This is covered in course when designing conceptual models www.id-book.com 30

Activity What types of interaction elements do we want for our app and what should they do?

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