Archaeologists believe this is where one of the

Archaeologists believe this is where one of the

Archaeologists believe this is where one of the worlds first civilizations arose. Mesopotamia (todays Iraq) is known as the cradle of Civilization. TODAYs OBJECTIVES: Summarize how geography affected the cultural development in the Fertile Crescent. Describe city-states and how other cultures learned from them. Describe Sumerian religious beliefs, social structure, and technology. Explain the influence of Sumer on later civilizations. REMINDER: STUDIES WEEKLY newspapers are REQUIRED in class EVERY DAY! 4 early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) Egyptian Civilization - Nile River Harappan Civilization - Indus River

Ancient China - Huang He (Yellow) River PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) City-States in Mesopotamia PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Four Early River Valley Civilizations City-States in Mesopotamia I. GEOGRAPHY A. Mostly dry desert climate in SW Asia (Middle East) 1. Except in region between Tigris / Euphrates rivers 2. a flat plain known as Mesopotamia lies between the two rivers 3. Because of this regions shape and the richness of its soil,

it is called the Fertile Crescent. - the rivers flood at least once a year, leaving a thick bed of mud called silt. SW Asia (the Middle East) Fertile Crescent PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Four Early River Valley Civilizations City-States in Mesopotamia I. GEOGRAPHY 3. Because of this regions shape and the richness of its soil, it is called the Fertile Crescent. - the rivers flood at least once a year, leaving a thick bed of mud called silt. Sumerians were first to settle in this region, attracted by the rich soil.

B. Three Disadvantages / Environmental Challenges 1. Unpredictable flooding / dry summer months 2. No natural barriers for protection - small villages lying in open plain were defenseless 3. Limited natural resources - stone, wood, metal PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Four Early River Valley Civilizations City-States in Mesopotamia I. GEOGRAPHY Sumerians were first to settle in this region, attracted by the rich soil. B. Three Disadvantages / Environmental Challenges 1. Unpredictable flooding / dry summer months 2. No natural barriers for protection

- small villages lying in open plain were defenseless 3. Limited natural resources (stone, wood, metal) C. Solutions 1. Irrigation ditches Sumerian innovations in achieving civilization 2. Built city walls with set example others would follow. mud bricks 3. Traded with people around them But to arrive at these solutions, for the products required organized government. they lacked. Lets now look at the type of government the Sumerians had. Initiated Bronze Age. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

City-States in Mesopotamia II. The City-State Structure of Government A. Although all the cities shared the same culture B. each city had its own government / rulers, warriors, its own patron god, and functioned like an independent country C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure. Define type of government PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Ziggurat at Ur was first excavated by British archaeologist Woolley in 1923. The Iraqi Directorate of Antiquities restored its lower stages in the 1980s.

City-States in Mesopotamia II. The City-State Structure of Government A. Although all the cities shared the same culture B. each city had its own government / rulers, warriors, its own patron god, and functioned like an independent country C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure. F. Powerful priests held much political power in the beginning. Define type of government Right: Standing nude "priest-king," ca. 33003000 B.C.;

Uruk. Left: Bas-relief depicting priests intervening between worshipers and gods. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Four Early River Valley Civilizations City-States in Mesopotamia II. The City-State Structure of Government A. Although all the cities shared the same culture B. each city had its own government / rulers, warriors, its own patron god, and functioned like an independent country C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure.

F. Powerful priests held much political power in the beginning. G. Military commanders eventually became ruler / monarch - then began passing rule to their own heirs, creating a new structure of government called a Dynasty a series of rulers descending from a single family line. Define type of government Define type of government Historians wonder Did the Sumerians develop this new type of government on their own, or did they learn and adopt it only after contact with other peoples cultural diffusion? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Cultural diffusion is the spread of elements of one culture to another people, generally through trade. Take the spread of writing. Similarities between the pictograms of Egyptian hieroglyphics, Sumerian cuneiform, and the Indus script are striking. Can you give examples of cultural diffusion in your society today? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. City-States in Mesopotamia II. The City-State Structure of Government A. Although all the cities shared the same culture B. each city had its own government / rulers, warriors, its own patron god, and functioned like an independent country C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure. F. Powerful priests held much political power in the beginning.

G. Military commanders eventually became ruler / monarch - then began passing rule to their own heirs, creating a new structure of government called a Dynasty a series of rulers descending from a single family line. H. Through their trade with neighboring peoples, the Sumerians spread their new innovations. This is cultural diffusion the spread of one cultures ideas, products, traditions, beliefs etc. to another people. Lets now examine Sumerian beliefs and other elements of their culture. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Belief in many gods - polytheism God of the clouds / air was Enlil the most powerful god. (Nearly 3,000 others with human qualities. The Sumerians viewed their gods as hostile and unpredictable similar to the natural environment around them.)

A Sumerian warrior-god, gold figurine, ca. Marduk, 2,400-2,500 the Dragon B.C.E. god PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Four Early River Valley Civilizations City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Belief in many gods - polytheism God of the clouds / air was Enlil the most powerful god. (Nearly 3,000 others with human qualities. They were viewed as often hostile and unpredictable similar to the natural environment around them.) 2. Gilgamesh Epic, one of the earliest works of literature. Contains a flood story that predates the Hebrew Old Testament story of Noah by at least 2,000 years.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. DID YOU KNOW Like many ancient civilizations, the Sumerians also had a flood story. Thats not surprising given their challenging environment sitting between two unpredictable riversin their view, such a cataclysmic event did, indeed, destroy their entire world. The Epic of Gilgamesh is, perhaps, the oldest written story on Earth. It comes to us from ancient Sumeria, and was originally written on 12 clay tablets in cuneiform script. It is about the adventures of the cruel King Gilgamesh of Uruk (ca. 2750 and 2500 BCE). Tablet XI COOL WEBSITE to visit: GILGAMESH Great website to visit: http://gilgamesh.psnc.pl/ PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Belief in many gods - polytheism God of the clouds / air was Enlil the most powerful god. (Nearly 3,000 others with human qualities. They were viewed as often hostile and unpredictable similar to the natural environment around them.) 2. Gilgamesh Epic, one of the earliest works of literature. Contains a flood story that predates the Hebrew Old Testament story of Noah by at least 2,000 years. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations City-States in Mesopotamia

III. SUMERIAN CULTURE B. SOCIETY 1. Three social classes a. Priests and royalty (kings) b. Wealthy merchants c. Ordinary workers [Slaves] were not free citizens and thus not included in class system 2. Women a. Had more rights than in many later civilizations (could own property, join lower ranks of priesthood) b. But not allowed to attend schools (could not read or write) Left: Statue of Sumerian woman with hands clasped at chest, ca. 2600-2300 B.C. Right: Gypsum statue of man and woman at Inanna Temple at Nippur, circa 2600-2300 B.C. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations

City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE C. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1. One of the first writing systems - Cuneiform PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE C. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1. One of the first writing systems - Cuneiform 2. Invented wheel, the sail, the plow 3. First to use bronze. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

3. Reign of Hammurabi a. Famous Code of Law he wisely took all the laws of the regions citystates and unified them into one code. This helped unify the region. Engraved in stone, erected all over the empire. And why Why do you do you thinkthink Hammurabi he believed thought it important it important to place thetolaws placeinall

prominent the citieslocations within hisso the Empirecould people undervisibly the same seeuniform them? code of laws? A total of 282 laws are etched on this 7 ft. 5 in. tall black basalt pillar (stele). The top portion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. Although Hammurabi's Code is not the first code of laws (the first records date four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting the social structure of Babylon during Hammurabi's rule. This amazing find was discovered in 1901 and today is in the famous Louvre Museum in Paris, France. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. 3. Babylonian Reign of Hammurabi

a. Famous Code of Law he wisely took all the laws of the regions citystates and unified them into one code. This helped unify the region. Engraved in stone, Strict in nature erected all over the empire. the punishment fits the crime / eye for an eye Such laws were adopted by neighbors many similar found in Hebrew scriptures (Old Testament) His act set an important precedent idea that the government was responsible for what occurred in society. A total of 282 laws are etched on this 7 ft. 5 in. tall black basalt pillar (stele). The top portion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. Although Hammurabi's Code is not the first code of laws (the first records date four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting the

social structure of Babylon during Hammurabi's rule. This amazing find was discovered in 1901 and today is in the famous Louvre Museum in Paris, France. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Teachers Notes: 1. Discuss (review) with the students what life was like for people when they were hunters and gatherers. Then, discuss changes that took place in society to bring early people into the Neolithic Age. The five characteristics of civilization including government & Laws 2. To the Board Next, ask the students to brainstorm with you as you come up with positive and negative aspects of people starting to live in villages, towns, and large communities. Write these ideas on the board or on an overhead projector. A possible list may include the following: Positive Aspects Negative Aspects protection from danger army, taxes, slavery greater supplies of food waste disposal opportunity for commerce governing large groups of citizens

new job opportunities. The list could go on and on. It may take a bit of leading, but eventually, the students will come up with the problems governing large groups of people. People have been killing, stealing, and maiming for quite a long time. How did the earliest civilizations handle these situations? Have we made any progress in four thousand years? Hammurabi wasn't the first ruler to establish a code of laws. Earlier records date back four hundred years. Many of Hammurabi's laws, as it turns out, were exact copies of earlier Sumerian laws. His code, however, is the best preserved legal document giving us an idea of the life and social structure of the people during Hammurabi's reign. It is now time for your students to determine if he was an enlightened, benevolent ruler, or a cruel, demanding tyrant. Primary Source Document Analysis: Hammurabis Code Cute website http://www.phillipmartin.info/hammurabi/hammurabi_situation_index.htm PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Partnered Students Handout

Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, On whom Shamash has conferred the Law, am I. When Marduk sent me to rule over men, to give the protection of right to the land, I did right and in righteousness brought about the well-being of the oppressed. Below are situations Hammurabi faced. You and your partner decide what you think to be a fair way to deal with the problem. Then together well view what Hammurabi actually declared. Well find out if Marduk, the supreme god, will be pleased with your decisions? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

What should be done to the carpenter who builds a house that falls and kills the owner? What should be done about a wife who ignores her duties and belittles her husband? What should be done when a "sister of god" (or nun) enters the wine shop for a drink? What should be done if a son is adopted and then the birth-parents want him back? What happens if a man is unable to pay his debts? What should happen to a boy who slaps his father? What happens to the wine seller who fails to arrest bad characters gathered at her shop? How is the truth determined when one man brings an accusation against another? http://www.phillipmartin.info/hammurabi/hammurabi_situation_index.htm Compiled and Illustrated by Phillip Martin copyright 1998 Two centuries after Hammurabis reign, the Babylonian Empire fell to nomadic raiders. New groups would rule over the Fertile Crescent in the future. However, the innovative ideas of the Sumerians and their descendants in the region would be adopted by the later peoples including the Assyrians, the Persians, Phoenicians and the Hebrews (Jews). Well discuss these folks in CH 3 and 4.

But right now lets leave our discussion of these civilizations on the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia and move on to discuss our second Early River Valley Civilization this one, on the Nile River. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. 4 early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) Egyptian Civilization - Nile River Harappan Civilization - Indus River Ancient China - Huang He (Yellow) River PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) Egyptian Civilization - Nile River ENTER PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations (See your Packet, p. 15b) I. GEOGRAPHY Egypt on the Nile A. The Nile 1. Egypts settlements arose along narrow strip of land made fertile by the river 2. Yearly flooding, but predictable

Regular cycle: flood, plant, harvest, flood, plant, harvest... 3. Intricate network of irrigation ditches 4. Worshiped as a god giver of life and benevolent Nile River Compare and Contrast Earlier we discussed the Sumerians and the effect their particular environment may have had on the way they viewed their gods. Compare the Sumerian view to the Egyptian view and explain why the Egyptian view may have been so different. WATCH VIDEO CLIP Irrigating scene painted on tomb at Thebes Examine this quote: Egypt, the gift of the Nile. ~ Herodotus, Greek historian (484-432 B.C.E.)

What do you infer from this quote, what did Herodotus mean by PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. it? Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations I. GEOGRAPHY Egypt on the Nile B. Upper and Lower Egypt 1. Most of Egypts history focused around Lower Egypt, around the Nile delta which flows into the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Upper Egypt developed later upstream 3. Nile provided reliable transportation - to go north, drift with the current toward the sea - to go south, sail catching the Mediterranean breeze

C. Environment 1. Unlike Mesopotamia, the Nile was predictable 2. Deserts on both sides of Nile - provided natural protection against invaders - also reduced interaction with other people Egypt would develop mostly in isolation and therefore, a culture that was quite unique. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile II. UNITED EGYPTS GOVERNMENT A. Unlike Sumeria, no independent city-states in Egypt B. Menes, the king of Upper Egypt, 1. united the two regions Upper and Lower in 3,100 B.C.E. 2. Capital: Memphis

3. Creates first Egyptian dynasty C. The Pharaoh [means, royal house] the ruler of Egypt 1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles Type of government where the political rulers are thought to be divinely-guided, or even divine themselves is a theocracy. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Define type of government Before 3000 B.C., there was the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt. When Egypt was united, these two crowns were combined into the Double Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile

II. UNITED EGYPTS GOVERNMENT C. The Pharaoh [means, royal house] the ruler of Egypt 1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles Define Type of government where the political rulers are thought to be type of divinely-guided, or even divine themselves is a theocracy. government 2. Believed each pharaoh ruled even after death, because they all possessed the same eternal spirit = ka; and being gods, they naturally bore full responsibility for Egypts well-being. The pharaoh Akenaton and his wife-sister Nefertiti worshiping the sun god, Ra. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile

II. UNITED EGYPTS GOVERNMENT C. The Pharaoh [means, royal house] the ruler of Egypt 1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles Define Type of government where the political rulers are thought to be type of divinely-guided, or even divine themselves is a theocracy. government 2. Believed each pharaoh ruled even after death, because they all possessed the same eternal spirit = ka; and being god, naturally bore full responsibility for Egypts well-being. 3. Therefore, Pharaohs tomb very important, because it was still a place of rule. Built massive tombs called pyramids. 4. The pyramids were built mainly in the Old Kingdom Period. What do we mean by the Old Kingdom period?

The Great Pyramids at Giza. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD 2920-2575 BCE Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Menes. Foundation of the capital Memphis. Early Step Pyramid is built at Saqqara. OLD KINGDOM - 2660-2180 BCE The Great Pyramids of Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), Menkaure (Mycerinus) are built at Giza. Pyramids of Sahure, Neferirkare, Raneferef, Neuserre are built at Abusir. MIDDLE KINGDOM 2180-1550 BCE Fragmentation of centralized power. Kings in Thebes establish control over all Egypt. Chaos leads central administration in Lower Egypt to disappear following infiltration by Hyksos, an Asiatic people in the Nile Delta. Upper Egypt dominated by kings in Thebes. (CH 2 Coverage) ----------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------NEW KINGDOM 1550-1070 BCE

(CH 4 Coverage) Theban king Ahmose expels the Hyksos and reunites Egypt. Reigns of such kings as Amenhotep and Thutmose (Thutmosis). Memphis now main residential city. Ramses II (1290- 1224 BC) divides power in Middle East with the Hittites; Qantir capital of Egypt. Invasions of mysterious sea peoples wreck havoc throughout Mediterranean region. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Future history. Alexander the Great of Macedonia / Greece conquers and the Ptolemy dynasty governs; 332 30 BC After the defeat of Cleopatra, the last Ptolemy ruler, the Roman emperors exploit Egypt as the main production center of wheat, papyrus and textiles for the vast Roman Empire; 30 BC 394 AD PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile II. UNITED EGYPTS GOVERNMENT C. The Pharaoh [means, royal house] the ruler of Egypt 1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles Define

Type of government where the political rulers are thought to be type of divinely-guided, or even divine themselves is a theocracy. government 2. Believed each pharaoh ruled even after death, because they all possessed the same eternal spirit = ka; and being god, naturally bore full responsibility for Egypts well-being. 3. Therefore, Pharaohs tomb very important, because it was still a place of rule. Built massive tombs called pyramids. 4. The pyramids were built mainly in the Old Kingdom Period. What do you know? What are some leading theories about how the enormous pyramids were constructed by the Egyptians over 4,000 years ago? The Great Pyramids at Giza. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

The pyramid at Saqqara is believed by archaeologists to be one of the earliest. What is unusual about it? What clues does it offer to how the pyramids were built? WATCH VIDEO CLIP PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. A modern-day Egyptian guide uses his Coleman lantern to illuminate the amazing hieroglyphic text covering the walls deep within the tunnels below the Saqqara pyramid. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. What details do you notice and what can you infer about how this artist thinks the pyramids were built? Does this match the theory supported by the Saqqara pyramid?

An artists conception of the building of the great Khufu pyramid at Giza, Sphinx in foreground. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Sphinx and Pyramid of Khafre at Giza. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Take a panoramic view of the Sphinx at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/obelisk/explore/sphinx.html PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Polytheistic

a. Over 2,000 Ra, the sun god; Horus, sky god; Isis, mother goddess giver of life associated with Nile Above: The pantheon of Egyptian gods* Example of Religious Syncretism Right: The depiction of the seated mother holding the suckling child Horus was a Right: ofimage household gods were often on altars in Egyptian commonImages painted throughout Egypt anddisplayed is reminiscent of the

iconography of homes. This is the goddess Taweret one of the most popular. Taweret Mary and Jesus. Also, Horus, being the child of Osiris and Isis the god of the protected their children thethe risks pregnancy living andmothers

the deadand - would grow upagainst to defeat evilduring Seth and cast himand into birth. darkness. Seth eternally strives for revenge, battling Horus at every turn. When The goddess was usually as and a pregnant hippopotamus thethen limbs Horus wins, Maat

(justice)depicted is upheld the world is at peace. with Horus protects and paws of a lion and a mane in the form of a crocodile's

tail. Her frightening us in this life. Given all thatcan you see how the early Christians had an easy appearance wastheir probably meant toreligion scare away spirits. particularly after time marketing new Roman to theevil Egyptians, convincing them that Mary, mother of Jesus, was an incarnation of Isis! ca. 712 - 332 B.C. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Polytheistic a. Over 2,000 Ra, Sun god; Horus, sky god; Isis, goddess of fertility (associated with Nile mother giver of life) b. Belief in afterlife! The Funerary Scene This scene depicts what occurs after a person has died, according to the ancient Egyptians. The Egyptians had an elaborate and complex belief in the afterlife. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Egypt on the Nile A. RELIGION 1. Polytheistic a. Over 2,000 Ra, Sun god; Horus, sky god; Isis, goddess of fertility (associated with Nile mother giver of life) b. Belief in afterlife! The dead were judged by Osiris, god of the dead. Osiris would weigh each persons heart on a scale against the weight of a feather. If the heart tipped the scale, heavy with sin, the Devourer of Souls would pounce on the heart. If not, the soul would live forever in the Other World. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION

1. Polytheistic a. Over 2,000 Ra, Sun god; Horus, sky god; Isis, goddess of fertility (associated with Nile mother giver of life) b. Belief in afterlife! The dead were judged by Osiris, god of the dead. Desiring to make it to the Other World safely, Egyptians of all classes made special preparations for their burials, including mummification embalming and preserving the corpse to prevent it from decaying. (See text, p. 40 Something In Common) Above: Canopic jars for the bodys various organs. Right: Coffin of a Middle Kingdom government official. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. WATCH VIDEO CLIP The mummy of Ramses II (1304 -1237 BC ) still preserved today, 3,200 years later, at the Cairo Museum.

Annubis, god of embalming PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Young males educated as scribes paint the walls of a tomb in preparation for a burial. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Egyptian coffins PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.; photo British Museum BURIAL MASKS PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations

Egypt on the Nile III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE B. SOCIAL STRUCTURE Royal Family Upper class Landowners (become familiar with other terms for this class i.e., aristocracy or nobility) Priests Army commanders Government officials Wealthy mans house IV Royal barge of Ptolemy at Amarna. moored at Memphis.

Bas-relief of servants attending a royal lady. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE B. SOCIAL STRUCTURE Royal Family Upper class Landowners (also known as aristocracy or nobility) Priests Army commanders Government officials Middle Class Egyptian bronze spear points, 300 BCE

(merchants / artisans) Lower class (peasant farmers, unskilled laborers) Socially Mobile classes Not locked in, lower and middle classes could rise up through marriage or through merit (success). PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Beautifully carved soapstoneplay for the workers in the A. Harvesting grain; B. Musicians fields; C. Sphinx Women

storage winnowing dish. the grain; D. Scribes tally the farmers taxes; Middle E. The Kingdom farmers period son tending the livestock / cattle. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE B. SOCIETY STRUCTURE Royal Family Upper class

Landowners (also known as aristocracy or nobility) Priests Army commanders Government officials Middle Class (merchants / artisans) Lower class (peasant farmers, unskilled laborers 2. Women Sociallyhad Mobile manyclasses of the same Not rights locked as in, men, lower could

and own middle property, classes could could rise upseek through divorce. marriage or through merit (success). Later well discover a couple of women who actually ruled Egypt! PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Did you know Men and women wore makeup in Egypt. The dark-lined eyes that look out at us

from the artwork of ancient Egypt was the height of fashion and was called kohl powdered minerals mixed with water and applied with a small stick. Both genders also wore lipstick crushed red ocher (iron oxide) mixed with oil. Read text p. 37 for more cool info. about Egyptian cosmetics. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile IV. EGYPTIAN WRITING A. Pictographs developed into hieroglyphics B. Written on Papyrus, unfurled reed from the Nile, dried into strips C. Deciphering hieroglyphics The Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799 A.D. Why was the knowledge of reading hieroglyphics LOST in the first place? In the first century A.D. when Christianity arrived in Egypt,

it was common for the Christian movement to remove / destroy the religious images, writings, and priesthood of the former religion in the region. During this chaotic time of transition, the literate priests and scribes were mostly killed off and the knowledge of hieroglyphics was lost for almost 1,500 years. Read now in your textbook, p. 38 how it was that we once again broke the code and learned to read the mysterious language of the great Egyptian civilization. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799 A.D. The Rosetta Stone can be viewed by tourists today in the British Museum. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile V. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY A. Geometry, numeric system on base 10 (decimal), engineers and

architects, first to use stone columns B. Calendar C. Amazing advancements in medicine PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2 Lecture: Four Early River Valley Civilizations Egypt on the Nile VI. INVASIONS A. Old Kingdom begins to decline, ca. 2180 B.C.E. After about a century of fragmented and weak rulers, B. Middle Kingdom period rises [2080-1640 B.C.E.] - Center of power is now in Thebes in Upper Egypt rather than Lower Egypts old Memphis capital. - This is a prosperous period. Massive building projects around Thebes. Unfortunately the Egyptians took their years of

well-protected geographic isolation for granted and made little real defensive preparations should the unthinkable happen. Thebes N I L EGYP T R. The unthinkable happened. C. Invaded by the Hyksos, an Asiatic people, great chariot-riders which they introduced in Egypt for the first time. These foreigners bring the Middle Kingdom period to an end and will rule Egypt for 70 years. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. FOR TOMORROW:

Skim both Sections 3 and 4 in Chapter 2! Complete pp. 23-26 in Packet! TEST coming up Monday! PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Pre-A.P. World History Mr. Loessin; Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 The Indus Valley civilization is sometimes referred to as the Harappan civilization because of the first city (Harappa) discovered here in the 1920s. TODAYs OBJECTIVES:

Locate the Indus Valley culture and examine the impact of its geography. List theories about the decline of the Indus Valley civilization. Describe the social and religious structure of the Shang Dynasty. Summarize the rise and fall of the Zhou Dynasty in China. AGENDA: Turn only your Supplemental Article Questions in today! Please pick up handout on front table! * WARM-UP: Label the Four early River Civilizations without looking at your notes! Then, turn to p. S15 in textbook and answer the four questions on back of handout. LECTURE & DISCUSSION over Homework, CH 2, Section 3 and 4

REVIEW ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME: ALL: STUDY STUDY STUDY Your first test over Chapters 1 and 2 is Monday ! * REMINDER: TEXTBOOKS are REQUIRED in class EVERY DAY! WARM-UP: 4 early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) Egyptian Civilization - Nile River

Can you label the 4 early Harappan Civilization - Indus River River Valley Ancient China - Huang He River Civilizations on your map handout. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2: (See your Packet, p. ) The Four Early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) Egypt (Nile River) Harappan Civilization - Indus River

ENTER The ruins of Mohenjo-Daro; Indus Valley http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/map06ind.htm PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Indus Valley civilization flourished around 2,500 B.C. in the western part of South Asia, in what today is Pakistan and western India. It is often referred to as Harappan Civilization after its first discovered city, Harappa. The nearby city of MohenjoDaro is the largest and most familiar archaeological dig in this region. The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. This ancient civilization was not discovered

until the 1920's. Most of its ruins, including major cities, remain to be excavated. Left: The excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. CH 2: Sec. 3 Planned Cities on the Indus Homework packet p. 1. What challenges did the people along the Indus River face? unpredictable rivers (similar situation to Mesopotamia region) strong winds / monsoons PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. CH 2: Sec. 3 Planned Cities on the Indus Homework packet p.

Did you know? 2. Name conclusions that have been drawn Hinduism is about Indus River culture? considered to be Began farming along Indus about 3,200 B.C. the worlds oldest Size of settled region larger religion. than Egypt or Mesopotamia. Yet its origins have Careful city planners; laid out in grid long been a mystery. Indus Harappan script has not been with a defendable citadel. Engineered sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems. deciphered. Typical Harappan dwellling This means basic questions about

Peaceful people few weapons found Above: Terracota household statues the people created this such as thiswho female goddess arehighly found Similarity in housing indicates little differences complex culture frequently in the region. Is this religious between social classes. areShiva? still unanswered.

icon an early Does modern Religious objects and symbols clearly linked to Hinduism have its origins in Harappan civilization? Hinduism. Left: The excavated ruins of Mohenjodaro one of several planned cities laid out on a grid system in the Indus region. Right: The citadel at Mohenjodaro. What happened to the Harappan civilization on the Indus River?

Above: The Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro. Surrounding pics: various Harappan artifacts. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. CH 2: Sec. 3 Planned Cities on the Indus Homework packet p. 3. Name three theories about why the Indus Valley civilization ended around 1500 BCE? The river may have changed course, natural disaster (caused by heavy monsoons) The people may have overworked the land (overcutting trees, overgrazed, overfarmed land depleting nutrients) Invaders (What is the disputed (A.I.T.) Aryan Invasion Theory?) Harappans abandoning their city. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

4 early River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) Egyptian Civilization - Nile River Harappan Civilization - Indus River Ancient China - Huang He River PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chapter 2: (See your Packet, p. ) The Four Early River Valley Civilizations

Mesopotamia [Sumer] (Tigris & Euphrates Rivers) Egypt (Nile River) Indus Valley (Indus River) Ancient China (Huang He River) A Chinese junk on the Huang He today. ENTER An artist visualizes what the ancient Chinese village of Banpo on the Huang He may have looked like over 4,000 years ago. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Chinese script is unique, isnt it? Think about other elements of Chinese culture: Chinese architecture, music, technology, dress and fashion, and eastern belief systems Gobi Desert Also unique! Taklimakan Desert

Himalaya Mts. Pacific Ocean CH 2: River Dynasties in China [Packet, p. ] 1. Why did China develop apart from other cultures? Chinas geography ocean, desert, high mountains, isolated China. Isolated geographically, cut off from trade, there would be little opportunity for cultural diffusion in Chinas case. Developing in a vacuum, Chinas civilization would stand out as the most unique of our worlds early civilizations. PEACE LOVE

TOLERANCE LUCK ETERNITY Neolithic ca. 12,000 - 2000 B.C. Xia ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Shang 1700-1027 B.C. Western Zhou 1027-771 B.C. Ancient China Eastern Zhou 770-221 B.C. Warring States period 475-221 B.C.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. CH 2: River Dynasties in China [Packet, p.2. ]What were three features of Shang culture? First written records - calligraphy writing and paper making Sharp division between kings nobles and the peasants Wood used as building material (not mud-dried bricks as in other regions) Peasants used wooden tools Shang made magnificent bronze weapons and ceremonial vessels

Pics: Bronze work of the Shang period (1700-1027 B.C.). A toilet, an ax, and a cooking cauldron. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. CH 2: River Dynasties in China [Packet, ] 3.p.Name three important values of Shang culture. From very early on, the idea of the group / community more important than the idea of individual/ or any single person. Emphasis on family, respect of parents Family emphasized in religion too

ancestor worship. Oracle bones used to consult the gods Chinese writing unique to others. Symbols stood for ideas, not sounds. This allowed the many different groups who spoke different languages to all understand the same writing system. Oracle bone PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Neolithic ca. 12,000 - 2000 B.C. Xia ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Shang 1700-1027 B.C. Western Zhou 1027-771 B.C. Ancient China

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Eastern Zhou 770-221 B.C. Warring States period 475-221 B.C. CH 2: River Dynasties in China [Packet, p. ] two important changes brought about by 4. Name the Zhou. While the Zhou did simply adopt much of old Shang culture, they also did introduce new things: Above: Jade disk, Chinas Zhou period.

Below: Bronze helmet and sword, Zhou period. A new idea of royalty that claimed rulers got their authority from heaven. This was known as the Mandate from Heaven. From this time on the Chinese would believe in divine rule. This meant disasters could be blamed on the rulers and they would frequently be replaced. This led to a pattern of rise and fall of dynasties in China known as the dynastic cycle. The Zhou gave large regions of land and privileges to a select few nobles who then owed loyalty to the king in return. This type of political system the Zhou introduced is called feudalism. Zhou introduced the first coined money; improved transportation with roads and canals; improved the efficiency of government with trained workers called civil servants; and introduced the first iron-making.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Neolithic ca. 12,000 - 2000 B.C. Xia ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Shang 1700-1027 B.C. Western Zhou 1027-771 B.C. Ancient China PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. Eastern Zhou 770-221 B.C. Warring States period 475-221 B.C. The first 300 years of Zhou rule were relatively peaceful and stable.

But that changed around 771 B.C.E. as nomadic tribes invaded from the north and as the noble families began to fight for power against one another. The crossbow is introduced in China during this time of great conflict and chaos known as the Period of Warring States. Chinese values collapsed during this period of arrogance, chaos, and defiance. Will China be saved? By who? ..stay tuned. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. CHAPTER 1-2 TEST is today. Pick up your Test Answer Sheet on the front table and your new CH 3-4 Packet. You may use Pencil or Blue/Black Ink on the Test Answer Sheet. Do NOT write on the Test document. When you are finished with Test, Place the Test Document in the TOP tray, the Test Answer Sheet with your name on it in BOTTOM tray. Return to your seat and begin your homework assignment

for tomorrow: Read CH 3, Sections 1 and 2 in the textbook. Thanks, have a great Monday! To learn without thinking is fruitless; To think without learning is dangerous. Confucius Lun Yu Chap. 2

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