Health Informatics in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Short

Health Informatics in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Short

Health Informatics in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Short Course for Health Information System Professionals Introduction to Health Informatics: Information Systems Information Systems Learning Objectives Define information system, explain its purpose, and provide examples Describe the components of an information system

2 Systems A set of interacting and interdependent entities forming an integrated whole: Biological systems Sociocultural systems Computer systems Business systems Respiratory

System (clker.com, 2007, PD-US) 3 Information Systems Set of Work together for o People o Decision making

o Procedures o Management o Hardware o Operational activities o Software o Data 4

Information System Tasks Input o Data entry Processing o Data manipulation Output o Reports, summaries, other documents Feedback

5 Data Raw values collected for a purpose o Number of hours worked o Weight o Medical record number Multiple representations o Alpha-numeric o Images o Video o Audio

6 Information and Knowledge Information: Data that are organized o Relationships Knowledge: Understanding relationships within the data 7 Characteristics of Useful Information Accessible

Reliable Accurate Timely Complete Verifiable Relevant

8 Goals of the Information System Provide access to information and knowledge Provide tools for management of processes and services Enable communications and collaboration both inside and outside the institution 9 Information Systems Implementation Manual systems

o Paper, file-based systems o Users record data o Experts provide analysis Computer-based systems o Hardware, software, networks o Users record data o Computers and experts analyze data 10 Business Information Systems Transaction processing systems

Management information systems Decision support systems Enterprise resource planning systems 11 Enterprise Resource Planning (Nikos, 2011 CC BY-SA 3.0) 12 Healthcare Information Systems Hospital or clinic business information systems

Laboratory information systems Imaging information systems Scheduling systems Clinical decision support systems Electronic health records systems 13 Components of Information Systems Hardware Software Databases

Networks Processes People 14 Processes Procedures for accomplishing tasks Workflows provide a big picture of how processes are connected

Can be modeled o Use case diagrams o Activity diagrams (Dekker, 2009, CC BY-SA 3.0) 15 People: Stakeholders System owners o Interested in information, adding new business knowledge

System users o Capture, store, process, edit, and use data every day System designers o Create detailed designs System builders o Create the system 16

System Owners Usually from management Interested in the bottom line o System cost o Value or benefits returned to the business 17 System Users Majority of information workers Not concerned with costs or benefits Concerned with system functionality related to their jobs

o Ease of learning o Ease of use o Getting the job done 18 System Designers Software designers and developers Database administrators Network architects Web architects Graphic artists Security experts

19 System Builders Application programmers System programmers Database programmers System and network administrators Security administrators Webmasters System integrators 20

Project Manager Project teams require management One or more stakeholders take on the role of a project manager o Ensures on-time development o Keeps the project within budget o Maintains acceptable quality 21 Information Systems Summary

Information Systems are designed to support decision making, management, and operational activities. Information systems combine technology and people to process data and produce information. Stakeholders of an information system are owners, users, designers, and builders. 22 Information Systems

References Wikipedia. (2011, November 17). Activity diagrams. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activity_diagram Evans, A., Martin, K., & Poatsey, M. (2010). Technology in action: Complete (7th ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall. OpenERP. (2011, November 25). Retrieved from http://www.openerp.com Shelley, G., & Rosenblatt, H. (2010). Systems analysis and design (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Course Technology. Shelley, G., & Vermaat, M. (2010). Discovering computers 2011: Introductory (1st ed.). Boston, MA: Course Technology. Stair, R., & Reynolds, G. (2010). Fundamentals of information systems (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Course Technology.

23 Information Systems References UML Diagrams. (2011, September 5). UML activity diagrams. Retrieved from http://www.uml-diagrams.org/activity-diagrams.html Whitten, J., & Bentley, L. (2007). Systems analysis and design methods (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Wikipedia. (2011, November 25). Use case diagrams. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Use_case_diagram Images Respiratory system image [online image]. (2007). Retrieved from

http://www.clker.com/clipart-12109.html Info button image [online image]. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.clker.com/clipart-blue-information-glossy-button.html 24 Information Systems Images Audio file icon image [online image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.clker.com/clipart-3701.html Lightbulb image [online image]. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.clker.com/clipart-12330.html Teamwork icon image [online image]. (2007). Retrieved from

http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/File:Crystal_Clear_teamwork.png Paper and pencil image [online image]. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.clker.com/clipart-1853.html Computer image [online image]. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.clker.com/clipart-26904.html OpenERP screenshot image [online image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OpenERP_V6.png 25 Information Systems Images Use case diagram image [online image]. (2009). Retrieved from

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Use_case_restaurant_model.svg People image [online image]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.clker.com/clipart-population.html 26 This material (Comp 4 Unit 8) was developed by Oregon Health & Science University, funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number 90WT0001. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/. This presentation was produced with the support of the United

States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of MEASURE Evaluation cooperative agreement AID-OAA-L14-00004. MEASURE Evaluation is implemented by the Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partnership with ICF International; John Snow, Inc.; Management Sciences for Health; Palladium; and Tulane University. Views expressed are not necessarily those of USAID or the United States government. www.measureevaluation.org

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