Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Matter and Energy John

Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Matter and Energy John

Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Matter and Energy John Singer Jackson College 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Matter Matter is any substance that has mass and occupies volume. Matter exists in one of three physical states: 1. Solid 2. Liquid 3. Gas

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Kinetic-Molecular Theory The Kinetic-Molecular theory can be used to explain the states of matter in terms of the motions and energy of particles. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Solid State Definition Solids have a definite, fixed shape. Solids cannot be compressed and have a definite volume. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Solid State Kinetic-Molecular Theory In a solid, the particles of matter are tightly packed together. Solids have the least energy of the three states of matter. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Liquid State Definition Liquids have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container. Liquids cannot be compressed and have a definite volume. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Liquid State Kinetic-Molecular Theory In a liquid, the particles of matter are loosely packed and are free to move past one another. Liquids have less energy than gases but more energy than solids. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Gaseous State Definition Gases have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container. Gases can be compressed and have an indefinite volume. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Gaseous State Kinetic-Molecular Theory In a gas, the particles of matter are far apart and uniformly distributed throughout the container. Gases have the most energy of the three states of matter.

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical States of Matter 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Changes in Physical States Most substances can exist as either a solid, a liquid, or a gas.

For example: Water exists as a solid below 0 C; as a liquid between 0 C and 100 C; and as a gas above 100 C. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Solid Liquid Phase Changes When a solid changes to a liquid, the phase change is called melting.

A substance melts as the temperature increases. When a liquid changes to a solid, the phase change is called freezing. A substance freezes as the temperature decreases. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Liquid Gas Phase Changes When a liquid changes to a gas, the phase change is called vaporizing.

A substance vaporizes as the temperature increases. When a gas changes to a liquid, the phase change is called condensing. A substance condenses as the temperature decreases. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Solid Gas Phase Changes When a solid changes directly to a gas, the phase change is called sublimation. A substance sublimes as the temperature increases. When a gas changes directly to a solid, the phase change

is called deposition. A substance undergoes deposition as the temperature decreases. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of State Changes 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Classifications of Matter Matter can be divided into two classes: 1. Mixtures 2. Pure substances 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Classifications of Matter Mixtures are a physical blend of two or more substances and can be physically separated into its component substances. Pure substances are composed of only one substance and cannot be physically separated.

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Mixtures There are two types of mixtures: 1. Heterogeneous mixtures do not have uniform properties throughout. Sand and water is a heterogeneous mixture. 2. Homogeneous mixtures have uniform

properties throughout. Salt water is a homogeneous mixture. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Pure Substances 1. Compounds can be chemically separated into individual elements. Water is a compound that can be separated into

hydrogen and oxygen. 2. Elements cannot be broken down further by chemical reactions. The periodic table contains all the elements. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Matter Summary

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Occurrence of the Elements There are over 100 elements that occur in nature; 81 of those elements are stable. Only 10 elements account for more than 95% of the mass of Earths crust, water, and atmosphere:

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Elements in the Human Body Oxygen is the most common element in Earths crust and in the human body. While silicon is the second most abundant element in Earths crust, carbon is the second most abundant in the body.

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Names of the Elements Each element has a unique name. Names have several origins. Hydrogen is derived from Greek. Carbon is derived from Latin. Curium is named for Marie Curie. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Element Symbols Each element is abbreviated using a oneor two-letter chemical symbol. Note: When a symbol has two letters, the first is capitalized, and the second is lowercase. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Other Element Symbols For some elements, the chemical symbol is derived from the original Latin name. Gold Au Sodium Na Silver Ag

Antimony Sb Copper Cu Tin Sn 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Names of Elements

Many metals have names that end in ium. For example: magnesium, chromium, titanium 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Elements Elements can be divided into three classes:

1. Metals 2. Nonmetals 3. Semimetals or metalloids 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Metal Properties Metals are typically solids with high melting points and high densities and have a bright,

metallic luster. Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. Metals are also ductile and malleable. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Nonmetal Properties Nonmetals typically have low melting points

and low densities and have a dull appearance. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Nonmetals are not malleable or ductile and crush into a powder when hammered. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Semimetal or Metalloid Properties Semimetals typically exhibit properties of both metals and nonmetals. For example: Silicon is a semiconductor and will only conduct electricity under some conditions. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Properties

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Periodic Table of the Elements Each element is assigned a number to identify it. It is called the atomic number. The elements are arranged by atomic

number on the periodic table. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. The Periodic Table 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals

Metals are on the left side of the periodic table, nonmetals are on the right side, and semimetals are between. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical States of the Elements Shown are the physical states of the elements at 25 C on the periodic table.

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemistry Connection: Elements 104 and Beyond Scientists continue to discover new, heavier elements beyond the current periodic table. Sometimes disagreements arise over naming of the new elements. IUPAC assigns names to new elements.

Until IUPAC assigns a name, the elements are named using Latin prefixes for the numbers followed by the suffix ium. Hence, element 104 is unnilquadium. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Law of Definite Composition The law of definite composition states that

Compounds always contain the same elements in a constant proportion by mass. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Law of Definite Composition 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemical Formulas A unit of matter composed of two or more nonmetal atoms is a molecule. A chemical formula is an expression of the number of atoms of each element in a compound. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemical Formulas The chemical formula of sulfuric acid is H2SO4. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Writing Chemical Formulas The number of each type of atom in a

molecule is indicated with a subscript in a chemical formula. If there is only one atom of a certain type, no 1 is used. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Writing Chemical Formulas A molecule of vitamin B3 has 6 carbon atoms,

6 hydrogen atoms, 2 nitrogen atoms, and 1 oxygen atom. What is the chemical formula? C6H6N2O 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Interpreting Chemical Formulas Some chemical formulas use parentheses to clarify atomic composition.

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical and Chemical Properties A physical property is a characteristic of a pure substance that we can observe without changing its composition. Physical properties include appearance, melting and boiling points, density, heat and

electrical conductivity, solubility, and physical state. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical and Chemical Properties A chemical property of a pure substance

describes its chemical reactions with other substances. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical and Chemical Change A physical change is a change where the

chemical composition of the sample does not change. These include changes in physical state or shape of a pure substance. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical and Chemical Change A chemical change is a chemical reaction. The composition of the sample changes

during a chemical change. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Evidence for Chemical Changes Gas release (bubbles) Light or release of heat energy A permanent color change

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Conservation of Mass Antoine Lavoisier found that the mass of reactants before a chemical change was always equal to the mass of products after a chemical change. This is the law of conservation of mass.

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Potential and Kinetic Energy Potential energy, PE: stored energy; results from position or composition Kinetic energy, KE: the energy matter has as a result of its motion 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Energy 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. KE, Temperature, and Physical State All substances have kinetic energy regardless of their physical state. Solids have the lowest kinetic energy, and gases

have the greatest kinetic energy. Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of a system. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Law of Conservation of Energy Just like matter, energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from

one form to another. This is the law of conservation of energy. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Forms of Energy There are six forms of energy: 1. Heat 2. Light

3. Chemical 4. Electrical 5. Mechanical 6. Nuclear 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy and Chemical Changes In a chemical change, energy is transformed from

one form to another. For example: 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Critical Thinking: Lower Gasoline Bills In terms of expense, is it better to fill a gas tank in the cool morning or in the warm afternoon? No matter the temperature, the number of gallons delivered is always the same.

When the temperature is lower, a greater mass of gasoline is delivered for the same volume. However, the difference in mass between 40 F and 70 F is only about 1%. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy Mass and energy are related by Einsteins theory

of relativity, E = mc2. Mass and energy can be interchanged. The law of conservation of mass and energy states that the total mass and energy of the universe is constant. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter Summary Matter exists in three physical states: 1. Solid 2. Liquid

3. Gas Substances can be converted between the three states. Substances can be mixtures or pure substances. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter Summary, Continued Pure substances can be either compounds or elements. The elements are arranged in the periodic table. Each element has a name and a one- or two-letter symbol. Elements are classified as either metals, nonmetals, or semimetals.

2018 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Summary, Continued A physical change is a change in physical state or shape. A chemical change is a change in the chemical composition of a substance. Both mass and energy are conserved in chemical

and physical changes. 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

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