Liver Cirrhosis K. Dionne Posey, MD, MPH Internal Medicine & Pediatrics December 9, 2004 Introduction The two most common causes in the United
States are alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C, which together account for almost one-half of those undergoing transplantation Introduction 12th leading cause of death in the united
states in 2002 On average about 27,000 deaths per year Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to a variety of complications and their life expectancy is markedly reduced Exactly How Much Do You Drink?
Estimated that the development of cirrhosis requires, on average, the ingestion of 80 grams of ethanol daily for 10 to 20 years This corresponds to approximately one liter of wine, eight standard sized beers, or one half pint of hard liquor each day Pathophysiology
Irreversible chronic injury of the hepatic parenchyma Extensive fibrosis - distortion of the hepatic architecture Formation of regenerative nodules
Clinical Manifestations Spider angiomas Palmar erythema Nail changes Muehrcke's nails
Terrys nails Gynecomastia Testicular atrophy Clinical Manifestations
Muehrcke's nails Terrys nails Clinical Manifestations
Splenomegaly Caput medusa Laboratory Studies most common measured laboratory test classified as LFTs include the enzyme tests (principally the serum
aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase), the serum bilirubin tests of synthetic function (principally the serum albumin concentration and prothrombin time) Radiologic Modalities Can occasionally suggest the presence of
cirrhosis, they are not adequately sensitive or specific for use as a primary diagnostic modality Major utility of radiography in the evaluation of the cirrhotic patient is in its ability to detect complications of cirrhosis Diagnosis
Liver biopsy Obtained by either a percutaneous, transjugular, laparoscopic, or radiographicallyguided fine-needle approach Sensitivity of a liver biopsy for cirrhosis is in the range of 80 to 100 percent depending upon the method used, and the size and number of specimens obtained
Diagnosis not necessary if the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic data strongly suggest the presence of cirrhosis liver biopsy can reveal the underlying cause of cirrhosis Histopathology
Micronodular cirrhosis Nodules less than 3 mm in diameter Believed to be caused by alcohol, hemochromatosis, cholestatic causes of cirrhosis, and hepatic venous outflow obstruction Morphologic Classification
Macronodular cirrhosis Nodules larger than 3 mm Believed to be secondary to chronic viral hepatitis
Morphologic Classification Relatively nonspecific with regard to etiology The morphologic appearance of the liver may change as the liver disease progresses micronodular cirrhosis usually progresses to macronodular
cirrhosis Serological markers available today are more specific than morphological appearance of the liver for determining the etiology of cirrhosis
Accurate assessment of liver morphology may only be achieved at surgery, laparoscopy, or autopsy Evaluation of Cirrhosis Complications
Ascites Accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity Most common complication of cirrhosis Two-year survival of patients with ascites is approximately 50 percent
Ascites Assessment of ascites Grading Grade 1 mild; Detectable only by US Grade 2 moderate; Moderate symmetrical distension of the abdomen
Grade 3 large or gross asites with marked abdominal distension Older system -subjective 1+ minimal, barely detectable 2+ moderate 3+ massive, not tense 4+massive and tense Ascites
Imaging studies for confirmation of ascites Ultrasound is probably the most cost-effective modality Ascites Who gets a belly tap?
What do I want to order ? Ascites Treatment aimed at the underlying cause of the hepatic disease and at the ascitic fluid itself Dietary sodium restriction
Limiting sodium intake to 88 meq (2000 mg) per day Ascites The most successful therapeutic regimen is the combination of single morning oral doses of Spironolactone and Furosemide, beginning with 100 mg and 40 mg
Two major concerns with diuretic therapy for cirrhotic ascites: Overly rapid removal of fluid Progressive electrolyte imbalance Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
Infection of ascitic fluid Almost always seen in the setting of endstage liver disease The diagnosis is established by A positive ascitic fluid bacterial culture Elevated ascitic fluid absolute
Abdominal pain Abdominal tenderness Altered mental status Hepatorenal syndrome acute renal failure coupled with advanced hepatic disease (due to cirrhosis or less often metastatic tumor or
severe alcoholic hepatitis) characterized by: Oliguria benign urine sediment very low rate of sodium excretion progressive rise in the plasma creatinine concentration
Hepatorenal Syndrome Reduction in GFR often clinically masked Prognosis is poor unless hepatic function improves Nephrotoxic agents and overdiuresis can precipitate HRS
Variceal hemorrhage Occurs in 25 to 40 percent of patients with cirrhosis Prophylactic measures Screening EGD recommended for all cirrhotic patients Hepatopulmonary syndrome
Hepatopulmonary syndrome Liver disease Increased alveolar-arterial gradient while breathing room air Evidence for intrapulmonary vascular abnormalities, referred to as intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVDs)
Hepatic Hydrothorax Pleural effusion in a patient with cirrhosis and no evidence of underlying cardiopulmonary disease
Movement of ascitic fluid into the pleural space through defects in the diaphragm, and is usually right-sided Diagnosis -pleural fluid analysis reveals a transudative fluid serum to fluid albumin gradient greater than 1.1 Hepatic hydrothorax
Confirmatory study: Scintigraphic studies demonstrate tracer in the chest cavity after injection into the peritoneal cavity Treatment options:
diuretic therapy periodic thoracentesis TIPS Portopulmonary HTN Refers to the presence of pulmonary hypertension in the coexistent portal hypertension Prevalence in cirrhotic patients is
approximately 2 percent Diagnosis: Suggested by echocardiography Confirmed by right heart catheterization Hepatic Encephalopathy
Spectrum of potentially reversible neuropsychiatric abnormalities seen in patients with liver dysfunction
Monitoring for events likely to precipitate HE [i.E.- variceal bleeding, infection (such as SBP), the administration of sedatives, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia] Reduction of ammoniagenic substrates
Lactulose / lactitol Dietary restriction of protein Zinc and melatonin Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with cirrhosis have a markedly increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma Incidence in well compensated cirrhosis is
approximately 3 percent per year Hepatocellular Carcinoma Symptoms are largely due to mass effect from the tumor Pain, early satiety, obstructive jaundice, and a palpable
mass Serum AFP greater than 500 micrograms/l in a patient with cirrhosis are virtually diagnostic Median survival following diagnosis is approximately 6 to 20 months
Prognostic Tools MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) Identify patients whose predicted survival postprocedure would be three months or less
MELD = 3.8[serum bilirubin (mg/dL)] + 11.2[INR] + 9.6[serum creatinine (mg/dL)] + 6.4 Prognostic Tools Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score initially designed to stratify the risk of portacaval shunt surgery in cirrhotic patients
based upon five parameters: serum bilirubin, serum albumin, prothrombin time, ascites and encephalopathy good predictor of outcome in patients with complications of portal hypertension Prognostic Tools
APACHE III (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation system) Designed to predict an individual's risk of dying in the hospital Treatment Options The major goals of treating the cirrhotic
patient include: Slowing or reversing the progression of liver disease Preventing superimposed insults to the liver Preventing and treating the complications Determining the appropriateness and optimal timing for liver transplantation Liver Transplantation
Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for patients with decompensated cirrhosis Depends upon the severity of disease, quality of life and the absence of contraindications Liver Transplantation
Minimal criteria for listing cirrhotic patients on the liver transplantation list include A child-Pugh score 7 Less than 90 percent chance of surviving one year without a transplant An episode of gastrointestinal hemorrhage related to portal hypertension
An episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Vaccinations Hepatitis A and B Pneumococcal vaccine Influenza vaccination Surveillance
Screening recommendations: serum AFP determinations and ultrasonography every six months Avoidance of Superimposed Insults
Avoidance of: Alcohol Acetaminophen Herbal medications References Up to Date Harrisons
New England Journal http://www.openclinical.org/aisp_apache.html Nail abnormalities: clues to systemic disease, American Family Physician, March 15, 2004 Robert Fawcett
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