History of the English Language A short history

History of the English Language A short history

History of the English Language A short history of the origins and development of English The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th

century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic

speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from Englaland and their language was called Englisc - from which the words England and English are derived.

Old English (450-1100 AD) Part of Beowulf, a poem written in Old English. The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Old English

did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. The words be,

strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until around 1100. Middle English (1100-1500) An example of Middle English by Chaucer. An example of Middle English by Chaucer.

In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the

ruling and business classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This

language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (c13401400), but it would still be difficult for native English speakers to understand today Modern English Early Modern English (1500-1800) Late Modern English (1800-Present)

Early Modern English Hamlet's famous "To be, or not to be" lines, written in Early Modern English by Shakespeare. Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in

pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. This, and the Renaissance of Classical

learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read.

Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published.

Late Modern English The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words;

secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries. Varieties of English From around 1600, the English

colonization of North America resulted in the creation of a distinct American variety of English. Some English pronunciations and words "froze" when they reached America. In some ways, American English is more like the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is.

Some expressions that the British call "Americanisms" are in fact original British expressions that were preserved in the colonies while lost for a time in Britain (for example trash for rubbish, loan as a verb instead of lend, and fall for autumn;

another example, frame-up, was reimported into Britain through Hollywood gangster movies). Spanish also had an influence on American English (and subsequently British English), with words like canyon, ranch, stampede and vigilante being examples of Spanish words that

entered English through the settlement of the American West. French words (through Louisiana) and West African words (through the slave trade) also influenced American English (and so, to an extent, British English). Today, American English is particularly

influential, due to the USA's dominance of cinema, television, popular music, trade and technology (including the Internet). But there are many other varieties of English around the world, including for example Australian English, New Zealand English, Canadian English, South African

English, Indian English and Caribbean English

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • What is the difference between the SAT and the ACT?

    What is the difference between the SAT and the ACT?

    Grade 12. Talk to you counselor for more details. Working Papers. ct.gov/dol. Promise of Employment. Letter . Where do you get it? ... th, 2017. Financial Aid Night, ELHS auditorium, 6:30pm (FAFSA) February 1st, 2018. Junior College Planning Parent Night.
  • Bertolt Brecht E. Napp Because things are the

    Bertolt Brecht E. Napp Because things are the

    -Begins with an explicit, analytical, and comprehensive thesis-Deals with all aspects of the question-Gives ample historical evidence to back up thesis-Creatively links topic to relevant ideas, trends, and events. E. Napp. Key Ingredients.
  • Prezentacja programu PowerPoint

    Prezentacja programu PowerPoint

    Early plant succession in the post brown cole miningareaChickenCreak. 2005. 2010. Successionstarts with colonisingspecies from a . regional. species. pool. and from the initial
  • Enhancing Person-Centred Care through ResearchBased Drama Christine Jonas-Simpson,

    Enhancing Person-Centred Care through ResearchBased Drama Christine Jonas-Simpson,

    Christine Jonas-Simpson, Ph.D., Sherry L. Dupuis, Ph.D., Gail Mitchell, Ph.D., Colleen Whyte, Ph.D.(c), Jennifer Gillies, Ph.D., and Jennifer Carson, Ph.D.(c) We declare no conflict of Interest. I'm Still Here Clip from ISH The Long Good-Bye The 36 Hour Day the...
  • Palainke (slane i slatke) Tijesto za palainke Tajne

    Palainke (slane i slatke) Tijesto za palainke Tajne

    Palačinkice treba da budu prečnika 7-8 cm i debljine oko 0.5 cm što se postiže polaganim sipanjem na tiganj. Prže se samo dok ne porumene sa jedne strane i onda polako prevrću lopaticom. Voće daje kiseljkast ukus, ali i sočnost....
  • Manulife Vitality TM An innovative approach to Health

    Manulife Vitality TM An innovative approach to Health

    {Public: Manulife Vitality is a proof point in our shared value, improving lives of Canadians} During today's presentation, I am not going to talk about the product specific details, how the pricing works, or how the rewards are earned.
  • Shinyeyes ArtMostTM System - ArtMost Oceania

    Shinyeyes ArtMostTM System - ArtMost Oceania

    If Back Vertex Distance = 12mm, BVS=-9.25D. CL Calcs® in iTune App Store or conversion Table. After determine k-code, the next step is to find power code. Power code can be calculated from patient's spectacle refraction result. Please note that...
  • E-commerce systems

    E-commerce systems

    E-payment systems To transfer money over the Internet Methods of traditional payment Check, credit card, or cash Methods of electronic payment Electronic cash, software wallets, smart cards, and credit/debit cards Scrip is digital cash minted by third-party organizations Requirements for...