Chapter 7: IP Addressing CCNA Routing and Switching

Chapter 7: IP Addressing CCNA Routing and Switching

Chapter 7: IP Addressing CCNA Routing and Switching Introduction to Networks v6.0 Chapter 7 - Sections & Objectives 7.1 IPv4 Network Addresses Explain the use of IPv4 addresses to provide connectivity in small to medium-sized business networks Convert between binary and decimal numbering systems. Describe the structure of an IPv4 address including the network portion, the host portion, and the subnet mask. Compare the characteristics and uses of the unicast, broadcast and multicast IPv4 addresses. Explain public, private, and reserved IPv4 addresses.

7.2 IPv6 Network Addresses Configure IPv6 addresses to provide connectivity in small to medium-sized business networks. Explain the need for IPv6 addressing. Describe the representation of an IPv6 address. Compare types of IPv6 network addresses. Configure global unicast addresses. Describe multicast addresses. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2 Chapter 7 - Sections & Objectives (Cont.)

7.3 Connectivity Verification Use common testing utilities to verify and test network connectivity. Explain how ICMP is used to test network connectivity. Use ping and traceroute utilities to test network connectivity. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3 7.1 IPv4 Network Addresses 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4 Binary and Decimal Conversion

IPv4 Addresses Binary numbering system consists of the numbers 0 and 1 called bits IPv4 addresses are expressed in 32 binary bits divided into 4 8-bit octets 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5 Binary and Decimal Conversion IPv4 Addresses (Cont.) IPv4 addresses are commonly expressed in dotted decimal notation 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

6 Binary and Decimal Conversion Positional Notation The first row identifies the number base or radix. Decimal is 10. Binary is based on 2, therefore radix will be 2 The 2nd row considers the position of the number starting with 0. These numbers also represent the exponential value that will be used to calculate the positional value (4th row).

The 3rd row calculates the positional value by taking the radix and raising it by the exponential value of its position. Note: n^0 is always = 1. Applying decimal positional notation The positional value is listed in the fourth row. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7

Binary and Decimal Conversion Positional Notation (Cont.) Applying binary positional notation. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8 Binary and Decimal Conversion Binary to Decimal Conversion To convert a binary IPv4 address to decimal enter the 8-bit binary number of each octet under the positional value of row 1 and then calculate to produce the decimal.

2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9 Binary and Decimal Conversion Decimal to Binary Conversion To convert a decimal IPv4address to binary use the positional chart and check first if the number is greater than the 128 bit. If no a 0 is placed in this position. If yes then a 1 is placed in this position. 128 is subtracted from the original

number and the remainder is then checked against the next position (64) If it is less than 64 a 0 is placed in this position. If it is greater, a 1 is placed in this position and 64 is subtracted. The process repeats until all positional values have been entered. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10 Binary and Decimal Conversion

Decimal to Binary Conversion Examples 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11 IPv4 Address Structure Network and Host Portions An IPv4 address is hierarchical. Composed of a Network portion and Host portion. All devices on the same network

must have the identical network portion. The Subnet Mask helps devices identify the network portion and host portion. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12 IPv4 Address Structure The Subnet Mask Three IPv4 addresses must be

configured on a host: Unique IPv4 address of the host. Subnet mask - identifies the network/host portion of the IPv4 address. Default gateway -IP address of the local router interface. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13 IPv4 Address Structure The Subnet Mask (Cont.) The IPv4 address is compared to the subnet mask bit by bit, from left to right.

A 1 in the subnet mask indicates that the corresponding bit in the IPv4 address is a network bit. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14 IPv4 Address Structure Logical AND A logical AND is one of three basic binary operations used in digital logic. Used to determine the Network

Address The Logical AND of two bits yields the following results: 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15 IPv4 Address Structure The Prefix Length The Prefix Length: Shorthand method of expressing the subnet mask.

Equals the number of bits in the subnet mask set to 1. Written in slash notation, / followed by the number of network bits. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16 IPv4 Address Structure Network, Host, and Broadcast Addresses Types of Addresses in Network 192.168.10.0/24

Network Address - host portion is all 0s (.00000000) First Host address - host portion is all 0s and ends with a 1 (.00000001) Last Host address - host portion is all 1s and ends with a 0 (.11111110) Broadcast Address - host portion is all 1s (.11111111) 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Static IPv4 Address Assignment to a Host

Some devices like printers, servers and network devices require a fixed IP address. Hosts in a small network can also be configured with static addresses. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Dynamic IPv4 Address Assignment to a Host Most networks use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign IPv4 addresses dynamically.

The DHCP server provides an IPv4 address, subnet mask, default gateway, and other configuration information. DHCP leases the addresses to hosts for a certain length of time. If the host is powered down or taken off the network, the address is returned to the pool for reuse. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast IPv4 Communication

Unicast one to one communication. Broadcast one to all. Multicast one to a select group. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast

Unicast Transmission Unicast one to one communication. Use the address of the destination device as the destination address. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Broadcast Transmission Broadcast one to all Message sent to everyone in the

LAN (broadcast domain.) destination IPv4 address has all ones (1s) in the host portion. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Multicast Transmission Multicast one to a select group. 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 addresses reserved for multicast. routing protocols use multicast

transmission to exchange routing information. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23 Types of IPv4 Addresses Public and Private IPv4 Addresses Private Addresses Not routable Introduced in mid 1990s due to depletion of IPv4 addresses Used only in internal networks. Must be translated to a public IPv4 to be routable.

Defined by RFC 1918 Private Address Blocks 10.0.0.0 /8 or 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0 /12 or 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255192.168.0.0 /16 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24 Types of IPv4 Addresses Special User IPv4 Addresses Loopback addresses (127.0.0.0 /8 or 127.0.0.1)

Used on a host to test if the TCP/IP configuration is operational. Link-Local addresses (169.254.0.0 /16 or 169.254.0.1) Commonly known as Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) addresses. Used by Windows client to self configure if no DHCP server available. TEST-NET addresses (192.0.2.0/24 or 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255) Used for teaching and learning. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

25 Types of IPv4 Addresses Legacy Classful Addressing In 1981, Internet IPv4 addresses were assigned using classful addressing (RFC 790) Network addresses were based on 3 classes: Class A (0.0.0.0/8 to 127.0.0.0/8) Designed to support extremely large networks with more than 16 million host addresses. Class B (128.0.0.0 /16 191.255.0.0 /16) Designed to support the needs of moderate to large size networks up to approximately 65,000

host addresses. Class C (192.0.0.0 /24 223.255.255.0 /24) Designed to support small networks with a maximum of 254 hosts. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26 Types of IPv4 Addresses Classless Addressing Classful Addressing wasted addresses and exhausted the availability of IPv4 addresses. Classless Addressing Introduced in the

1990s Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR, pronounced cider) Allowed service providers to allocate IPv4 addresses on any address bit boundary (prefix length) instead of only by a class A, B, or C. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27 Types of IPv4 Addresses Assignment of IP Addresses

The following organizations manage and maintain IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for the various regions. American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)- North America. Rseaux IP Europeans (RIPE) - Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) - Asia and Pacific regions African Network Information Centre (AfriNIC) Africa Regional Latin-American and Caribbean IP Address Registry (LACNIC) - Latin America and some Caribbean islands 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

28 7.2 IPv6 Network Addresses 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29 IPv4 Issues The Need for IPv6 IPv6 versus IPv4: Has a larger 128-bit address space 340 undecillion addresses Solves limitations with IPv4

Adds enhancement like address autoconfiguration. Why IPv6 is needed: Rapidly increasing Internet population Depletion of IPv4 Issues with NAT Internet of Things 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30 IPv4 Issues IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence Migration from IPv4 to IPv6 Techniques

Dual stack - Devices run both IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks simultaneously. Tunneling - The IPv6 packet is encapsulated inside an IPv4 packet. Translation - Network Address Translation 64 (NAT64) allows IPv6-enabled devices to communicate with IPv4 devices. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

31 IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Address Representation IPv6 Addresses: 128 bits in length Every 4 bits is represented by a single hexadecimal digit Hextet - unofficial term referring to a segment of 16 bits or four hexadecimal values. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

32 IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Address Representation (Cont.) Preferred format for IPv6 representation 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33 IPv6 Addressing Rule 1 Omit Leading 0s In order to reduce or compress IPv6

First rule is to omit leading zeros in any hextet. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34 IPv6 Addressing Rule 2 Omit All 0 Segments Rule 2 Omit All 0 Segments A double colon (::) can replace any single, contiguous string of one or more 16-bit segments (hextets) consisting of all 0s. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

35 IPv6 Addressing Rule 2 Omit All 0 Segments (Cont.) Rule 2 Omit All 0 Segments A double colon (::) can replace any single, contiguous string of one or more 16-bit segments (hextets) consisting of all 0s. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36 Types of IPv6 Addresses

IPv6 Address Types Three types of IPv6 addresses: Unicast- Single source IPv6 address. Multicast - An IPv6 multicast address is used to send a single IPv6 packet to multiple destinations. Anycast - An IPv6 anycast address is any IPv6 unicast address that can be assigned to multiple devices. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37 Types of IPv6 Addresses

IPv6 Prefix Length The IPv6 prefix length is used to indicate the network portion of an IPv6 address: The prefix length can range from 0 to 128. Typical IPv6 prefix length for most LANs is /64 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38 Types of IPv6 Addresses IPv6 Unicast Addresses Global Unicast - These are globally unique, Internet routable addresses. Link-local - used to

communicate with other devices on the same local link. Confined to a single link. Unique Local - used for local addressing within a site or between a limited number of sites. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39 Types of IPv6 Addresses IPv6 Link-Local Unicast Addresses IPv6 link-local addresses:

Enable a device to communicate with other IPv6-enabled devices on the same link only. Are created even if the device has not been assigned a global unicast IPv6 address. Are in the FE80::/10 range. Note: Typically, it is the link-local address of the router that is used as the default gateway for other devices on the link. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40 IPv6 Unicast Addresses

Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address Currently, only global unicast addresses with the first three bits of 001 or 2000::/3 are being assigned A global unicast address has three parts: Global routing prefix - network, portion of the address that is assigned by the provider. Typically /48. Subnet ID Used to subnet within an organization. Interface ID - equivalent to the host portion of an IPv4 address.

2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Router Configuration: Similar commands to IPv4, replace IPv4 with IPv6 Command to configure andIPv6 global unicast on an interface is ipv6 address ipv6-address/prefixlength 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

42 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address (Cont.) Host Configuration: Manually configuring the IPv6 address on a host is similar to configuring an IPv4 address Default gateway address can be configured to match the link-local or global unicast address of the Gigabit Ethernet interface. Dynamic assignment of IPv6 addresses:

Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) Stateful DHCPv6 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Dynamic Configuration - SLAAC Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC): A device can obtain its prefix, prefix length, default gateway address, and other information from an IPv6

router. Uses the local routers ICMPv6 Router Advertisement (RA) messages ICMPv6 RA messages sent every 200 seconds to all IPv6-enabled devices on the network. Option 1 (SLAAC Only) "I'm everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)" Option 2 (SLAAC and DHCPv6) "Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server." Option 3 (DHCPv6 Only) "I cant help you. Ask a DHCPv6 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

44 server for all your information." IPv6 Unicast Addresses Dynamic Configuration DHCPv6 The RA Option 1: SLAAC only (this is the default) RA Option 2: SLAAC and Stateless DHCPv6: Uses SLAAC for IPv6 global unicast address and default gateway. Uses a stateless DHCPv6 server for other information.

RA Option 3: Stateful DHCPv6 Uses the Routers link-local address for the default gateway. Uses DHCPv6 for all other information. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45 IPv6 Unicast Addresses EUI-64 Process and Randomly Generated When the RA message is SLAAC or SLAAC with stateless DHCPv6, the client

must generate its own Interface ID The Interface ID can be created using the EUI-64 process or a randomly generated 64bit number An EUI-64 Interface ID is represented in binary and is made up of three parts: 24-bit OUI from the client MAC address, but the 7th bit (the Universally/Locally (U/L) bit) is reversed. The inserted 16-bit value FFFE (in hexadecimal). 24-bit Device Identifier from the client MAC address. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

46 IPv6 Unicast Addresses EUI-64 Process and Randomly Generated (Cont.) Randomly Generated Interface IDs Windows uses a randomly generated Interface ID 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Dynamic Link-Local Addresses Link-local address can be established dynamically or configured manually.

Cisco IOS routers use EUI-64 to generate the Interface ID for all link-local address on IPv6 interfaces. Drawback to using the dynamically assigned link-local address is the long interface ID, therefore they are often configured statically. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Static Link-Local Addresses Manual Configuration of the link-local address allows the creation of a simple, easy to

remember address. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Verifying IPv6 Address Configuration The commands to verify IPv6 configuration are similar to IPv4 show ipv6 interface brief show ipv6 route The ping command for IPv6 is identical to the command used with IPv4, except that an IPv6 address is used.

2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50 IPv6 Multicast Addresses Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses There are two types of IPv6 multicast addresses: Assigned multicast - reserved multicast addresses for predefined groups of devices Solicited node multicast Two common IPv6 assigned multicast

groups: FF02::1 All-nodes multicast group This is a multicast group that all IPv6-enabled devices join. Similar to a broadcast in IPv4 FF02::2 All-routers multicast group This is a multicast group that all IPv6 routers join. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51 IPv6 Multicast Addresses Solicited-Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses Solicited-node multicast address: Mapped to .a special Ethernet multicast address

Allows Ethernet NIC to filter frame on destination MAC. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52 7.3 Connectivity Verification 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53 ICMP ICMPv4 and ICMPv6

ICMPv4 is the messaging protocol for IPv4. ICMPv6 provides the same services for IPv6 ICMP messages common to both include: Host confirmation Destination or Service Unreachable Time exceeded Route redirection 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 54

ICMP ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages ICMPv6 includes four new protocols as part of the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND or NDP) Router Solicitation (RS) message Router Advertisement (RA) message RA messages used to provide addressing information to hosts Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message Neighbor Advertisement (NA) message Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor

Advertisement messages are used for Address resolution and Duplicate Address Detection (DAD). 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 55 Testing and Verification Ping - Testing the Local Stack Ping the local loopback address of 127.0.0.1 for IPv4 or ::1 for IPv6 to verify that IP is properly installed on the host.

2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 56 Testing and Verification Ping Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN Use ping to test the ability of a host to communicate on the local network. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 57

Testing and Verification Ping Testing Connectivity to a Remote Host Use ping to test the ability of a host to communicate across an internetwork. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 58 Testing and Verification Traceroute Testing the Path

Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that generates a list of hops that were successfully reached along the path. Round Trip Time (RTT) Time it takes the packet to reach the remote host and for the response from the host to return. Asterisk (*) is used to indicate a lost packet. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 59 7.4 Chapter Summary

2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 60 Conclusion Chapter 7: IP Addressing Explain the use of IPv4 addresses to provide connectivity in small to medium-sized business networks Configure IPv6 addresses to provide connectivity in small to medium-sized business networks. Use common testing utilities to verify and test network connectivity. 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

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