Cobalt- 60 Transportation WNA Meeting Singapore 2013 April 8 - 9 Paul Gray; Chairman, ISSPA ; V.P. External Relationships and Logistics, Nordion Inc. www.nordion.com Nordion Inc. Based in Ottawa, Canada. Worlds leading supplier of Cobalt-60 for more than 50 years. Recognized as a global authority in the design, manufacture and shipment of
Cobalt-60 and Cobalt-60 transport containers Regularly work with national and international (i.e. IAEA, IMO, etc.) organizations as a technical expert Regularly ship through Port of Singapore en route to various Asia-Pacific countries and to customers in Singapore Nordion has always had a policy of returning all supplied sources to Canada at their end of life The process of return is arranged between Nordion and the customer as part of the contract
2 Cobalt - 60 Cobalt-60 pencils emit gamma radiation - this energy is harnessed to eliminate pathogens and microbes
Cobalt-60: - A solid metal - Non-fissionable - Non-soluble - Non-dispersible - Non-flammable - Long half life - Large quantities per container - Sources and containers licensed - 5.25 year half-life 3 Cobalt- 60 Sources
4 Importance of Cobalt - 60 Sources Cobalt - 60 sources are used to sterilize approximately 45% of all single-use medical supplies in the world An estimated 80% of all surgical gloves are sterilized with Cobalt- 60 Certain products can only be sterilized with Cobalt - 60 Many products are optimally sterilized with Cobalt - 60 Sterilization of lab ware necessary for drug development and delivery Enhancement of food safety and preservation (spices, fruit, vegetables, seafood, etc.) Increase in sterilization demand due to an aging population, greater access to health care and increased risk of contamination of foodstuffs with disease causing bacteria
Sterilization is a critical process in the medical products manufacturing industry 5 F-168: Type B(U) Package Type B(U) Package: Large dimensions, weight and radioisotope holding capacity Cobalt-60 to sterilization facilities: - ports for export to overseas destinations - road/ocean shipments for sterilization
6 F-168 Package: Layers of Protection Steel-covered insulated fire shields for thermal protection 3 9 .8 8 in . ( 1 0 1 3 m m ) 5 7 .3 1 in . ( 1 4 5 6 m m ) Steel fins dissipate heat during normal conditions of transport and provide impact protection
8 .0 in . Cage containing double-encapsulated sealed sources (2 0 3 m m ) 8 . 0 in . (2 0 3 m m ) 11 inches (270 mm) of lead shielding, encased in steel for radiation protection
5 4 .0 in . (1 3 7 2 m m ) Weight: 5,445 kg (12,000 lbs) 7 F-168 Container Design Shielding 8 F-168 Container Design - Plug 9 Type B Package Testing
Several tests are required for licensing a Type B package - 9 meter drop test - Pin drop test - Thermal test No loss of radioactive material is allowed following container or source testing 10 Other Package Tests Ship-to-ship collisions and on-board fires were not more severe than IAEA tests IAEA simulated tests.
Collision against a hard wall with a transportation cask at a speed of 80 mph (~130 km/hr) U.S. test. Locomotive collision with cask at a speed of 100 mph (~160 km/hr) U.K. test. These extra-regulatory tests show that the IAEA test for demonstrating the packages ability to withstand the accident conditions of transport are equivalent to or more robust than actual and simulated accident scenarios. 11 Sea Freight Container Handling Containers must be able to withstand worst-case potential accident
conditions 12 Package Licensing F-168 packages licensed by Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and other competent authorities (NRC, DOT, etc.) Designed to contain large quantities of radioactive material and must meet the
Accident Conditions of Transport standard Sealed source pencils: approx. 0.5 diameter x 18 length Container: approx. 45 diameter x 62 height (not incl. shipping skid) 13 Regulatory Control All aspects of Cobalt - 60 source and container design, production, facility, carrier and transportation are highly regulated and licenced IAEA Code of Conduct and Import / Export Controls in
place globally Highly trained, validated and licenced supply chain with specialist knowledge in handling and carriage of Cobalt 60 Route controls and approval Nordion support throughout process 14 Sea Freight Shipping Container Preparation Proper Blocking and Bracing is designed by a licensed Freight Handler under contract with Nordion. This system is designed utilizing input
from IMO standards and engineering calculations based on internationally accepted standards. This container preparation is to be left in place for return shipments of Class 7 material F-168 Cobalt Container F-168 lower shipping skid Blocking and Bracing (Treated Wood and Nylon Straps) 15 Typical Block and Brace for 1 x F-168
16 2 F-168 Containers Blocked and Braced in Seafreight Container 2 F-168 Packages are prepared, blocked and braced for shipment in a sea freight container by trained and licensed freight handlers in Canada This preparation is not disturbed and left in place after cobalt loading for return shipment to Canada 17 Shipping Experience
Nordion ships over 500 radioactive material shipments internationally per year in Type B(U) packages. Many of these shipments include both outbound and return of radioisotopes Over several decades of transport, there has never been an in-transit accident with serious human health, economic or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of the goods IAEA International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, 2003 18 Port of Singapore Experience Shipping Cobalt - 60 to and through Port of Singapore for
almost 27 years Approximately 20 shipments / year on average through Port 0 denials in this history impressive record and testament to Port and working processes APL carrier and APL feeder vessels are primary for Nordion Co-60 shipments with excellent service and customer support Countries shipped to which transit through Port of Singapore : - China - Malaysia - Thailand - Vietnam
- Sri Lanka - Indonesia - Philippines - Singapore 19 Transportation Issues Timely receipt of Port approvals Port of Singapore is central to many of the Asia Pacific countries shipped to
Excellent Port knowledge and capability, with significant history and positive relationship APL primary carrier into Singapore and APL Feeder vessels out to other local Ports (i.e. Shanghai, Port Kelang, Colombo, Bangkok, Manila, Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City) Increasingly busy with new requirement to have Co-60 sit at Port for 72 hours from time of carrier arrival to feeder departure to final destination 20 Transportation Issues Very limited number of feeder vessels having Class 7 carriage capability from Port of Singapore (makes scheduling and logistics
very challenging and restrictive) Restrictive alliance contracts between different carriers who co-load each others vessels (further restricts ability to move Co-60 in the Asia Pacific region) Limited number of Ports in many countries which are able / willing to handle receipt of Class 7 products (China Port of Shanghai; Vietnam Port of Ho Chi Minh City / VICT (Vietnam International Container Terminal)) Limited number of Ports allowing transshipment and even in transit shipment of Class 7 products through them, thus restricting routings and available shipping options IMPACT : NO feeder vessel service accepting Class 7 to Vietnams HCM/VICT Terminal. More feeder vessel acceptances of Class 7 or more Ports accepting Class 7 would resolve this critical issue
21 Actions Going Forward Increase the number of feeder vessels capable and willing to move Co-60 from Port of Singapore to other Ports in the Asia Pacific region Increase the number of Ports in countries which are willing and able to receive and process Co-60 for transit within that country to end users of Co-60 Increased integration of Asia Pacific countries with IAEA National Focal Points and Regional Coordinators in the Asia Pacific Regional Network
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