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Presentazione di PowerPoint

Towards an epistemic approach to research evaluation in Social Sciences and Humanities OST Paris, 23 May 2018 Andrea Bonaccorsi University of Pisa First part Theoretical issues in research assessment in SSH 1.Can we reach an agreement in a SSH scientific community with respect to a set of quality criteria? 2.If yes, is it possible to formulate these criteria in a reflexive and declarative

way, so that they can be subject to inter-subjective verification and can be applied appropriately by a subset of the community (for example by experts)? 3.If yes, is it possible to summarize the qualitative judgment into a quantitative measure? Can we reach an agreement in the scientific community with respect to a set of quality criteria? NO -epistemic pluralism -school conflicts -research assessment is inevitably a matter of power -Incommensurability of research results (idiographic tradition in Greek philosophy) -threat to research freedom YES -paradigmatic conflicts do not prevent the convergence on agreed quality criteria (e.g. methodological criteria in

History) -quality criteria include data collection methods (e.g. Psychology) -self-reflection on methodological criteria in SSH is a manifestation of vitality and a predictor of the attractiveness of the field for doctoral students and postdoc researchers (Lamont, How professors think) If yes, is it possible to formulate these criteria in a reflexive and declarative way, so that they can be subject to inter-subjective verification and can be applied appropriately by a subset of the community (for example by experts)? NO -quality judgments are inevitably idiosincratic and create a tacit knowledge base, which cannot be separated from the persons that own that knowledge (personal knowledge: Polanyi) -consequently, the only possibility for a fair evaluation is to delegate it to representatives of scientific communities (in particular, elective bodies or scientific communities) YES

-tacit knowledge is always a source of power -inter-subjective validation is a condition for the validity of scientific knowledge (Ziman, Real science) -the only experiment that is worth is the written experiment (Bacone, Novum Organum): written communication is essential to science to allow validation from researchers that cannot witness the experiment hic et nunc If yes, is it possible to summarize the qualitative judgment into a quantitative measure? NO -qualitative and quantitative judgments are logically incommensurable -quantification is a power structure: a dispositif (Foucault) or a weapon to fight in the action field (Bourdieu) -quantification is a neoliberal device to establish hierarchical relations in the capitalist system (the new reason of the world: Dardot and Laval, 2009) -quantification is a voluntary slavery (Gori 2011; 2013; Supiot, 2015), evaluation is a tiranny (Del Rey, 2013) YES (with caveat) -quantitication (commensuration) has been an instrument of modern States to reduce traditional sources of power,

based on idiosincratic knowledge, and establish citizen rights (e.g. universal health, welfare systems based on demographic information) -recent developments in analytical philosophy and practical reason suggest that the transformation and aggregation of qualitative judgments into measures is possible, given relatively loose requisites (contrary to the tradition from Arrows theorem) -the conditions for aggregation refer to the building of a common language that describes in qualitative terms the judgments of people An epistemic model of reception of evaluation in SSH My thesis Disciplines in SSS perceive, receive and react to evaluation in a negative or positive way, and with different intensity, according to (a)The history of their institutionalization as academic disciplines emergence by internal differentiation

emergence by conflict with a dominant discipline (b)The epistemic orientation idiographic nomothetic (c)The acceptance or reject of the two dominant traditions of epistemology in the XX century logical positivism post-structuralism Emergence of disciplines Scientific knowledge emerges via continuous processes of branching and specialization Disciplines emerge following two distinct dynamics -Epistemic dynamics: new objects of inquiry, research questions, methods -Institutional dynamics: context that favors the separate institutionalization of a new discipline

In the institutionalization stage we witness strong, even violent, controversies, on boundaries (Gyerin): -between science and non-science -between disciplines After academic institutionalization, disciplines preserve the newly acquired boundaries via a variety of instruments (scientific societies, journals, conferences, book series) and keep memory of the initial conflicts. Epistemic controversies have an institutional correlate (curricula, content of courses, reading lists). Institutionalization by internal differentiation: Philology, History, Economics Institutionalization by conflcit with a dominant discipline: Anthropology (vs Sociology), Literary critics (vs Philology), English studies (vs canon-based Criticism) Epistemic orientation Epistemological challenges in the XX century Positivism (Reichenbach, Hempel, Ayer)

-truth as correspondence between propositions and facts -logical empiricism -scientific knowledge is based on explanatory propositions that take the form of coverage laws (lawlike regularities) -need for mathematical language -need for causal modeling an rigorous inferential methods (randomized experiments as golden rule) Post-structuralism (Derrida, Foucault, Lacan, Barthes, Baudrillard) -facts do not exist, only narratives (Nietzsche) -truth does not exist, only linguistic conventions -power structures use hidden mechanism (dispositifs) in order to normalize the behavior of subjects through the interiorization of categories that are interpreted as natural -Knowledge hierarchies have no foundation Acceptance (partial or complete) of logical positivism: Political science (in part), Economics, Psychology (in part)

Strong reject of post-structuralism: History Acceptance of post-structuralism: Literary critic, English studies, Anthropology (in part) Part 2 What we (already) know about publication patterns in SSH and what we need to know -Citations are made to sources that are older (on average) (only 5-30% last five years) -Citations are close to zero for a certain period after publication -Good share of citations are to non-living authors -Books are more important in scientific production (35-50% min) -Books contain more citations -Citations in books are more interdisciplinary -Citations in books are to a larger typology of sources (e.g. dissertations,

catalogues, archival material, fiches, cartography, images etc.) -Citations cover a wider range of motivations than in hard science (rhetorical/argumentation functions) Open issues after the Book Citation Index -Lack of standardization of references to edited books -Lack of cumulative citation counts from different hierarchical levels -Books as collection of (already published) articles -New editions -Posthumous co-authorship Consequences -Lack of normalization -Citations from books and to books cannot be treated in the same way as citations from articles and to articles

Citation processes of books have not yet been sufficiently studied (Gorraiz, Purnel and Glanzel, 2013) Open issues after Publisher rating (Spain) -Large variability in quality of books and book series within the catalogues of publishers -Business model of academic publishers -Need to control for halo effects in reputation surveys -Lack of empirical evidence about the correlation between publisher rating and peer review-based assessment of individual books - evidence available in the case of journal rating Bonaccorsi et al. (2015) F1000 Ferrara and Bonaccorsi (2016) Res Eval Consequences

- Difficult to utilize in research assessment On the origins of reputation In the academic domain, the reputation is established through the impact and quality of scientific research. In hard sciences and technologies the reputation is directly related to the number and importance of citations received. Scientists routinely keep track of their individual indicators related to -Number of citations -Weighted number of citations An article is largely cited only if it is used by a large number of scientists (Cronin, 2005). Few exceptions: -Mathematics (= few articles per year, with few citations) -sleeping beauties (van Raan, 2004) (= important discoveries that come to be cited

only after many years) On the origins of reputation/2 In the SSH (with the exception of Economics and Psychology), on the contrary: Important role of books books take more time to be produced citations can take many years to grow normalization of citations difficult Language role of national language as research medium multilinguism Audience larger role for interaction with general public critical junction between research in Humanities and cultural identities

(history, language, literature, art) Does this situation prevent a scientific analysis of knowledge production and of the formation of reputation in SSH? What we need to know 1. Creative role of citations In hard sciences citations are mandated by the cumulative nature of knowledge: authors are forced to quote state-of-the-art knowledge (and their authors) in order to substantiate the claim that their discoveries are original. In Humanities (and in part of Social Sciences) citations are creative: -citations establish a relation between an object and a field/author/issue previously unconnected with the object -citations come in clusters, not isolated

-after new citations have been introduced, they need to be accepted by the scientific community -after a time lag, they become standard Frequency of occurrence of the word paradigm in books in English Thomas Kuhn (1962) The structure of scientific revolutions Source: elaboration from Google Ngram Viewer Frequency of occurrence of the word tacitness in books in English Nelson- Winter (1982)

An evolutionary theory of economic change introduce the notion of tacit knowledge quoting Michael Polanyi (1958) Personal knowledge Source: elaboration from Google Ngram Viewer Eduard Manet Le Djuner sur lerbe 1862-63 The judgment of Paris Marcantonio Raimondi (1515)

after a drawing by Raphael What we need to know 2. Relation between volume and quality of publications The reputation in hard sciences is built upon the accumulation over time of citations from colleagues. There is a (probabilistic) relation between the overall volume of scientific production and the citations received. Do we see a similar relation for scholars in SSH? Average number of book chapters and journal articles in the 2002-2012 decade significantly differ between those receiving the Habilitation and those not receiving it

Candidates receiving the Habilitation Source: elaboration from Bonaccorsi, Costantini and Setti (2016) Average number of journal articles in A-rated journals in the 2002-2012 decade significantly differ between those receiving the Habilitation and those not receiving it Average number of books in the 2002-2012 decade does not differ between those receiving the Habilitation and those not receiving it What we need to know 3. Scientific communication before the publication Books in SSH (mainly in the Anglosaxon context, much less in Europe) have an extensive introductory section of acknowledgments.

These reflect the extensive practice of submitting manuscripts, at various stages of maturity, to colleagues and friends for comments. They also reflect the Anglosaxon practice of departmental seminars (brown bag seminars), which are mandatory by tradition and are seldom missed by the faculty. Reputation is created after acknowledgments received by established authors (Anthony Grafton). What we need to know 4. Relation between academic reputation and social visibility Scholars in SSH are more likely engaged in activities that make them visible not only to the scientific community but to the larger public. With the advent of modern media and of social media the magnitude of the visibility that can be gained increased enormously.

Does social and media visibility add or subtract from academic reputation? Is social and media visibility a complement or a substitute for academic reputation? What is the relation between academic reputation and social visibility? Theory of social judgment (Alessandro Pizzorno, Il velo della diversit. Studi su razionalit e riconoscimento, Feltrinelli, 2007) -reputation -visibility Tensions and conflicts between the two notions. Sociology of art (Monique Heinich, De la visibilit, Gallimard, 2012)

-building social visibility requires sustained effort -strategic manoeuvering of presence/ absence -management of scarcity -active and daily management of opportunities What do we need to know 5. Potential of new indicators in SSH 5.1 Google Scholar -Most studies compare GS with WoS and Scopus- they usually find GS has a larger coverage of SSH, lower (but rapidly improving) accuracy -Need to compare GS data with data from peer review -First studies in History and Sociology - Bonaccorsi, Ferrara & Ferrara (2016), in preparation

5.2 Altmetrics - Need to compare systematically usage data with data from peer review Conclusions Towards a science of science in Humanities Risk of marginalization of research in Humanities Need to build a robust argument for research in Humanities - not the usual argument about the economic impact in terms of turism, museums or cultural heritage - not the usual call for more money - but a full scale epistemological argument about the way in which valid scientific knowledge is produced in Humanities - humans live by symbols- but symbols take a meaning only if there is historical

continuity - preserving historical continuity requires research - without research in Humanities the ability to interpret meanings would be interrupted Need to overcome the fear of numbers in SSH Scienza politica Dibattito anni 50 negli USA -tradizione qualitativa (Harvard: ideas and institutions) -superamento della tradizione: (a) empirico- behavioristico (b) rational choice -adozione approccio quantitativo -modelli causali con controllo statistico -influenza di Giovanni Sartori nel dibattito politologico e costituzionale comparato

Posizioni epistemologiche -predominio logica inferenziale e controllo statistico -coesistenza di metodi qualitativi (case studies) e quantitativi (Goertz e Mahoney, A tale of two cultures) Sostanziale accettazione di metodi quantitativi -costruzione di serie storiche -panel data set -studi comparativi a livello internazionale APPENDIX (in Italian) Sociologia Sviluppi nei metodi di raccolta dei dati (seconda met 900) -metodi quantitativi (inferenza statistica; modelli multi-livello) -metodi qualitativi (case studies, metodi etnografici)

-mixed methods Superamento della opposizione metodi quantitativi-qualitativi -reciproco riconoscimento di legittimit -raffinamento continuo dei metodi -centralit del lavoro metodologico Pluralismo paradigmatico a livello di modelli e teorie -necessit di una teoria dellagente sociale (soggetto) -impossibilit di una teoria generale e completa della societ di tipo diretto (causale) -assunzione di una pluralit di teorie inverse della societ negli agenti sociali (Pierre Livet) -necessit di aggiustare e modificare continuamente la teoria della societ alla luce dei dati (cumulativit dinamica) Obiezioni alla valutazione non convincenti -internazionalizzazione -pluralismo -metodologia

Economia politica -Caso classico di emergenza di un paradigma dominante nelle scienze sociali (almeno a partire dalla fondazione di Econometrica) Eppure -Esistenza di una mainstream non ha eliminato il pluralismo teorico e paradigmatico (economia evolutiva, neo-austriaca, neo-marxiana, istituzionalista) -Criteri di valutazione simili -Esistenza di top journal in tutte le comunit sufficientemente ampie e strutturate -Confronto sistematico sulle anomalie e sui risultati empirici Discipline aziendali

-Insufficienza di un serio dibattito metodologico -Dibattito sulla rilevanza (impatto sulle imprese) non agganciato al dibattito internazionale su teoria e pratica negli studi di management (Van de Ven, Starbuck) -Business school hanno adottato un modello di legittimazione fondato sulla ricerca scientifica -Rischio di irrilevanza sia teorica che pratica della tradizione aziendale italiana Scienze giuridiche -Criteri di qualit della ricerca molto definiti (di tipo ermeneutico, sistematico, critico) -Pluralismo dottrinale, non paradigmatico e metodologico

-Forti distinzioni di scuola -Inizio di internazionalizzazione (dovuto alla immediata applicabilit del diritto europeo in alcuni ambiti- sentenze dei giudici italiani gi utilizzano materiale estero) -Intreccio con criteri di natura professionale Storia Condivisione di metodi di raccolta di dati -lavoro di archivio (got d larchive: Farge, 1989) -teoria delle fonti Storia della storiografia contemporanea -lavoro storico ha lo scopo di ricostruire i fatti come sono avvenuti (Leopold von Ranke) -critica del positivismo storico da parte di E.H Carr (1961) What is history? storia come analisi delle relazioni causali -linterpretazione dello storico trova un limite insuperabile nella ricostruzione dei fatti, supportata da metodi di

indagine robusti e condivisi Social history e Cultural history Sfida post-strutturalista -il dato storico inattingibile -qualunque ricostruzione del dato storico che pretenda oggettivit ideologico e nasconde un disegno di dominio ideologico, ovvero di ricostruzione del passato allo scopo di governare il presente Reazione della comunit degli storici e dei teorici della storiografia - il dibattito prevalente rigetta la sfida post-strutturalista Studi letterari/1 Origine storica: filologia Aspetti di metodo -ricostruzione del testo nella sua formulazione originaria -processo di riproduzione dei testi come fonte di errori tracciabili

-metodo stemmatico (metodo di Lachmann)- ma origine Rinascimento italiano -lavoro filologico basato su criteri condivisi e tecniche rigorose Emergenza degli studi letterari negli Stati Uniti origine europea degli studi umanistici nelle prime universit americane e in quelle create nel XIX secolo- cattedre di filologia in cui si insegnano latino e greco e le filologie europee primi studi linguistici e di grammatica sulle lingue degli indiani dAmerica discipline letterarie emergono in contrapposizione e autonomizzazione rispetto alla filologia English Studies come discipline basate sulla lettura di testi (reading), non sulla analisi filologica metodo di insegnamento collegiale e interattivo (aula) primato della interpretazione (ermeneutica) rispetto alla ricostruzione rigorosa della forma del testo critica letteraria vs filologia Studi letterari/2

Dibattito tra generalists e researchers (1875-1915) There is no science of literature Literature in essence is mere spirit You must experience it rather than analyze it too formally Literature is an instrument that opens our hearts to receive the experiences of great men and great races Woodrow Wilson, Mere literature Literature is a mysterious and pervasive essence always in itself beautiful, not always so in the shapes which it informs, but even then full of infinite suggestion. James Russell Lowell (1889) Cit. in Gerald Graff (1987) Professing literature. An institutional history. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press (p.88) Studi letterari/3

Dibattito sul canone letterario antecedenti istituzionali: decisioni circa il Syllabus delle letture obbligatorie nei campus americani pressione delle letterature di origine diversa dalla tradizione occidentale istituzionalizzazione degli studi di minoranze: Black studies, Women studies, Post-colonial studies Interpretazione del canone - capitale culturale nel senso di Bourdieu (Guillory, Cultural capital. The problem of literary canon formation) -conflitto per la definizione dei confini e dei contenuti del campo come fonte di valore simbolico spendibile nella competizione sociale -assenza di criteri epistemici per la valutazione di qualit della critica letteraria -Morte dellautore (Barthes, 1977); Cosa un autore? (Foucault, 1977); Morte della letteratura (Kernan, 1990) Dibattito culturale italiano -centralit tradizione filologica nella critica letteraria (Pasquali, Timpanaro, Contini, Barbi, Segre, Stussi) -continuit nella formazione di giovani studiosi con preparazione filologica -conflitti di scuola ad intensit inversamente proporzionale alla distanza temporale degli autori studiati rispetto alla

critica letteraria Storia dellarte Tradizione di analisi dei dati basata su metodi rigorosi (analisi degli stili formali, dati materiali, chimico-fisici, spettrografici) Problemi di metodo a livello dei modelli teorici (a)attribuzione di singole opere (Berenson, Longhi) - conflitto delle interpretazioni di attribuzione (b) iconografia e iconologia (Panovsky) -Interpretazione delle opere darte alla luce dellinsieme di contenuti simbolici presenti allepoca dellopera e in epoche precedenti -ambito potenzialmente illimitato dei confronti con fonti letterarie e iconografiche ritenute rilevanti ai fini della interpretazione delle opere

Preziosi, Donald (1989) Rethinking art history. Meditations on a coy science New Haven and London, Yale University Press Mansfield, Elisabeth (ed.) (2002) Art history and its institutions. Foundations of a discipline. London, Routledge Storia Novick, Peter (1988) That noble dream. The Objectivity Question and the American historical profession. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Farge, Arlette (1989) Le got de larchive. Paris, ditions de Seuil

Appleby, Joyce; Hunt, Lynn; Jacob, Margaret (1994) Telling the truth about history. New York, Norton & Company. Windschuttle, Keith (1996) The killing of history. How literary critics and social theorists are murdering our past. New York-London, Encounter Books. Offenstadt, Nicolas (2011) Lhistoriographie. Paris, Presses Universitaires de France Granger, Cristophe (ed.) (2013) quoi pensent les historiens? Faire de lhistorire au XXIe sicle Paris, Editions Autrement Caire_Jabinet, Marie Paule (2013) Introduction lhistoriographie. Paris, Armand Colin Lemercier, Claire; Zalc, Claire. Mthodes quantitatives pour lhistories. Paris, La Dcouverte Studi letterari/ Filologia

Grafton, Anthony (1991) Defenders of the text. The traditions of scholarship in an age of science, 1450-1800 Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press Gumbrecht, Hans Ulrich (2003) The powers of philology. Dynamics of textual scholarship. Urbana, University of Illinois Press Grafton, Anthony (2009) Worlds made by words. Scholarship and community in the modern world Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press Zerby, Chuck. The devils details. A history of footnotes New York, Simon and Schuster Roberts, R.H.; Good, J.M.M. (eds.) (1993) The recovery of rhetoric. Persuasive discourse and disciplinarity in the human science London, Bristol Classical Papers

James Turner (2014) Philology. The forgotten origins of the modern humanities. Princeton, Princeton University Press. Rens Bod (2014) A new history of the humanities. The search for principles and patterns from antiquity to the present. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Studi letterari/ Istituzionalizzazione della disciplina accademica Scholes, Robert (1985) Textual power. Literary theory and the teaching of English New Have, Yale University Press Graff, Gerald (1987)

Professing literature. An institutional history. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press Parrinder, Patrick (1991) Authors and authority. English and American criticism, 1750-1990. Houndmills, Macmillan Shumway, David R. (1994) Creating American civilization. A genealogy of American literature as an academic discipline. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press Scholes, Robert (1998) The rise and fall of English. Reconstructing English as a discipline. New Have, Yale University Press Renker, Elisabeth (2007) The origins of Americal literature studies. An institutional history Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

Studi letterari/ Storia della critica letteraria negli USA Oleson, Alexandra; Brown, Sanborn C. (1976) The pursuit of knowledge in the early American republic. American scientific and learned societies from Colonial times to the Civil War. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press Oleson, Alexandra; Voss, John (1979) The organization of knowledge in modern America, 1860-1920 Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press Court, Franklin E. (1992) Institutionalizing English literature. The culture and politics of literary study, 1750-1900

Stanford, Stanford University Press Kernan, A. (1990) The death of literature. New Have, Yale University Press. Guillory, John (1993) Cultural capital. The problem of literary canon formation Chicago, The University of Chicago Press Antropologia Thoresen, Timothy H.H. (ed.) (1975) Towards a science of man. Essays in the history of anthropology. The Hague, Mouton Publishers. Barnard, A. (2000) History and theory in anthropology.

Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Darnell, Regna (2001) Invisible genealogies. A history of Americanist anthropology Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press Eriksen, Thomas Hylland; Nielsen, Finn Sivert (2001) A history of anthropology London, Pluto Press. Barth., Fredirk; Gingrich, Andre; Parkin, Robert; Silverman, S. (2005) One discipline, four ways: British, German, French, and American Anthropology Chicago, The University of Chicago Press Segal, Daniel A.; Yanagisako, Sylvia J. (eds.) (2005) Unwrapping rhe sacred bundle: Reflections on the disciplining of anthropology Durham, Duke University Press. Kuklick, Henrika (ed.) (2008)

A new history of anthropology. Malden, Blackwell Publishing Olivier de Sardan, Jean Pierre (2008) La rigueur du qualitatif. Les contraintes empiriques de linterprtation socio-anthropologique Lovain-la-Neuve, Academia Bruylant Scienze sociali Bernstein, Richard J. (1976) The restructuring of social and political theory New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Ross, Dorothy (1991) The origjns of American social science Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

Berthelot, Jean-Michel (1991) La construction de la sociologie. Paris, Presses Universitaires de France Platt, Jennifer (1996) A history of sociological research methods in America, 1920-1960 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Gulbenkian Commission on the Restructuring of the social sciences (1996) Open the social sciences Stanford, Stanford University Press Haskell, Thomas L. (2000) The emergence of professional social science. The America Social Science Association and the Nineteenth-Century crisis of authority Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press (or.edition University of Illinois Press, 1977) Scott, Joan W., Keates, Debra (eds.) (2001) Schools of thought. Twenty-five years of interpretive social science

Princeton, Princeton University Press Scienze sociali/ Storia dei metodi quantitativi Hacking, Ian (2006) The emergence of probability. A philosophical study of early ideas about probability induction and statistical inference Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (or. Edition 1975) Laudan, Larry (1977) Progress and its problems. Towards a theory of scientific growth Berkeley, University of California Press Bernstein, Richard J. (1983) Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics, and praxis

Philadephia, University of Pennsylvania Press Kruger, Lorenz, Daston Lorraine J., Heidelberger, Michael (eds.) (1987) The probabilistic revolution: Volume I. Ideas in history Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press Porter, Theodore M. (1985) Trust in numbers. The pursuit of objectivity in science and public life Princeton, Princeton University Press Stigler, Stephen M. (1999) Statistics on the table. The history of statistical concepts and methods Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press Studi comparati Humanities

Nelson, John S., Megill, Allan; McCloskey, Donald N. (eds.) (1987) The rhetoric of the human sciences. Language and argument in scholarship and public affairs Madison, The University of Wisconsin Press. Bender, Thomas; Schorske, C.E. (eds.) (1997) American academic culture in transformation. Fifty years, four disciplines Princeton, Princeton University Press Kernan, A. (ed.) (1997) Whats happened to the humanities? Princeton, Princeton University Press Waters, Lindsay (2004) Enemies of promise. Publishing, perishing, and the eclipse of scholarship. Chicago, Prickly Paradigm Press Harpham, Geoffrey Galt (2011) The humanities and the dream of America

Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. Hollinger, David (ed.) The humanities and the dynamics of inclusion since World War II Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press Helen Small. The value of the humanities. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Peter Brooks (a cura di) The humanities and public life. New York, Fordham University Press. Eleonora Belfiore e Anna Upchurch (a cura di) Humanities in the twenty-first century. Beyond utility and markets. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Studi comparati Scienze sociali Camic, Charles; Gross, Neil; Lamont Michle (eds.) (2011) Social knowledge in the making. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press

Steinmetz, George (ed.) (2005) The politics of method in the human sciences. Positivism and its epistemological others Durham, Duke University Press. Walliser, Bernard (ed. ) (2009) La cumulativit du savoir en sciences sociales Paris, ditions de lcole des Hautes tudes en Sciences Sociales. Goertz, Gary; Mahoney, James (2012) A tale of two cultures. Qualitative and quantitative research in the social sciences. Princeton, Princeton University Press Data on Italian departments and universities Current research Journal rating

Bonaccorsi A., Ferrara A. (2016) How robust is journal rating in Humanities and Social Sciences? Evidence from a large scale multi-method exercise Research Evaluation Bonaccorsi A., Cicero T., Ferrara A. and Malgarini M. (2015), Journal ratings as predictors of articles quality in Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences: an analysis based on the Italian Research Evaluation Exercise F1000Research 2015, 4:196 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.6478.1) Data on Italian departments and universities Current research Research evaluation in Social Sciences and Humanities Daraio C., Bonaccorsi A., Fantoni S., Ruocco G. (2017)

Are humanities different from hard sciences? Distributional properties of scientific performance indicators. Scientometrics Bonaccorsi A. (ed.) (2017) The evaluation of research in Social Sciences and Humanities. Lessons from the Italian experience Springer Bonaccorsi A. (2016) La valutazione possibile. Teoria e pratica nel mondo della ricerca. Bologna, Il Mulino Evidenze sullimpatto della valutazione sulle discipline umanistiche e sociali Casi di studio: Norvegia, Svezia, Danimarca, Regno Unito Effetti rilevati

-aumento delle pubblicazioni scientifiche prodotte dai ricercatori nei periodi successivi alla introduzione della valutazione -aumento della quota di pubblicazioni prodotte in inglese -adozione generalizzata della peer review da parte delle riviste scientifiche -ricerca della pubblicazione su riviste con IF elevato e/o pi prestigiose Effetti non presenti -non si osservano modifiche strutturali nel mix di prodotti bibliografici (libri, articoli su rivista, capitoli di libro) -non sono scomparse le monografie -non si osserva una riduzione nella dimensione media degli articoli su rivista (salami slicing) -nelle indagini con questionario non emerge una rinuncia a perseguire temi di ricerca stabiliti autonomamenente a vantaggio di temi di pi facile pubblicabilit o conformit con le posizioni dominanti nelle discipline scientifiche Implicazioni per la valutazione/2

Criteri di valutazione chiari, trasparenti, comunicati in anticipo Nomina di esperti -strumento irrinunciabile della valutazione -assunzione di responsabilit piena -pubblicazione della composizione dei panel e dei CV dei membri -durata limitata dellincarico -principio di rotazione -estrema attenzione a profili di pluralismo metodologico o culturale Dialogo (non sudditanza) con le societ scientifiche Frequenti occasioni di revisione -procedure trasparenti di revisione periodica (es. rating riviste) con cadenza annuale Accurata gestione dei conflitti di interesse -definizione estesa (include anche conflitti di scuola) -astensione dal giudizio

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    The MFIPPA amendment is to cover municipally-run long-term care homes, which are subject to MFIPPA and not FIPPA. Vital Statistics Act - Amend the Vital Statistics Act to set requirements respecting the coroner's documentation of MAID deaths consistent with the...
  • EXL317: Microsoft Lync 2010: Interoperability, Integration ...

    EXL317: Microsoft Lync 2010: Interoperability, Integration ...

    New: Video Interoperability Program. Allow partner solutions to make and accept video calls with Lync 2010 (or OCS 2007 R2) Direct registration to Lync for partner VTC/telepresence and/or MCU