Psychological explanations- psychodynamic Explanation

Psychological explanations- psychodynamic Explanation

P S YC H O L O G I C A L E X P L A N AT I O N S - P S YC H O DY N A M I C E X P L A N AT I O N W H AT W O U L D F R E U D S AY ? 3 ASPECTS TO THE PERSONALITY Freud suggested that there are 3 aspects

to the personality - The id - The ego - The superego THE ID You are born with this part of the personality and it therefore develops first It is the instructive part of our

personality it can be very demanding! It is often referred to as the I want An infant will demand for its needs to be satisfied THE EGO The ego develops next It is the rational part of the

personality because it works on reality principles The ego tries to satisfy the needs of the id (I want) with realistic ways to achieve these desires THE SUPEREGO The superego develops last,

around 4 years old It works on the morality principle Its the you cant have that part of the personality The superego is your conscience given to you by parents, rules, society etc. It is the job of the ego to find a balance

between the id and the superego EXPLAINING CRIMINALITY Inadequate Superego says Blackburn (1933) The superego punishes the ego with feelings of guilt for wrongdoing, and rewards it with feelings of pride and satisfaction for good behaviours. Blackburn suggests that in criminals the Superego is weak or deficient. The superego can be inadequate in 3 ways:

INADEQUATE SUPEREGO The Weak Superego which is developed during the phallic stage. This is possibly caused by an absent same sexparent in the phallic stage. The Deviant Superego (possibly caused by the

internalisation of an immoral superego from INADEQUATE SUPEREGO The Strong / Over-harsh Superego either causing the person to become anxious and guilty by nature, causing them to unconsciously seek punishment and maybe to do so by committing criminal acts. (Dobby the house elf) OR by preventing the release of anxiety

(due to guilt) through defence mechanisms which lead to unresolved conflicts. These then overwhelm the ego, THEORY NUMBER 2 LOSS OF ATTACHMENT A second theory focuses on the lack of a motherfigure to attach to during infancy leading to criminal behaviour, specifically affectionless psychopathy. (lack of empathy or guilt) and increased likelihood of delinquency.

Thinking back to attachment, which theory is this? Whos theory was it? What research was done into it? MATERNAL DEPRIVATION Bowlby proposed that the ability to form meaningful social relationships in adulthood was dependent on a close, warm and continuous relationship with the mother in the critical period of the first few years. (6 months -2 ) Since this monotropic relationship acts as the prototype

(Internal working models/template) for all future relationships, its disruption would impair the persons ability to relate to others. This could result in a condition Bowlby called affectionless psychopathy. MATERNAL DEPRIVATION SUPPORT Bowlby (1944) 44 juvenile thieves study

Reported that 39% of a group of juvenile delinquents had experienced significant disruption to their attachments, compared to only 5% of a non-delinquent group. Bowlby concluded that the effects of maternal deprivation had caused affectionless psychopathy and delinquency Use this as an a opportunity to revise MD theory. Note down any evaluation points. Supporting evidence etc. EVALUATION Because girls do not experience the castration anxiety psychodynamic theory suggests

they will develop a weaker super ego. This means they should be more likely to engage in criminal behaviour but this is not supported by the evidence = a serious flaw in the psychodynamic explanation for offending behaviour. Little evidence that children raised in a single parent family are less law abiding- if they are it is more likely to be explained by socialisation or genetics. Doesnt make sense that criminals want to be punished as they go to extreme lengths to conceal their crimes. Freudian ideas are difficult to test empirically these ideas can only be judged on their face value rather than their scientific worth. For this reason psychodynamic explanations

are regarded as pseudo (fake) science that contribute little to our understanding of crime. EVALUATION Bowlby has been criticised for researcher bias in the 44 thieves study as his expectations may have influenced the interviewees. Koluchova (1976), Hodges and Tizzard and other researchers found the effects of deprivation are not always irreversible. Lewis (1954) analysed interviews with 500 young people and found that maternal deprivation was not correlated with offending behaviour. Even if a correlation had been found you cannot use correlational data to

demonstrate a causal relationship. PLENARY Make a revision document (poster, mind-map, cards etc.) on the EXPLANATIONS FOR OFFENDING BEHAVIOUR

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