Rhetorical Devices: More than you ever wanted to know, almost all you will ever need What is Rhetoric? The basis of this class how people use language to create meaning. Dont forget the rhetorical triangle Modes: narration, description, process analysis, exemplification,
compare/contrast, classification/division, definition, cause/effect Schemes and Tropes In classical rhetoric, the tropes and schemes fall under the canon of style. These stylistic features certainly do add spice to writing and speaking. And they are commonly thought to be persuasive because they dress up otherwise mundane language; the idea being that we are persuaded by the imagery and artistry because we
find it entertaining. There is much more to tropes and schemes than surface considerations. Indeed, politicians and pundits use these language forms to create specific social and political effects by playing on our emotions. Definitions Trope: The use of a word, phrase, or image in a way not intended by its normal signification. Scheme: A change in
standard word order or pattern. Tropes and schemes are collectively known as figures of speech. Tropesinvolving repetition Alliteration- Recurrence of initial consonant sounds. Assonance- Similar vowel sounds in successive or proximate words containing different consonants Epanalepsis(also known as
symploche) repetition of word at beginning and at the end of phrase or clause. Diacope-Repetition of a word or phrase after an intervening word or phrase Tropes Involving Comparison Metaphor-comparison without using like or as Implied Metaphor- not straight forward; reader knows what is being compared based on diction
Simile- Comparison using like or as Synecdoche- substitution of part for whole Metonymy-Substitution of something associated with another term for the term itself. Contd Personification-giving the characteristics of human beings to inanimate objects. Analogy-Compares two things,
which are alike in several aspects, for the purpose of explaining through showing something familiar. Tropes Involving Word Play Pun- play on words Anthimeria- substituting one part of speech for another. Onomatopoeia- when a sound of a word suggests its meaning. Zeugma- one verb governs several words, or clauses,
each in a different sense. Example: He stiffened his drink and his spine. Tropes Involving Overstatement or Understatement Litotes- affirmation of the positive through denial of the negative Hyperbole-overstatement Understatement- Deliberately expressing an idea as less important than it is Euphemism: substitution of
an agreeable or at least nonoffensive expression for one whose plainer meaning might be harsh or unpleasant. Tropes Involving Meaning Irony- (verbal) meaning the opposite of what you say Sarcasm- Saying something with the intent of hurting someone else Paradox- an apparent contradiction that is nevertheless true Oxymoron: A trope that
connects two contradictory terms. More tropes Rhetorical Question- Asking a question and not expecting an answer/not answered by author Hypophora- Raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at length Allusion- Short, informal reference to a famous person, work, or event
Schemes Epistrophe- opposite of anaphora; repetition comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences. Anaphora-repetition of same words or word at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences, commonly with climax and/or parallelism. Schemes contd
Antithesis: makes use of contrasting words, phrases, sentences, or ideas for emphasis (generally used in parallel grammatical structures). Anadiplosis: Repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at (or very near) the beginning of the next. Apostrophe: a person or an abstract quality is directly addressed, whether present or not. Antimetabole: Reversing the order of repeated words or phrases to intensify the final formulation, to present alternatives, or show
contrast Contd Chiasmus-might be called reverse parallelism since the second part of a grammatical structure is balanced or paired by the first part, only in reverse order. Parallelism- Recurrent syntactical similarity/balanced structure Asyndeton- Omitting
conjunctions between words Polysyndeton- Adding conjunctions between each clause, phrase, word One more thing before you go Terms/Concepts you should have learned before today: Tone Syntax Diction (connotation, denotation)
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