Thinking, Memory, & Intelligence More Cognitive Psychology Cognition Cognition The broad mental capacities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Developed into the field of cognitive psychology In order to think about things in our world we
simplify them by creating Concepts Prototypes Simplifying our Thinking Concept A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people Ex.Chair: Ex. Flower: The development of concepts are assisted by
the development of prototypes Prototype Mental image or best example of a category; helps to make quick and easy assessment of items Ex: Birds.which fits better, a robin or a penguin? Problem Solving Problem Solving: Refers to the active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable Problem Space
- refer to the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver - Aka. approaches to problem solving Approaches to Problem Solving Trial and Error Trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works Algorithm a logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem in a step-by-step manner; slower than what is known as heuistics
Heuristic A simple strategy that allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; faster than algorithm but causes more errors; rule of thumb Approaches to Problem Solving
Forming Sub-goals Working backward Searching for Analogies Changing the Representations of the Problem Taking a Break Incubation Effect: occurs when new solutions surface for a previously unsolved problem after a period of not consciously thinking about the problem Problems to Problem Solving Irrelevant Information Confirmation Bias
A tendency to search for information that confirms ones preconceptions Fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem-solving Ex. Mental set- people persist in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past Ex. Functional fixedness- tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use Problems to Problem Solving Overconfidence
The tendency to be more confident than correct; overestimate the accuracy of ones beliefs & judgments Framing The way an issue is posed or presented can significantly affect decisions & judgments Ex. Success rate for surgery; Drop-off prices Problems to Problem Solving Unnecessary Constraints Ex. Nine dot problem Insight: helps overcome these constraints when people suddenly discover the correct
solution to a problem after struggling with it for a while Problems to Problem Solving Belief Bias The tendency of ones pre-existing beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid and valid conclusions seems invalid Belief Perseverance Clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on
which they were formed has been discredited Ex. Capital punishment research; firefighter study Decision Making Decision making: involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them Theory of Bounded Rationality: asserts that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often result in irrational decisions that are less than optimal
Decision Making Risky decision making: involves making choices under conditions of uncertainty Conjunction fallacy: occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone Decision Making Representative Heuristic Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they represent or match a prototype; may cause to
ignore other relevant information Ex. The Stranger: professor or truck driver Availability Heuristic Estimating likelihood of things based upon the availability in our memory or that quickly come to mind so we deem them common Language The most tangible or hard evidence of our thinking power is language Language
Our spoken, written, or signed words and the rules we use combine them to communicate meaning Lot of research completed by Chomsky Language Phonemes- the smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually Morphemes & Semantics: Morphemes: the smallest units of meaning in a language Semantics: area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word
combinations Syntax- a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences Language Development This development is gradual and moves from simple to complex; however by 4 months infants can read lips and discriminate speech sounds they prefer to look at faces in which the sounds match First stage: Babbling Stage At 3-4 mths infants spontaneously utter various
sounds that are at first unrelated to household language Language Development Over time infants begin to lose their ability to discriminate sound they never hear -which is why it is easier to learn a second language at a young age, because we lose the ability to discriminate the unique sounds not used in our native language but in the language of others One-word Stage:
At 1-2 years, a child begins to speak mostly in single words Usually only contain one syllable like ma or da but gradually conforms to family language Language Development Fast mapping: process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure Overextensions: when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant
Underextensions: when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to Language Development Two-Word Stage: Begins about 2 years and is when children speak in mainly 2-word phrase Stage also known for telegraphic speech: speaking like a telegram go car and using mostly nouns and verbs Overrgeneralizations: when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do
not apply Use the chart on page 316 to help you remember the stages! Language Development Bilingualism Acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabulary, and grammatical rules With a Partner Analyze the different theories as to how
language develops. Skinner (behaviorists) Chomsky (Nativist) LAD: innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language Cognitive neuorscientists (interactionists) Impact of Language Linguistic Determinism/Relativity Whorfs hypothesis that language determines the way that we think
English have a lot of vocabulary words that focus on the self; Japanese have more about societal emotional terms in comparison to the West Do we refer to females as girls or woman Yet there is plenty of thinking that happens without language, aka.mental pictures, spatial thinking, visualization, etc.. Chapter 8 Practice Test 1. The 2-year-old child who refers to every
four-legged animal as doggie is making which of the following errors? a)underextension b)overextension c)overregularization d)underregularization
2. Research suggests that bilingualism has a negative effect on a) language development b) cognitive development c) metalinguistic awareness d) none of the above
3. Based on the work with Kanzi, which statement best summarizes the current status of the research on whether chimps can learn languages? a) Chimps can acquire the use of symbols but cannot combine them into sentences or learn rules of language. b) Chimps are nearly as well suited for learning and using language as humans. c) Chimps are incapable even of learning the symbols of a language.
d) Chimps can learn some basic language skills, but the linguistic capacities of humans are far superior 4. Chomsky proposed that children learn language swiftly: a) because they possess an innate language acquisition device. b) through imitation, reinforcement, and shaping. c) as the quality of their thought improves with age. d) because they need to in order to get their increasingly complex needs met.
5. The linguistic relativity hypothesis is the notion that: a) ones language determines the nature of ones thought. b) ones thought determines the nature of ones language. c) language and thought are separate and independent processes. d) language and thought interact, with each influencing the other.
6. The nine-dot problem is: a) often solved suddenly with a burst of insight b) difficult because people assume constraints that are not part of the problem c) solved through fast mapping d) both a and b 7. Problems that require a common object to be used in an unusual way may be difficult to solve because of:
a) mental set b) irrelevant information c) unnecessary constraints d) functional fixedness 8. A heuristic is: a) a flash of insight b) a guiding principle or rule of thumb used in problem solving or decision making
c) a methodical procedure for trying all possible solutions to a problem d) a way of making a compensatory decision 9. Which of the following is not a heuristic used for solving problems?
a) working backward b) fast mapping c) forming subgoals d) searching for analogies 10. According to Nisbett, Eastern cultures tend to favor a(n) _____ cognitive style, whereas Western cultures tend to display a(n) _____ cognitive style
a) analytic; holistic b) holistic; analytic c) heuristic; algorithmic d) algorithmic; heuristic 11. The theory of bounded rationality was originally developed by:
a) Herbert Simon b) Noam Chomsky c) Steven Pinker d) Gerd Gigerenzer 12. When you estimate the probability of an event by judging the ease with which relevant instances come to mind, you are relying on :
a) an additive decision-making model b) the representativeness heuristic c) the availability heuristic D) a non-compensatory model 13. The belief that the probability of heads is higher after a long string of tails: a) is rational and accurate
b) is an example of the gamblers fallacy c) reflects the influence of the representativeness heuristic d) includes both b and c 14. The tendency to overestimate the probability of events that get heavy media coverage reflects the operation of:
a) framing effects b) the representativeness heuristic c) the availability heuristic d) mental set 15. If someone says Only a congenial pinhead would make that choice, this use of language would represent:
a) confirmation b) syntactic slanting c) anticipatory name calling d) telegraphic speech MEMORY
WHATS IN THIS CHAPTER? (Objectives for this unit) Essential Questions to be asked: How do we remember things? Why do we forget things?
Where do we store memories? Are there different types of memories? Are there memories that last longer than others? Why? Can we have false memories? Can our imagination play tricks on us? How can we improve our memory? Overview Memory Memory
persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information Flashbulb Memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event Based in long-term memory Ex. JFK assassination; 9/11 attack Memory Memory as Information Processing similar to a computer
write to file: putting info in (encoding) save to computer/jump/external: save file as: (storage) read from computer/jump/external : retrieval: (open file) Encoding ENCODING the processing of information into the memory system or getting information into memory Typing on a computer keyboard the information
you need to keep. Memory code: created by the brain; emphasis on looks, sounds, or meaning STORAGE Storage: The retention of coded information over time Saving information: where? Do I need it temporarily: over a few minutes, days, months? Do I need it for years or the rest of my life?
Where do I put the information when I save it? RETRIEVAL Retrieval: The process of getting information out of memory storage When I save information, how do I get it back out when I need it? Do I remember where I put it? What if it is large pieces of information or
just a single word? Getting Information In Encoding Effortful Automatic Automatic processing allows us to process two or more complex coding tasks simultaneously & is done without conscious awareness
Encoding Effortful Processing requires attention conscious effort Spacing and serial position effect Elaboration Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of the encoding Ex. Linking classically conditioned fears to your own fear of spiders Rehearsal repetition of information to maintain it in consciousness
to encode it for storage Encoding Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of incidental information Space: aware of size of room or distance from something Time: how much time has passed; how long something occurred Frequency: how often something happens well-learned information word meanings
YET, we can learn automatic processing reading backwards Storage: Memory System 3 Components of Memory Short-term memory is also known as working memory Different Types of Memory Sensory memory
Sensory Register acts as a buffer for stimuli received through the senses. I see everything in the room, but I dont need to pay attention to everything in the room. exists for each sensory channel: iconic memory for visual stimuli, echoic memory for auditory stimuli haptic memory for touch.
Info only passes from sensory memory to short-term memory if it catches our attention. the rest is filtered out which is of no interest at a given time. Sensory Memory Store Sensory Input Sensory Memory
Capacity - large holds many items at once Duration - very brief .3 sec for visual info .2 sec for auditory info Function - holds info long enough for basic physical characteristics Receiving room of the memory system
Sperlings Experiment 1960 Presented matrix of letters for 1/20 seconds Report as many letters as possible Subjects recall only half of the letters Was this because subjects didnt have enough time to view entire matrix? No
How did Sperling know this? Sperlings Experiment Sperling showed people can see and recall ALL the letters momentarily Sounded low, medium or high tone immediately after matrix disappeared tone signaled 1 row to report recall was almost perfect
High Medium Low Sperlings Iconic Memory Experiment Sperlings Iconic Memory Experiment Sperlings Iconic Memory Experiment
Sperlings Iconic Memory Experiment ICONIC MEMORY Photographic memory Eyes register an exact representation of a scene Can recall any part of it but only for a few tenths of a second You remember an entire dream; but it fades as you begin to tell it.
Sensory Memory Store Sensory Input Sensory Memory forms automatically, doesnt need your attention or interpretation
Only need to attend to the elements we want to use and work with in shortterm memory Short-term Memory Working Memory Store (start with Ss memory vignette) Function - conscious processing Needs your attention! where information is actively worked on Capacity - limited (holds 7 +/- 2 items)
Duration - brief storage (about 10-20 seconds) Sensory Input Attention Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory
Short-term memory Working Memory Capacity: refers to ones ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention briefly stored information scratch-pad for temporary recall Ex: In order to understand this sentence, you need to hold in your mind the beginning of the sentence as you read the rest. Short-term memory decays rapidly!!
Change purse theory (Miller 1976)
Small: limited capacity 7-10 items Keeps essential info like a change purse Different sized pieces of info. Chunking of information increases short-term memory capacity and is the organization of info into meaningful units a hyphenated phone number is easier to remember than a single long number. formation of a chunk: known as closure. Diff. size chunks Interference: can cause disturbance in S-T-M retention.
accounts for desire to complete tasks held in shortterm memory as soon as possible. SCHOOL Chunking Grouping small bits of information into larger units of information expands working memory load Which is easier to remember? 4 8 3 7 9 2 5 1 6 483 792 516
Working Memory Store What happens if you need to keep information in working memory longer than 20 seconds? To demonstrate, memorize the following phone number (presented one digit at a time)... 8 5 7 91 6 3 Working Memory Store What is the number?
857-9163 The number lasted in your working memory longer than 30 seconds So, how were you able to remember the number? Rehearsal
Mental or verbal repetition of information: aka REPETITION ROTE REHEARSAL Allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 10-20 seconds Maintenance rehearsal Sensory Input
Sensory Memory Attention Working or Short-term Memory Maintenance Rehearsal What happens if you cant use maintenance rehearsal? Memory decays quickly
To demonstrate, again memorize a phone number (presented one digit at a time) BUT, have to count backwards from 1,000 by twos (i.e., 1000, 998, 996 etc.) 6 2 8 50 9 4 However, if youve already learned the information and you use rehearsal, it solidifies retention and is called OVERLEARNING Working Memory Store
What is the number? 628-5094 Without rehearsal, memory fades Short-Term Memory Test http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/stm0. html Petersons STM Task Test of memory for
3-letter nonsense syllables Participants count backwards for a few seconds, then recall Without rehearsal, memory fades STORAGE SHORT TERM summary Encoding from sensory starts as these 3 before going into STM?
How do we make room for other info and still keep needed info in STM? Long Term Memory Bank Long-term memory intended for storage of information over a long time; basically unlimited capacity Information from the working memory is transferred to it after a few seconds. Unlike in working memory, there is little decay.
Getting Information In to long-term memory! Encoding Sensory input External events Attention to important or novel information Sensory
memory Encoding Short-term memory Encoding Retrieving Long-term memory
Enriching Encoding Visual Encoding (Structural) encoding of picture images Acoustic Encoding (Phonemic) encoding of sound especially sound of words Semantic Encoding encoding of meaning including meaning of words
Enriching Encoding Enriching Encoding Self-referent encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant Motivation to Remember: if this is high at the time of encoding it enhances later recall Encoding
Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables TUV ZOF GEK WAV the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2 Spacing Effect distributed practice yields better longterm retention than massed practice SERIAL POSITION EFFECT Tendency to recall best the first or last items in a list TWO TYPES
PRIMACY EFFECT: better recall of first few items (right after learning) RECENCY EFFECT: better recall of last few items (later after learning) Encoding: Serial Position Effect Percent age of words recalled 90
80 Serial Position Effect tendency to recall first & the last items in a list 70 60 50 40
30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Position of word in list 9 10 11 12 Enriching Encoding Imagery mental pictures a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic
encoding Mnemonics aka. Mnemonic device memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices Enriching Encoding Acrostics: phrases (for poems) in which the first letter of each word (or line) function as a cue to help you recall Acronym: a word formed out of the first letters of a series of words
Rhymes Link Method: involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together Method of Loci: taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations Memory Aids Peg Words 1. 2. 3.
4. 5. Nun Shoe Tree Door Beehive 6. Sick 7. Heaven
8. Gate 9. Wine 10. Lions Den Enriching Encoding Chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable units like horizontal organization--1776149218121941 often occurs automatically use of acronyms
HOMES--Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior ARITHMETIC--A Rat In Toms House Might Eat Toms Ice Cream Enriching Encoding We also use Hierarchies to encode complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories Encoding (automatic or effortful)
Meaning (semantic Encoding) Imagery (visual Encoding) Chunks Organization
Hierarchies Explicit Implicit Non-declarative Long-term Memory Systems L o n g -te rm M e m o ry E x p lic it M e m o r y E p is o d ic M e m o ry
S e m a n t ic M e m o ry Im p lic it M e m o r y P ro c e d u ra l M e m o ry C la s s ic a l C o n d it io n in g P r im in g
Explicit Memory Explicit Memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. also called declarative memory - the hippocampus plays a critical role in this type of memory Subtypes of Explicit Memory E x p li c i t M e m o r y
E p is o d ic M e m o r y S e m a n t ic M e m o r y 2 Types of Long-Term Explicit memory: Episodic memory of events and experiences from this memory we can reconstruct the actual events that took place at a given point in our lives. Semantic memory: record of facts, concepts and skills that we have acquired.
is derived from episodic memory: we can learn new facts or concepts from our experiences. Explicit Memory describe the picture below using the two sub-types: semantic and episodic Episodic Memory Memory tied to your own personal experiences Examples: what did you have for dinner? do you like to eat caramel apples?
Why are these explicit memories? Because you can actively declare your answers to these questions Semantic Memory Memory not tied to personal events General facts and definitions about the world Examples: who was George Washington? what is a cloud? what is the climate at the north pole?
These are explicit memories because you can describe what you know about them. Unlike episodic memories, your knowledge does NOT include your personal experience i.e., You may never have been to the north pole but do know about it. Implicit Memory I m p li c i t M e m o r y C la s s ic a l C o n d it io n in g
P ro c e d u ra l M e m o ry P r im in g Implicit Also known as non-declarative; retention independent of conscious recollection aka. procedural memory Linked to the cerebellum
Three subtypes Classical/operant Procedural Priming Implicit Memory Influences your thoughts or behavior, but does not enter consciousness
Classical Conditioning Studied earlier Ch. 6 learning Implicit because it is automatically retrieved Implicit/Procedural Memory Memory that enables you to perform specific learned skills or habitual responses
Examples: Riding a bike How to speak grammatically Tying your shoe laces Why are these procedural memories implicit? Cant readily describe their contents try describing how to tie your shoes They are automatically retrieved when appropriate Priming
Priming is influence of one memory on another priming is implicit because it does not depend on awareness and is automatic Here is a demonstration Priming Demonstration Unscramble the following words:
ORSE LTEPA KTALS TSME LOBSOMS ELAF
ROSE PETAL STALK STEM BLOSSOM
Priming Demonstration ELAF = ? Why not respond FLEA? Because flower parts were primed (flower power) Priming Activation of one or more existing memories by a stimulus Activation not a conscious decision BUT, can effect subsequent thoughts and
actions Two Types of Priming P r im in g C o n c e p tu a l P e rc e p tu a l Conceptual Priming The semantic meaning of priming stimulus influences your encoding or retrieval
Thought to involve activation of concepts stored in semantic memory Example: Flower power priming demonstration Does not depend on sense modality: pictures can conceptually prime sounds AS THE NEXT SLIDE SHOWS Priming across modalities Look at the picture . When I say a word, write it
down. When I say a word, write it down Perceptual Priming Priming enhances ability to identify a test stimulus based on its physical features Making meaning out of a given stimulus Perceptual Priming Can you identify the fragmented stimulus
to the right? Perceptual Priming What if you were shown the following slide earlier in the lecture? Perceptual Priming Can you identify the fragmented stimulus to the right?
Perceptual Priming Perceptual Priming Prospective Vs Retrospective Memory Prospective memory: Involves remembering to perform actions in the future Retroactive memory: Involves remembering events from the past or
previously learned information Long-term Memory Processes There are three main activities related to long-term memory: Storage: the retention of encoded information over time Retrieval: process of getting information out of memory Deletion: forgetting information
STORAGE Keeping information in! Long-Term Memory Store Once information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be encoded into longterm memory Maintenance Rehearsal Sensory Input Sensory Memory
Attention Encoding Working or Long-term Short-term memory Memory Retrieval Long-Term Memory Store Encoding Elaborate constructive rehearsal:
passing info from short term to long-term memory store Retrieval - controls flow of information from longterm to short term memory store Maintenance Rehearsal Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention
Encoding Working or Long-term Short-term memory Memory Retrieval Long-Term Memory Physical Storage Explicit Memory hippocampus--neural center in limbic system that helps process
explicit memories for storage Explicit Memories Hippocampus Implicit Memory retention independent of conscious recollection also called procedural memory Brain stem and cerebellum Amygdala: emotional memories
Damage to amygdala would mean you couldnt learn and remember fear Storage: Long-Term Memory How does storage work? Karl Lashley (1950)
rats learn maze Lesioned their cortex Cut sections of their brain out Re-test memory of maze Rats could still run portions of the maze Memory not located in just one spot or area of brain Synaptic changes Long-term Potentiation increase in synapses firing potential after brief, rapid
stimulation; more learning, more synaptic growth Strong emotions make for stronger memories some stress hormones boost learning and retention Evidence for Separate Implicit/Explicit Systems Neurophysiological evidence Patient H.M. life-threatening seizures originating in temporal lobe surgically removed portions of temporal lobe Temporal lobe includes:
- hippocampus amygdala Patient H.M. Surgery was effective in reducing seizures BUT, had other side effects Can remember explicit memories acquired before the surgery e.g., old addresses, normal vocabulary Cannot form NEW explicit memories e.g., remembering the name of someone he met 30 minutes prior
cannot name new world leaders or performers can recognize a picture of himself from before his surgery but not from after and doesnt recognize himself in a mirror Patient H.M. H.M. is almost normal on procedural or implicit memory tasks including priming, classical conditioning, and learning motor skills This shows that explicit memory depends upon the temporal lobes and implicit does not Consolidation: hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in
long-term memory Memories are consolidated in the hippocampal region and then stored in diverse areas of the cortex Hippocampal Damage Deficits in forming new explicit memories Storing memories in the brain Ralph Gerard 1953 Trained hamsters to turn right or left to get food
Lowered their body temperature until brains electrical activity ceased Hamsters revived, brains became active again Would they remember which way to turn? Yes. Long term memories survived the electrical blackout. Storage to long-term Elaboration Focus on the meaning of information to encode it into LTM
dont simply repeat items over and over tie item to other info in memory called elaborate constructive rehearsal Long term storage Which Level is More Effective? Elaboration leads to better recall than shallow processing Type of Processing
Deep 0 Intermediate-Acoustic Shallow - Visual 10 20 30
40 50 60 70 80 Percent of words recalled 90 100
Conceptual Hierarchies Related items form categories Remember list better if presented in categories poorer recall if presented randomly Mammals Dogs German Shepherds
Cats Scottish Terriers Siamese Calico Types of Mental Associations Association by contiguity
concepts are associated because they occur together in a persons previous experience Association by similarity concepts with shared properties are associated Semantic Network Attempt to depict structure of memory as concepts linked by associations Car
Truck Bus Fire Engine House Fire Ambulance Red
Hot Stove Rose Apple Cherry Pot
Pan Violet Flower Pear Pie Semantic Network Links between concepts common properties provide basis for mental link
Shorter path between two concepts = stronger association in memory Activation of a concept starts decremental spread of activity to nearby concepts Also known as the spreading-activation model Semantic Network April prom
Parallel Distributed Processing PDP system: consists of a large network of interconnected computing units, or nodes, that operate much like neurons PDP models assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks Information lies in the strengths of the connections Are Memories Organized?
Lets put it to the test! Demonstration: recite the days of the week recite the days of the week in alphabetical order demonstrates that long-term memory is organized not just a random jumble of information How are memories organized? Getting Information Out! Retrieval
Retrieval Types of information retrieval: Recall in recall, the information is reproduced from memory & needs the fewest retrieval cues Serial Recall: perfect sequential order Random Recall: all info but not in order Recognition presentation of the information provides the knowledge that the information has been seen before.
lesser complexity of memory, as information is provided as a cue. M.C. test Retrieval Relearning (savings) memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material a second time Priming activation, often unconsciously, of
particular associations in memory brings info to conscious when prompted Context-Dependent Memory Improved ability to remember if tested in the same environment as the initial learning environment better recall if tested in classroom where you initially learned info than if moved to a new classroom if learning room smells of chocolate or mothballs, people will recall more info if tested in room with the
same smell compared to different smell or no smell at all Context-Dependent Effects Compare words learned underwater vs on land Words heard underwater are best recalled underwater Words heard on land are best recalled on land Retrieval Cues Percentage of words recalled
Encoding Specificity Principle: The value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code 40
30 20 10 0 Water/ land Land/ water Different contexts for
hearing and recall Water/ water Land/ land Same contexts for hearing and recall Context Dependent Effects
Time of day is also important Learn at 3 pm Perform better at 3 pm Than 9 pm 12 12 12
9 3 6 9 3 6 9
3 6 Context Dependent State Deja Vu (French)--already seen cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience The eerie feeling that "I've experienced this before." Retrieval Cues
State-dependent Memory what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state Recall improved if internal physiological or emotional state is the same during testing and initial encoding State-Dependent Memory Context vs State dependent Context-dependent - external, environmental
factors State-dependent - internal, physiological factors State-Dependent Effects Mood-Congruent Memory -Mood or emotions also a factor tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current mood memory, emotions, or moods serve as
retrieval cues Bipolar depressives information learned in manic state, recall more if testing done during manic state information learned in depressed state, recall more if testing done during depressed state State Dependent Effects If drink during learning May recall better
with drink Than without But not as well as sober all the way! Deletion also called Forgetting Forgetting Theories
Role of time Trace decay Isolated facts Negative information Completed tasks Interference theories Retrieval failure Motivated forgetting False memories Forgetting Forgetting can
occur at any memory stage As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it Forgetting as Encoding Failure Information never encoded into LTM X
Encoding Failure Demonstrations What letters accompany the number 5 on your telephone? Where is the number 0 on your calculator? Lincoln penny According to this theory, objects seen frequently, but information is never encoded into LTM Forgetting as Retrieval Failure
Not all forgetting is due to encoding failures Sometimes information IS encoded into LTM, but we cant retrieve it Dont know path to retrieve Dont access information regularly Retrieval failure Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from longterm memory
Attention External events Sensory memory Encoding Encoding Short-term Long-term
memory Retrieval memory Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Types of Retrieval Failures Encoding specificity principle: the value of the retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code Transfer-appropriate processing: occurs when the initial processing of information is
similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention Role of Time : Decay Theory Memories fade away or decay gradually if unused Ebbinghaus forgetting curve over 30 days-- initially rapid, then levels off with time Time plays critical role Ability to retrieve info declines with
time after original encoding Problem: Many things change with time. Something else may change and actually cause forgetting: Interference Trace Decay Theory use it or lose it Isolated Facts
Most common form of forgetting Grocery lists Locker combinations Dr. appointments Not tied to significant/emotional material Tid-bit information Witness stand
Negative information Information contrary to our internal belief structure Nonsense information Jabberwocky Conflicting information BLUE GREEN PINK The Stroop Effect http://www.math.unt.edu/~tam/SelfTests/Str
oopEffects.html Completed Tasks The Zeigarnik effect Completed tasks more likely to be forgotten than incomplete tasks Completing task takes the information off of the front burner Loses meaning and attention Completed tasks; waiter in restaurant, Math problems
Interference Theories Memories interfering with memories Forgetting NOT caused by mere passage of time Caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory Two types of interference Two Types of Interference T y p e s o f in t e r fe r e n c e R e t r o a c t iv e
In te r fe r e n c e P r o a c t iv e In te r fe r e n c e Retroactive Interference When a NEW memory interferes with remembering OLD information Example: When new phone number interferes with ability to remember old phone number
Retroactive Interference Example: Learning a new language interferes with ability to remember old language F Proactive Interference Opposite of retroactive interference When an OLD memory interferes with remembering NEW
information Example: Memories of where you parked your car on campus the past week interferes with ability find car today Proactive Interference Example: Previously learned language interferes with ability to remember newly learned language
F Review of Interference Theory Retroactive Interference Learn A Learn B Recall A, B interferes Proactive Interference Learn A Learn B Recall B, A interferes
Interference reflects competition between responses. Forgetting Retroactive Interference Percentage 90% of syllables 80 recalled 70 Without interfering events, recall is
better After sleep 60 50 40 30 20 10 After remaining awake
0 1 2 3 4 5
6 7 Hours elapsed after learning syllables 8 Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon
Serial scanning Wrong prompt. Info similar found but not right info needed Scanning information near or around needed information Will continue to scan for info until found Motivated Forgetting people unknowingly revise memories Repression
defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories Unable to store memories Amnesia--the loss of memory Retrograde amnesia: loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia Anterograde amnesia: loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia Physiological: brain damage; unable to form new memories 1. Oliver Sacks 1985: patient named Jimmy
page Myers 358-359 Describe Jimmys case 2. How does amnesia effect explicit and implicit memory? Hippocampus Damage Left damage: cant remember verbal info Right damage: cant remember visual designs and locations Location of oldest memories Sights, sounds, smells, feels MEMORY CONSTRUCTION
Reality monitoring: process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (ones perceptions of actual events) or internal sources (ones thoughts and imagination) Source monitoring: making attributions about the origins of memories Source Amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution) Source-monitoring error: occurs when a memory derived from
one source is misattributed to another source Destination memory: involves recalling to whom one has told what Memory Construction We filter information and fill in missing pieces Misinformation Effect incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event; sometimes happens with the questions asked by
police Memory Construction Recall not an exact replica of original events Recall a construction built and rebuilt from various sources Often fit memories into existing beliefs Eyewitnesses usually see something complex just once then have to remember it Elizabeth Loftus Experiment Subjects shown video of
an accident between two cars Some subjects asked: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? Others asked: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?
Loftuss Results Speed estimates depended on how the question was phrased Subjects memory for broken glass also depended on the phrasing of the speed question. But this was a false memory: there was no broken glass
Memory Construction Restating the Context of an Event False Memory Syndrome condition in which a persons identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists A false memory is a memory which is a distortion of an actual experience, or a confabulation of an imagined one.
confusing or mixing fragments of memory events, some may have happened at different times but are remembered as occurring together. can involve an error in source memory. treating dreams as if they were playbacks of real experiences. Can be the result of the prodding, leading, and suggestions of therapists and counselors. Schema Theories Schema - mental representation of an object, scene or
event example: schema of a countryside may include green grass, hills, farms, a barn, cows, etc. Scripts - type of schema I could say I was in class the other day You would have a mental organization of a classroom script: come into class, sit down, talk to friends, bell rings, instructor begins to speak, take notes, bell rings again, leave class, etc. Schemas & scripts provide framework for new information
Whats in Store for Memory in the Future More of human memory will move online. Rely more on digital storehouses full of video and audio files of our lives. It'll happen because digital storage is cheap we also realize how unreliable human memory can be. storehouses will be portable, like today's music for joggers, will provide you with help in remembering people and places.
Memory Extraction: criminal cases, eye witness, Government use Memory Implants: sensual experiences, travel experiences, languages, top secret information Virtual memories: Rachel is given a first-person memory of a childhood she never had. Can create conflicts between real and virtual childhood if real is not deleted. Interference will occur Quasi-memories: one person's experiential memories are recorded and then implanted into a different person's head. Living an autobiography; Zorro, Jesus
Body Switching: our memories in another body/ vise versa Virtual Identity: A facsimile of a human personality could be preserved within a computer program and purchased. Chapter 7 Practice Test 1. Getting information into memory is called _______; getting information out of memory is called________. A. B.
C. D. Storage; retrieval Encoding; storage Encoding; retrieval Storage; encoding 2. The word big is flashed on a screen. A mental picture of the word big represents a _________ code; the definition large in size represents a _________ code; sounds like a pig represents a
__________ code. A. B. C. D. Structural; phonemic; semantic Phonemic; semantic; structural Structural; semantic; phonemic Phonemic; structural; semantic 3. Miles is listening as his mother rattles through a
list of 15 or so things that he needs to remember to pack for an upcoming trip. According to George Miller, if Miles doesnt write the items down as he hears them, he will probably remember: A. B. C. D. Fewer than 5 items from the list About 10 to 12 items from the list All the items from the list
5 to 9 items from the list 4. Which statement best represents current evidence on the durability of long-term storage? A. All forgetting involves breakdowns in retrieval B. LTM is like a barrel of marbles in which none of the marbles ever leak out C. There is no convincing evidence that all ones memories are stored away permanently D. All long-term memories gradually decay at a constant rate
5. 5. An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event is called a: A. B. C. D. Semantic network Conceptual hierarchy Schema Retrieval cure
6. The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: A. Is a temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that its just out of reach B. Is clearly due to a failure in retrieval C. Reflects a permanent loss of information from LTM D. Is both A and B 7. Roberto is telling Rachel about some juicy gossip when she stops him and informs him that
she is the one who passed this gossip onto him about a week ago. In this example, Roberto has: A. B. C. D. Been fooled by the misinformation effect Made a reality-monitoring error Made a source-monitoring error Made a destination memory error
8. In decay theory is correct: A. Information can never be permanently lost from long-term memory B. Forgetting is simply a case of retrieval failure C. The principal cause of forgetting should be the passage of time D. All of the above 9. Bulldog McRae was recently traded to a new football team. He is struggling to remember the plays for his new team because he keeps mixing
them up with the plays from his previous team. Bulldogs problem illustrates the operation of: A. B. C. D. Retroactive interference Proactive interference Transfer-inappropriate processing Parallel distributed processing
10. Research suggests that the consolidation of memories depends of the activity in the: A. B. C. D. Cerebellum Prefrontal lobe Medial temporal lobe Corpus callosum
11. Your memory of how to ride a bicycle is contained in your______________ memory. A. B. C. D. Declarative Nondeclarative (procedural) Structural Episodic
12. Your knowledge that birds fly, that the sun rises in the east, and that 2+2=4 is contained in your _____ memory. A. B. C. D. Structural Procedural
Episodic semantic 13. Dorothy memorized her shopping list. When she got to the store, however, she found she had forgotten many of the items from the middle of the list. This is an example of: A. B. C. D.
Inappropriate encoding Retrograde amnesia Proactive interference the serial-position effect 14. Overlearning: A. Refers to continued rehearsal of material after the point of apparent mastery B. Promotes improved recall C. Should not be done, since it leads to increased interference
D. Does both a and b 15. The tendency to mold ones interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out is called: A. B. C. D. The overconfidence effect
Selective amnesia Retroactive interference The hindsight bias Homework Questions 1. The tendency for prior learning to inhibit recall of later learning is called a. encoding failure. b. repression. c. retroactive interference. d. proactive interference. 2. Things that are heard are held as a brief __________ in the sensory register.
a. echo. b. icon. c. image. d. tactile. 3. Twenty years after graduating, a subject is able to correctly identify photographs of students she attended high school with from a larger group of strangers. To do so she has used a. recall. b. recognition. c. eidetic imagery.
d. reminiscence. 4. Memories outside of conscious awareness are called a. proactive memories. b. reactive memories. c. explicit memories. d. implicit memories. 5. The image that persists for about one-half second after being seen is a(n) a. sensation. b. echo. c. icon.
d. illusion. 6. Cue-dependent (or context dependent) theories of memory suggest that you would do best on your chemistry test if you could be tested a. in the room where you studied. b. in a chemistry laboratory. c. with a large group of chemistry majors. d. with students who share your interests. 7. Memories of historical facts are to __________ memory, as memories of your breakfast this morning are to __________ memory.
a. episodic; procedural b. procedural; semantic c. semantic; episodic d. long-term; short-term 8. The fact that a bodily state that exists during learning can be a strong cue for later memory is known as a. eidetic imagery. b. integration. c. state-dependent learning. d. the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. 9. Helen has a six-month "gap" in her memories of grade school.
Her "gap" corresponds to the period immediately after her father's death. Helen's memory loss is most likely accounted for by a. cue-dependent forgetting. b. repression. c. retroactive inhibition. d. decay of memory traces 10. Memories of historical facts are to __________ memory, as memories of your breakfast this morning are to __________ memory. a. episodic; procedural b. procedural; semantic c. semantic; episodic
d. long-term; short-term 15. If someone says Only a congenial pinhead would make that choice, this use of language would represent: a) confirmation b) syntactic slanting
c) anticipatory name calling d) telegraphic speech Intelligence What is it? How do we measure it? How did intelligence testing begin?
How does it impact how we view those around us? Intelligence Tests Intelligence tests A method for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores - Binet & Simon wanted to test mental age, which is the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance; average 8 year-old has a mental age of 8.
- Only intended to identify school children who needed help NOT to measure intelligence and label children - Tracking or grouping children according to their intellectual aptitude leads to decreased self-esteem & academic achievement Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Re-normed the test and derived what we know as the term IQ Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Mental age/ chronological age x 100 = IQ Intelligence tests no longer derive an IQ but a mental ability score that compares someones performance on
the test to the average performance of other the same age Ultimately test scores do not just test innate ability, but their education and the culture influences within the test What is Intelligence? Intelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations General intelligence (g): a general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies special
mental abilities and is measured by every task on an intelligence test Factor Analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie ones total score Ex. Verbal and Nonverbal factors What is Intelligence? Highly debated topic!!! Several theories of intelligence have developed
over time Basically, intelligence is an man-made construct and thus intelligence is defined by how it is measured via the components on the test that is used EX. The importance of thinking and language fits in here!! Theories of Intelligence Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner
Each intelligence is relatively independent of the other 7 types of intelligence Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence.
Multiple Intelligences Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner's words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is
most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related. Multiple Intelligences
Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence. Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to
appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. Sternberg agreed with Gardner..but stated only 3 intelligences: Analytical, Creative, & Practical Multiple Intelligences Savant Syndrome a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as computation or drawing
Ex. Rain Man This whole concept suggests that intelligence is a diverse set of distinct abilities Emotional Intelligence This was first called social intelligence or the know-how to comprehend and manage social situations well Emotional Intelligence The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions People are self-aware and not overwhelmed by
depression, anxiety, or anger Delay gratification for long-term goals and are not impulsive Assessing Intelligence Aptitude Tests A test designed to predict a persons future performance; aptitude *ex. career assessment, SAT, ACT, GRE Achievement Tests A test designed to assess what a person had learned;
current competence * ex. school tests Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtest Test Construction Standardization: Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group These scores typically create a normal distribution
that form a normal curve which is the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average and fewer and fewer lie near the extremes; bell-shaped pattern Ex. Bell-shaped pattern is generally seen for intelligence Normal Distribution IQ Deviation Scores Deviation IQ scores:
Locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement Devised by David Wechsler and used by most all subsequent tests Test Construction Reliability The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of score on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
Test-retest: determining reliability by retesting people with the same test or merely a different form of the test Split-half test: split the test in half and determine if the scores agree Most IQ test have exceptional reliability in the .90 Test Construction Validity The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. Content validity- the extent to which a test samples the
behavior that is of interest (ex. Drivers test- specific tasks) Predictive validity- test predicts behavior; correlation btwn. test scores the criterion Criterion: behavior that a test is designed to predict Validity of IQ scores are good with academic work but debatable with intelligence in the broader sense Mental Retardation Mental Retardation (intellectual disability ID) A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 and difficulty in adapting
to the demands of life (conceptual, social, & practical) Varies from mild to profound About 1% of people meet the criteria More males than females Chart Pg. 363 MILD MODERATE SEVERE
PROFOUND Genetic & Environmental Influences on Intelligence p. 366-370 Flynn Effect Reaction Range P. 374-376 Cultural Differences in Intelligence P. 371-374
Chapter 9 Practice Test 1. Which of the following does not belong with the others? A. B. C. D.
Aptitude tests Personality tests Intelligence tests Achievement tests 2. If you score at the 75th percentile on a standardized test, it means that: A. 75% of those who took the test scored better than you did B. 25% of those who took the test scored less than you C. 75% of those who took the test scored the
same or less than you did D. You answered 75% of the questions correctly 3. If a test has good test-retest reliability: A. There is a strong correlation between items on the test B. It accurately measures what it says it measures C. It can be used to predict future performance D. The test yields similar scores if taken at two different times 4. Which of the following is a true statement
regarding Francis Galton? A. He took the position that intelligence is largely determined by heredity B. He advocated the development of special programs to tap the intellectual potential of the culturally disadvantaged C. He developed tests that identified those children who were unable to profit from a normal education D. He took the position that intelligence is more a matter of environment than heredity
5. On most modern IQ tests, a score of 115 would be: A. B. C. D. About average About 15% higher than the average of ones agemates An indication of genius One standard deviation above the mean
6. IQ tests have proven to be good predictors of: A. B. C. D. Social intelligence Practical problem-solving intelligence School performance All of the above 7. Mr. and Mrs. Proudparents are beaming
because their son, little Newton, has been selected for a gifted children program at school. They think Newton is a genius. What sort of advice do they need to hear? A. Youngsters with a 130-140 IQ tend to be very maladjusted B. Most gifted children do not do not go on to make genuis-level, major contributions to society that earn them eminence C. They should prepare to be famous, based on their parentage of Newton D. They should be warned that gifted children
often have deficits in practical intelligence 8. Which of the following is a true statement about mental retardation/intellectual disability? A. Most people with retardation are unable to live normal lives because of their mental deficiencies B. With special tutoring, a mentally retarded person can attain average intelligence C. The majority of people who exhibit intellectual disability fall in the mild category D. Diagnoses of mental retardation should be
based exclusively on IQ scores 9. Most school districts consider children who_______ to be gifted. A. B. C. D. Have IQ scores above 115 Score in the upper 2%-3% of the IQ distribution Have parents in professional careers
Demonstrate high levels of leadership and creativity 10. In which of the following cases would you expect to find the greatest similarity in IQ? A. B. C. D. Between fraternal twins Between identical twins
Between nontwin siblings Between parent and child 11. Evidence indicating that upbringing affects ones mental ability is provided by which of the following findings? A. Identical twins are more similar in IQ than fraternal twins B. There is more than a chance similarity between adopted children and their biological parents C. Siblings reared together are more similar in IQ than siblings reared apart
D. Identical twins reared apart are more similar in IQ than siblings reared together 12. Which of the following is a likely consequence of stereotype threat for members of minority groups? A. Academic motivation declines B. Academic performance often suffers C. Standardized tests may underestimate their ability D. All of the above are likely consequences
13. ______ proposed that there are three facets of intelligence; analytical, practical, and creative intelligence A. B. C. D. Howard Gardner Arthur Jensen Claude Steele Robert Sternberg
14. When you try to narrow down a list of alternatives to arrive at a single correct answer, you engage in: A. B. C. D. Convergent thinking Divergent thinking
Creativity Insight 15. Nora has a blind date with Nick, who, shes been told, is considered a true genius by the faculty art department. Now shes having second thoughts, because shes always heard that geniuses are a little off their rocker. Does she have reason to be concerned? A. Yes. Its been well documented that the stress of creative achievement often leads to schizophrenic systems B. No. Extensive research on creativity and psychological disorders shows no evidence for any connection
C. Perhaps. There is evidence of a correlation between major creative achievement and vulnerability to mood disorders. D. Of course not. The stereotype of the genius whos mentally ill is purely a product of the jealousy of untalented people.