Shakespeares Language & His Times An Introduction Why does Shakespeare cause such fear in the hearts of many students? What makes him so hard to understand? Shakespeares Language Because Shakespeare writes in Old English!
Wrong! Shakespeare writes in Modern English! The same English we are using in this class right now! Old English (c. 450-1100) Fder ure u e eart on heofonum; Si in nama gehalgod to becume in rice gewure in willa on eoran swa swa on heofonum. urne gedghwamlican hlaf syle us todg and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfa urum gyltendum and ne geld u us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele solice.
Middle English (1100-1500) Oure fadir that art in heuenes, halewid be thi name; thi kyngdoom come to; be thi wille don, in erthe as in heuene. Yyue to vs this dai oure breed ouer othir substaunce, and foryyue to vs oure dettis, as we foryyuen to oure dettouris; and lede vs not in to temptacioun, but delyuere vs fro yuel. Amen. Modern English (1500 - Present) Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation. But deliver us from evil. Amen. Caedmon's Hymn (c. 737) Old English Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard metuds maecti end his modgidanc uerc uuldurfadur sue he uundra gihuaes eci dryctin or astelid he aerist scop aelda barnum heben til hrofe haleg scepen tha middungeard moncynns uard eci dryctin fter tiad firum foldu frea allmectig
Prologue to The Canterbury Tales Middle English - Chaucer (c. 1343 - 1400) Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote The droghte of March hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the Ram his halve
cours yronne, And smale foweles maken melodye, That slepen al the nyght with open ye (So priketh hem Nature in hir corages); Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes, To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; And specially from every shires ende Of Engelond to Caunterbury they wende,
The hooly blisful martir for to seke, That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke. The Passionate Shepherd to His Love Christopher Marlowe (1599) Modern English Come live with me and be my love, And we will all the pleasures prove That valleys, groves, hills, and fields, Woods, or steepy mountain yields. And we will sit upon rocks, Seeing the shepherds feed their flocks, By shallow rivers to whose falls
Melodious birds sing madrigals. And I will make thee beds of roses And a thousand fragrant poises, A cap of flowers, and a kirtle Embroidered all with leaves of myrtle; A gown made of the finest wool Which from our pretty lambs we pull; Fair lined slippers for the cold, With buckles of the purest gold; A belt of straw and ivy buds, With coral clasps and amber studs; And if these pleasures may thee move, Come live with me, and be my
love. The shepherds's swains shall dance and sing For thy delight each May morning: If these delights thy mind may move, Then live with me and be my love. What did Shakespeare sound like? Shakespeare's Vocabulary Today our vocabularies only run between 6,000 and 15,000 words. The Bible is made up of only six thousand different words. Shakespeare used between 25,000 and 29,000 different words. This is one of the largest vocabularies ever
possessed by any member of the human race. One out of every dozen or so words is a new one that Shakespeare would never use again. Shakespeare's Vocabulary Shakespeare added approximately 1,500 words to the English language. Some examples: Addiction, advertising, alligator, bandit, bloodstained, cold-blooded, critic, engagement, excitement, eyeball, gloomy, gossip, hint, accessible, amazement, assassination, barefaced, bedazzle, belongings, circumstantial, courtship, critical, dewdrop, downstairs, employer, epileptic, exposure, fairyland, fanged,
fashionable, frugal, homely, impartial, ladybird, lament, leapfrog, majestic, moonbeam, paternal, puke, rant, reclusive, roadway, sacrificial, schoolboy, silliness, useful, vulnerable, watchdog, zany. Phrases Coined by Shakespeare Cold All our comfort yesterdays (The Taming (Macbeth) of the Shrew / King John) Conscience All that glitters doesismake not gold
cowards (The of Merchant us all (Hamlet) of Venice) Crack All's well of doom that ends (Macbeth) well (title) Dead Batedas breath a doornail (The Merchant (2 Henry VI) of Venice)
A Bear dish a fit charmed for thelife gods (Macbeth) (Julius Caesar) Cry Be-all havoc and and the end-all let slip (Macbeth) the dogs of war (Julius Caesar) Dog The better
will have part his ofday valor (Hamlet) is discretion (I Henry IV; possibly already a saying) (Titus Andronicus / Henry V) known Devil incarnate Eaten Neither a borrower nor and a lender me out of house homebe
(2(Hamlet) Henry IV) Tempest) Brave Elbow new roomworld (King(The John; first attested 1540 according to MerriamWebster) Break the ice (The Taming of the Shrew) Faint Brevity hearted is the soul (I Henry of wit VI)(Hamlet) Fight
Refuse till tothe budge last an gasp inch (I Henry (Measure VI) for Measure / Taming of the Shrew) Flaming youth (Hamlet) Fool's paradise (Romeo and Juliet) Phrases Coined by Shakespeare Ill Forever wind which and a blows
day (As noYou man Like to It) good (2 Henry IV) In Fora goodness' pickle (Thesake Tempest) (Henry VIII) In Foregone my heart conclusion of hearts(Othello) (Hamlet) In
Full my circle mind's (King eyeLear) (Hamlet) Infinite The game space is afoot (Hamlet) (I Henry IV) In The a game pickle is (The
up (Cymbeline) Tempest) It Give smells the devil to heaven his due (Hamlet) (I Henry IV) Itching Good riddance palm (Julius (Troilus Caesar) and Cressida) Kill Jealousy
with kindness is the green-eyed (Taming of monster the Shrew) (Othello) Killing It was Greek frost (Henry to me (Julius VIII) Caesar) Knock Heart of knock! gold (Henry Who's there? V) (Macbeth)
Laughing 'Tis high time stock (The (The Comedy Merry Wives of Errors) of Windsor) Lean Household and hungry words look (Henry (Julius V) Caesar) Lie A horse,
low (Much a horse! AdoMy about kingdom Nothing) for a horse! (Richard III) Live long day (Julius Caesar) Love is blind (Merchant of Venice) Melted into thin air (The Tempest) Shakespeare's Vocabulary The longest word in Shakespeare is 'honorificabilitudinitatibus (Love's Labour's Lost, v. i. 41). At the Shakespeare Centre in Stratfordupon-Avon, which is the headquarters of the International Shakespeare Association, the library collection in 1999 included the
Complete Works in more than 30 languages and individual editions of the plays and poems in over 80 languages, from Arabic and Albanian to Yakut and Zulu. Why Should We Study Shakespeare? He tells us so much about human nature. This is probably one of the major reasons why Shakespeare's plays are still watched and studied. If the things he wrote about were not the perennial aspects of human nature, we wouldn't be interested in watching the plays any more. He reveals to us so much about our own natures. We recognize ourselves in the characters and words he creates. We learn about ourselves when we watch and read Shakespeare.
Why Should We Study Shakespeare? He is a brilliant dramatist. Shakespeare might have lots of profound things to say to us, but we wouldn't watch the plays unless they worked as drama. The experience of watching the plays is entertaining and spectacular as well as revealing many things about life to us. He is a great poet. The plays are full of memorable passages of poetry, which along with all Shakespeare's other achievements, contributes to the enduring success of his plays. The Elizabethan Age ELIZABETHAN FUN FACTS
Elizabeth I ate so many sweets that her teeth just rotted away and turned black! Boys schools in the Elizabethan era would have been open six days a week, for the whole year. The boys only got off for holidays. Also, school was in session from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm. Yikes! Women were not allowed to act in plays, so men (often teenage boys) would play the womens parts. ELIZABETHAN FUN FACTS Since theatres had no lights, characters often said what time of day it was. So many people wore wigs in
Elizabethan times that if a child was out after dark, they were in danger of having their hair cut to be made for wigs. One form of entertainment was bull or bear baiting, and cockfights. Bull/bear baiting is when a bull or bear is tied to a post, and five or six dogs attack it. ELIZABETHAN FUN FACTS Probably the most popular form of entertainment was going to the theater. It cost one penny, and another penny for a seat. Elizabethan theatres attracted huge crowds - up to 3000 people. Medicine was basic; Physicians had no idea what caused illnesses and
diseases. The beliefs about the causes of illnesses were based on the ancient teachings of Aristotle and Hippocrates. ELIZABETHAN FUN FACTS Physicians paid attention to a patients bodily fluids, called Humors. Many patients where subjected to bleeding in order to get rid of the bad Humors. For an earache, a common remedy was to put a roasted onion in the ear. To cure a stye, a person was supposed to rub his eye with the tail of a black tomcat.
ELIZABETHAN FUN FACTS The most common form of public execution was probably hanging. It was used for most common crimes such as robbery, murder, etc. Royalty who were convicted of some crime were usually beheaded with a sword or axe. So many people have used Shakespeare's works in their books or plays that if he were alive today, he would earn 55 million dollars a year! ELIZABETHAN FUN FACTS For Illnesses, people were told to swallow powdered human skull, live buttered spiders, or crab's
eyes. The cure for baldness: Shave the head and beard, and cover the head with the grease of a fox. Or you could wash the head with the juice of beets five or six times, or crush garlic and rub the head with it. ELIZABETHAN FUN FACTS Surgeons and barbers were usually the same man in a town. That is why a barber's pole is red and white. The red is for blood and the white is for bandages. Soap was very expensive and people rarely washed. Wealthy people used perfume to cover their body odors.
Barbers/Surgeons carried out amputations without using anesthetics - many patients died of shock. ELIZABETHAN FUN FACTS In Shakespeare's day, London had a population of about 200,000 people. London was filled with every type of criminal: murderers, muggers, shoplifters and more. There was even a school for pickpockets. Most people died before the age of 50. At 35 they considered themselves old.
Globe Theatre Globe Theatre The Play is the Thing Only men were permitted to perform. Boys or effeminate men were used to play the women. Costumes were often the companys most valuable asset.
Costumes were made by the company, bought in London, or The Play is the Thing 1 shilling to stand. 2 shillings to sit in the balcony. 1 shilling was 10% of their weekly income.
Example 7: Gavin agrees to buy a 6-month package deal of monthly gym passes, and in turn receives a 15% discount. Write an algebraic expression to represent the total cost of the monthly passes with the discount.
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