LEADERSHIP & LEGACY IN HISTORY The Basics THE BASICS Must discuss both leadership and legacy Look for a topic in history LEADERSHIP Act of leading: providing motivation, guidance or direction, usually from a position of authority.

LEADER VS. LEADERSHIP Leader Person or group who provided motivation and guidance Leadership The actions of a person or group who provided motivation or guidance Should focus from biography or timeline to specific action or event LEADERSHIP

Soviet Politiburo Haviland Smith, University of North Carolina, "CIA's World War II Legacy," 2008. Groups Vladimir Lenin Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin, 1946. Library of Congress Individuals

LEADERSHIP Hoffmann, Heinrich. Portraits of Adolf Hitler. Digital image. Library of Congress, 1935. Initiate Voluntary takes or seeks leadership role Raoul Wallenberg Passport Photo, Public Domain React

Involuntary responds to situation and finds themselves in leadership decision THE ROLE What was the leaders role? How did he or she get there? Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain. Digital image. Library of Congress, 1942.

FOLLOWERS Who were the supporters or followers? Were there people that disagreed or fought against them? Vietnam Veterans Against the War Bay Area Day March, 1970. Vietnam Veterans Against the War ( vvaw.org)

ACTIONS OR DECISIONS What is the focus of your project? How did the leader act in an intentional way that had a significant impact? FDR. Library of Congress. LEGACY

What is handed down to us from our ancestors or predecessors, What is left behind for future generations, such as ideas or accomplishments. LEGACY "More than 140 Die as Flames Sweep through Three Stories," The New York Tribune (New York, NY), March 26, 1911, Page 1, Image 1, col. 2. Chronicling America, Library of Congress. Could be positive or negative

LEGACY NAACP Members Marching to the Capitol during Legislative Session - Tallahassee, Florida. Digital image. Florida Memory, 196-. Address long-term significance LEGACY F.W. De Klerk, Left, the Last President of Apartheid-era South Africa, and Nelson Mandela, His Successor, Wait to Speak in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Digital image. Library of Congress,

1993. Web. Global Local LEGACY Thomas Jefferson/Louisiana Purchase Cornelius Tiebout, "Thomas Jefferson," 1801. Library of Congress.

Frank Church/Church Committee Used to investigate illegal activities by US intelligence agencies, this committee brought more publicity to government spying, which is still an issue today- ex. Edward Snowden. Senator Frank Church in July 1975. New York Times. Long ago Still impacts us today

SHORT TERM OR LEGACY? Distinguish between short-term impacts and legacy Gandhi, Kanu. Mahatma Gandhi, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right and smiling. Digital image. Library of Congress, 194-. Web. What happened right away? What long-term

changes have resulted from this topic? TOPIC SELECTION Picking the Best Topics for History Day 2015 IN HISTORY Herline and Hensel, "Abraham Lincoln," 1860. Library of Congress.

Souza, Pete. Official Portrait of Presidentelect Barack Obama. Digital image. Library of Congress, 13 Jan. 2009. More than 25 years old, as a rule of thumb LOOK BEYOND POLITICS Environment Medicine Rachel Carson's, "Silent

Spring," 1962. Daniel Hale Williams Performed the first open heart surgery. Crawford Studio, "Daniel Hale Williams," published in 1964. Library of Congress. Music Science

Getty Images from the New York Times. Leonardo da Vinci Reproduction of page from Leonardo daVinci's notebook, showing the operation of a mechanical wing, 1894-1904. Library of Congress. EVENTS AS HD TOPICS

Go beyond the event: Who was involved? League of Women Voters. Digital image. Iipdigital.usembassy.gov/. AP Images, 1915. Web. Susan B. Anthony. Digital image. Library of Congress. Bain News Service, n.d. Web. Seneca Falls Convention Susan B. Anthonys

role at the convention INVENTIONS AS HD TOPICS "Thomas Edison's patent for light bulb," 1880. Ourgovernments.gov Steam Locomotive (Railroad) -- John Stevens "Experimental Railway of John Stevens," 1825. Library of Congress. Cannot just focus on invention itself

Inventions cannot be leaders What was the inventors purpose? How was it used after its creation? LOCAL HISTORY WEB DuBois Martin Luther King Jr.

"W.E.B. DuBois facing left," 1920-1930. Library of Congress. "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivering sermon at Atlanta Church," 1967. Library of Congress. National Topic Local Connections SUCCESSES & FAILURES

Cuban Missile Crisis Phil Stanziola, "800 Women Strikers for Peace," 1962. Library of Congress. Consider not just achievements in history, but what failures have had an impact? REMEMBER! Things to remember and things to avoid when working with the 2015 theme AVOID BIOGRAPHY

Augustus Weidenbach, "George Washington," painted 1876. Library of Congress. "Napoleon Bonaparte," Artist and Date Unknown. Library of Congress. Flashlight vs. Floodlight Margaret Sanger. Digital image. Library of Congress, 1922.

OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS "Martin Luther King Jr.," December 3, 1963 at the White House. Library of Congress. Within a Movement George Wallace, 1963. Library of Congress Outside

Opinions GO BEYOND GOOD/BAD 1968-1972, "Richard Nixon." Library of Congress. Legacy is more than good or bad leadership. Its about change. HISTORICAL CONTEXT Ida M. Tarbell. Digital image.

Library of Congress, 1905. John D. Rockefeller. Digital image. Library of Congress, 1885. Ida Tarbell She was an American journalist and leading muckracker whose investigative reporting during the Progressive Era led to the breakup of the Standard Oil Company's monopoly. What was going on at the time?

What people, events or ideas influenced this leader? How did the leader influence things that came after? THROUGH THEIR EYES Consider the event through the eyes of those involved.

What was their point of view on the situation? Why did they make certain decisions, from their point of view? White Rose Resistance A group of students who wrote against Hitlers power and were later arrested and beheaded. Hans Scholl (left), Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst, leaders of the

White Rose resistance organization. Munich 1942. From Jacob Hornberger article on Jewish Virtual Library WHAT IS LEGACY? "Ford Model T," artist unknown, 1915. Library of Congress. Hartsook, photographer. Henry Ford, head-andshoulders portrait, facing slightly left, 1919 (?). Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress Legacy is about more than

bringing it up to today. AVOID WHAT IF HISTORY If President Truman hadnt dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, then World War II would not have ended. Harry Truman, half-length portrait, facing front. Digital image. Library of Congress, 27 June 1945. Cant prove what didnt happen.

United States Air Force, "Nagasaki, Japan under atomic bomb attack," August 9, 1945. Library of Congress. How did it actually change history? DOING THE RIGHT THING SS St. Louis Jewish refugee boat turned away by

multiple countries, including the United States, before WWII. Harris, and Ewing. Franklin D. Roosevelt. Digital image. Library of Congress, 1936. Web. "Voyage of the SS St. Louis May 13-June 17, 1939," shows the route and location of the boat throughout the course of the journey. Taken from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Inaction is still

making a decision. Failure to do the right thing is still a decision. What impact did non-action have on history? DONT OVERSIMPLIFY Many factors contribute to an event.

Avoid monocausal explanations. The Treaty of Versailles caused World War II. Taken from the US Department of State "Office of the Historian." https://history.state.gov/milestones/1914-1920/paris-peace CONNECT IN PROJECT Leadership

Legacy authority dictatorship in command of leading management supremacy ruling in charge of directing guidance

lasting memory impact reminder setting the stage outcome consequence effect repercussion aftermath result

TEACHER NOTES Other models of theme interpretation to consider! COMPARATIVE LEADERS "Martin Luther King Jr.," December 3, 1963 at the White House. Library of Congress. Malcom X. 1964. Library of Congress. Avoid False Comparisons:

9/11 and Pearl Harbor APPROPRIATING LEGACY Abraham Lincoln 1863. Library of Congress Ronald Reagan. Library of Congress THEME REVERSAL "Martin Luther King Jr.," December 3, 1963 at the White House. Library of Congress.

Gandhi, Kanu. Mahatma Gandhi, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right and smiling. Digital image. Library of Congress, 194-. Web. WHO IS A LEADER? Henry David Thoreau. Library of Congress. SELECTING LEADERS Rosa Parks. 1956. Library of Congress.


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