-, , , A prebiotic is a non-digestible

  -,  ,  , A prebiotic is a non-digestible

-, , ,
A prebiotic is a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or the activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the
colon.Prebiotics are like other carbohydrates that reach the cecum, such as nonstars polysaccharides, sugar alcohol, and resistant starch, in being substrates for fermentation. In the
large intestine, prebiotics, in addition to their selective effects on bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, influence manu aspects of bowel function througth fermentation. Short-chain fatty
acidsare a major product of prebiotic breakdown, but as yet, no characteristics pattern of fermentation acids has been identified

Harmful and Beneficial
Harmful roles

Number/gm feces
Log10 scale

1011
Bacteroides, b, d, e, f, h, i
Eubacteria
Bifidobacterium e, f, h, i
1010
Methanogens g
Anaerobic gram + a, b, e
109
108
Enterobacteriaceae a, e Lactobacillus e, f, h, i
107
E.coli a, b, d, f

a: Pathogenic
b: Production of potential
carcinogens
c: Production of toxic H2S Sulfate
reducers c
d: Intestinal putrefaction

105

Veillonella a
Clostridium a
Micrococcaceae a
Ps. aeroginosa a

103
102

HARMFUL

Beneficial roles

e: Competitive bacterial
exclusion
f: Stimulation of immune
functions
g: Lower gas distension
h: Aid in food
adsorbtion/digestion
i: Vitamins synthesis

BENEFICIAL

Predominant colonic microorganisms categorized into potentially harmful or beneficial groups

, [ Puhan, 1999]

DEFINITION FOR PREBIOTICS
A non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth
and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improves host health.
Gibson, G.R., Roberfroid, M.B, J. Nutr.(1995) 125, 1401-1412

A dietary prebiotic is a selectively fermented ingredient that results in specific changes, in the
composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon
host health.

PRODUCTION OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES

International Scientific Association for Probiotics & Prebiotics, Nov. 2008, London
SINTES OF GLUCOOLIGOSACCHARIDES BY
GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE

SINTES OF GALACTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES BY
TRANSGALACTOSYLATION OF LACTOSE BY
B-GALACTOSIDASE

Gal1,4Glc

Gal1,4Glc
Gal1,3GalGal1,6GalGal1,4Glc

Glc

Gal1,6GalGal1,6GalGal1,4Glc

Gal1,6GalGal1,4Glc
Gal1,3GalGal1,4Glc
Gal1,4Gal1,4Glc

+

Gal1,3GalGal1,3GalGal1,4Glc
Gal1,6GalGal1,3GalGal1,4Glc

TYPE OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES year

ton/

GALACTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES
15000
LACTULOSE
20000
FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES
12000
MALTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES
10000
ISOMALTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES
11000
GLUCOOLIGOSACCHARIDES
4000
SOYABEEN OLIGOSACCHARIDES
2000

NEW OLIGOSACCHARIDES
TYPE OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES
-XYLO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES;
-MANNO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES;
-GENTIO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES;
-CHITO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES;
-OLIGOSACCHARIDES FROM B-GLUCANS;
-OLIGOSACCHARIDES FROM PECTINS

Gal1,3GalGal1,4Gal1,4Glc
Gal1,6GalGal1,4Gal1,4Glc

-D-Glu[-(12)--D-Fru]n,n=2-4

,

[-D-Glu]m -D-Fru[-(12)- -DFru]n, m=0-1,n=1-9

,

-D-Glu[-(12)--D-Fru]n,n=10-60

( )

,

,

-D-Glu-(14)--D-Gal[-(16)- -DGal]n,n=1-4.

,

:
(n=1) +
(n=2)

[-D-Gal-(16)]n -D-Glu-(12)--DFru,n=1-2

-D-Gal-(14)- -D-Fru

-D-Gal-(14)- -D-Glu-(12)--D-Fru

+ ( )

+ (
)

,,

,nnE

-Xyl[l-(14)- -Xyl]n, n=1-8

-D-Glu[-(16)- -D-Glu]n,n=1 4

(-)
-+ -

-D-Glu[-(14)- -D-Glu]n,n=1 - 6

(-+
-)

[--D-Glu[-(14)-]n,,n=6 - 12

?,L

, (Playne and
Crittenden, 1996)

(Crittenden, 1999)

Acknowledgements
We would like to express our gratitude for the support of this work by research grant of NSF Bulgaria RNF 02-02-2009 and FSI 05-248/15.03.2012 of Shumen University.

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