S DNG T V LAO NG NNG THN TRONG GIAI ON HIN NAY Nghin cu trng hp ti x Cm Hong Cm Ging-Hi Dng V nh Tn1,2, Nguyn Th Thu Huyn2, V Quc Khnh2, Philippe LEBAILLY3 Khoa Chn nui v Nui trng Thy sn, Trng H NN H Ni 2 Trung tm Nghin cu Lin ngnh PTNT 3 Trng i hc Nng nghip Gembloux, B 1 T VN CHNH SCH MC TIU KT QU Quy m sx tng; Quyn s dng Nng cao hiu rung t qu s dng t; Dn in i tha Hiu qu s sx chuyn canh; Chuyn dch L;

Chuyn i mc dng lao ng; Thu nhp tng; Hiu qu s y nhanh tin ch s dng t S dng lao ng Tn dng dng vn. Hnh thnh vng trnh CNH-HH nng nghip, nng thn. T VN TNH TNH HI HI DNG X X Cm Cm Hong Hong IM NGHIN CU MIN BC VIT NAM

CM HONG: - Vng ng bng S. Hng - Din tch: 750 ha - Dn s: trn 7000 ngi - Sn xut nng nghip (la, chn nui, NTTS) MC TIU NGHIN CU nh gi tc ng ca DT v chuyn i MSDNN n hot ng sn xut nng nghip ca vng nghin cu; nh gi tc ng ca DT v chuyn i MSDNN n tnh hnh lao ng, thu nhp v vic lm ca h nng dn vng nghin cu; Tm hiu nhng vn ny sinh cn gii quyt do tc ng ca vic dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t nng nghip. PHNG PHP NGHIN CU a. Thu thp s liu S liu th cp: Thu thp t cc bo co tnh hnh kinh t x hi hng nm ca UBND x Cm Hong. Phng vn cn b x. S liu s cp: c thu thp trn 200 h nng dn c chuyn i v khng chuyn i mc ch s dng t nng nghip theo 2 mc thi gian nm 2000 v 2007. b. Phn tch s liu M t thc trng dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t nng nghip x t nm 1998 n nay. Phn tch tc ng ca dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ich s dng t nng nghip n i sng kinh t - x hi ca ngi dn x Cm Hong.

KT QU NGHIN CU 1. Thc trng dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t nng nghip Cm Hong. 2. Lao ng, thu nhp v vic lm ca ngi lao ng. 3. Xu hng tm vic lm ca cc lao ng trong thi gian ti. 4. Mt s thch thc t ra sau dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t Cm Hong. THC TRNG DN IN I THA CC H Cm Hong l mt trong nhng x u tin c chn lm m hnh th im tin hnh vn ng nng dn dn in i tha. Trc chuyn i, trung bnh 6,11 tha t canh tc/h (c bit 29 tha/h), vi din tch trung bnh 406 m2/tha. Sau chuyn i, trung bnh 2,23 tha/h (nhiu nht 5 tha/h), vi din tch trung bnh 1112 m2/tha.

Hot ng sn xut nng nghip thun tin hn do t ai tp trung, c bit l vic chuyn i mc ch s dng t t hiu qu rt r rt. CHUYN I MC CH S DNG T % so vi DT S h % so vi t Mc ch Nm s h ton chuyn (h) nng nghip s dng x i (ha) 2000 240 13,29 40,35 10,93 Ao - cy n qu 2003 750 40,43 158,62 24,93 Ao c, vn 2007 1010 53,81 174,64 42,99

Vn-aochung Quy trnh T lm Theo ch o ca UBND x Theo ch o ca UBND x Trc 2000: + Chuyn dch t do, khng theo quy hoch nh hng n khu vc trng la v gy kh khn cho vic xy dng c s h tng. + Mc ch: Lm ao kt hp vn cy n qu, vn tp. T 2001-2003: + Chuyn dch c s ch o ca UBND x + Mc ch: Lm ao kt hp vn cy n qu. T 2004 n nay: + Chuyn dch theo quy hoch ca UBND x + Mc ch: Xy dng m hnh VAC kt hp vi ao c lm ch o BIN NG T CHUYN I V T AO t ao t chuyn i 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2000 2003

2007 Nm Nm 2000, t ao chim 31,85% DT t chuyn i (ch yu l ao tn dng trong thn, x. G 2001-2003: DT ao tng ng k chim 58% tng DT t chuyn i Ao c c v tr quan trng trong h thng canh tc. Nm 2007: t ao chim 65,59% tng DT t chuyn i Phn ln t ao l t t chuyn i DT t chuyn i c a vo sn xut chuyn canh kh n nh nhm mang li hiu qu kinh t cao hn cho ngi dn. LAO NG, THU NHP V VIC LM CA H C cu cc nhm h Thu nhp theo nhm h v ngnh ngh Xu hng tm vic ca ngi lao ng trong thi gian ti. THAY I C CU NHM H T l (%) 2000 2007 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Nhm h Nhm h Nhm h Nhm h Nhm h Nhm h 1 2 3 4 5 6 1: h thun nng; 2: lao ng nng nghip v i lm thu; 3: lao ng nng nghip, cng nhn vin chc; 4: lao ng nng nghip v i xut khu lao ng; 5: lao ng lm nng nghip v tham gia t hai ngnh ngh khc tr ln; 6: h phi nng nghip T l gia cc nhm h c s thay i r rt nm 2000 so vi nm 2007: - Nm 2000: H thun nng chim cao nht (38,42%), h phi NN v h NN c ngi i XKL thp nht (2,46% v 1,97%). - Nm 2007: H c lao ng NN kt hp 2 ngnh ngh khac tr ln chim u th (38,92%) v thp nht l h thun nng & h phi NN (8,87% v 6,9%). - H c ngi i XKL tng kh mnh v thu nhp ca LXK cao hn rt nhiu so vi lao ng trong nc (i Loan, Malayxia, Hn Quc, Nga) THU NHP CA H NN KIM V PHI NN (nm 2007) 140 120 Triu ng/h/nm 2: LNN v lm thu; 114.37 93.63 100 79.61 80 4: LNN & XKL;

60 40 3: LNN & cng nhn vin chc; 47.25 5: LNN & tham gia t hai ngnh ngh khc tr ln; 38 20 6: h phi NN 0 Nhmh 2 Nhmh 3 Nhm h 4 Nhmh 5 Nhmh 6 Thu nhp c s khc nhau gia cc nhm h: H c ngi i XKL (nhm 5) c thu nhp cao nht: trung bnh t 114,5 triu ng/nm. H NN c lao ng lm thu c thu nhp thp nht (nhm 2): 38 triu ng/h/nm. H phi NN v h NN c t nht 3 ngh cng cho thu nhp kh: trung bnh t t 79,6 triu-93,63 triu ng/h/nm. THU NHP T NGNH NGH PHI NNG NGHIP Triu ng/ngi/nm

100 90 89.67 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 28.74 15.67 7.96 10 0 Bun bn, DV i lm Lm n XKL thu xa 14.73 16.31 Cng nhn Cng chc 11.7

Khc Tng t, thu nhp theo ngnh ngh phi NN cng c s sai khc rt r rt: Lao ng xut khu c thu nhp cao hn rt nhiu so vi cc lao ng khc: trung bnh 89,67 triu ng/ngi/nm. Lao ng i lm thu theo ma v c thu nhp thp nht. Phn ln h i lm vo ngy nng nhn, cng vic khng n nh v khng yu cu k nng cao. Trung bnh t 7,96 triu ng/ngi/nm. Cc ngh khc nh cng nhn, vin chc hay bun bn nh c thu nhp n nh hn v khng c s sai khc gia cc nhm ny. Trung bnh t 11,7 triu 16,31 triu ng/ngi/nm. HOT NG SN XUT CA H NNG NGHIP H chuyn i MSD (n=64) H khng chuyn i MSD (n=103) M hnh La (so) 4,45 LT (con) 8,23 La-CN (n=84) (110) (215) La-c 4,68 (n=48) (2,58) VAC 17,89 (630) (n=35) LN GC (con) (con)

1,23 125,23 (12) (20200) - - 1,36 196,32 Ao (so) 1,71 La (so) 4,88 (12) (50500) (0,56) LN (con) 2,44 (23) (250600) - - - (37) 58,13

3,4 539,93 5,98 (38) (4067) 3,9 (0,32,7) (16) 3,26 LT (con) 40,43 - GC (con) 452,97 Ao (so) 4,36 (33100) (27) (2701100) (2,512) Nhn chung, nhm h c hot ng chuyn i c quy m sn xut ln hn nhiu so vi nhm h khng c hot ng chuyn i: La-CN: s ln tht XC h chuyn i gp 5 ln h khng chuyn i; ln ni gp 2 ln. S gia cm c nui kh ln 450 con-800 con/h/nm; La c: TB 4,36 so ao/h C (3-7 so) so vi 1,71 so ao/h khng chuyn i (0,3-2,7 so); VAC: hu ht DT la c chuyn lm trang tri v gia tri. DT ao kh ln: TB 6 so/h (2,5-12 so); Ln tht TB: 58 con/h/nm; ln ni: 3,4 con/h/nm; gia cm: 540 con/h/nm (270-1100 con).

HQKT CA CC M HNH SN XUT NNG NGHIP SAU CHUYN I VT: Triu ng/h/nm M hnh Tng chi Doanh thu Thu nhp 1. La - la - chn nui - 2 la-chn nui nh (n=30) 3,06 10,34 7,30 - 2 la-cy v ngCN nh (n=11) 3,32 11,31 7,99 - La - ln - gia cm (n=79) 18,43 32,59 14,16 2. La - C (n=47) 20,35 43,87

23,53 3. Vn - Ao Chung (n=35) 80,83 131,75 50,92 Nhm h 2 la-CN nh v 2 la-v ng-CN nh c mc u t thp TN thp hn nhiu so vi cc m hnh c CN ln. M hnh la-CN truyn thng u t gp 6 ln h chuyn la TN kh hn nhiu, TNB t 14 tr./nm (gp 2 ln chuyn la). M hnh la-c c trin khai nhiu Cm Hong do kinh ph u t khng ln v an ton cao TN TB t 23,53 tr./nm. Tng DT v TN ca m hnh VAC cao nht (131,75 tr./nm v 50,92 tr./nm) Mc u t ln, yu cu k thut cao. MONG MUN V XU HNG TM VIC CA LAO NG TRONG THI GIAN TI Phn ln L c mong mun i XKL (35%): tui t 25-35, cha c ngh nghip n nh, hy vng c thu nhp cao. Khc, 19.13 L mun lm cng nhn khong 20%: thu nhp cha cao nhng n nh, c c hi lm ngh ring v c o to trong cc cng ty, nh my Phn ln nhng ngi trung tui, khng c kh nng i ngh mun tip tc vi nng nghip

(11,48%). Cc lao ng mun lm vin chc v mt s ngh khc c t l ln lt 14,75% v 19,13%. Lm nng, 11.48 Vin chc, 14.75 XKL, 35.52 Cng nhn, 19.13 MT S THCH THC T RA Bng nh gi c s h tng ca ngi dn x Cm Hong Mc Mc (%) p ng nhu cu (%) Giao thng Tt hn 83,62 Nh c 3,95 Xu i 12,43 48,02

Cha 51,98 in, nc 83,62 15,25 1,13 41,24 58,76 Mi trng 41,24 27,12 31,64 47,23 52,77 T nn x hi 22,60 49,72 27,68 - -

C s h tng: tt hn trc y nhng cha p ng c nhu cu sx; Mi trng vn ha nng thn v t nn x hi c xu hng xu i, c bit l cc h c ngi LXK; nhim mi trng sng gia tng do s dng nhiu thuc BVTV, thiu khng gian cho chn nui quy m ln; Quyt nh hng sn xut theo hng t pht, cha c s quy hoch c th ca cc cp chnh quyn; nh hng ngh nghip cho cc L ca cc cp chnh quyn cn lng tng. KT LUN Tc ng ca chnh sch dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t NN Cm Hong: S tha t canh tc gim cn 2,23 tha/h ; Quy m sn xut ca h chuyn i mc ch s dng t NN tng ln r rt so vi h khng chuyn i s u ln ni tng 2-2,5 ln, ln tht tng 3-5 ln, gia cm tng hn 3,6 ln, ao tng 1,4-2,6 ln) ; Mc thu nhp ca cc nhm h chnh lch kh cao: h NN t 28 tr./nm; h c LXK cao nht: 114,5 tr./nm; nhm h phi NN c thu nhp TB t t 29,9 93,6 tr./nm. Phn ln cao L tr mun i XKL hoc lm vic trong cc cng ty, nh my. Cc L trung tui kh c c hi i ngh nn mun gn b vi ngh nng. Mt s vn ny sinh: h tng c s cn yu km, cha p ng c yu cu cho cc h chuyn i (h thng ng giao thng, in), nhim mi trng do sn xut thm canh cao, vn L v vic lm cho ngi L do d tha L

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