SOCIAL COMMENTARY & SATIRE GOALS You will be able to identify and explain satire and social commentary You will understand how authors employ certain techniques to help develop their
commentary You will be able to support your analysis of satire and social commentary with specific evidence. WHY DO I CARE? Beyond the fact that you probably want a good grade This will help you be more informed
Make sure you are not mislead Make sure you are not easily influenced Improves your persuasion skills, so you can help influence change!! SOCIAL COMMENTARY What is it? Social commentary is the act of rebelling against an individual, or a group of people, through the use of
persuasive (rhetorical) techniques, or criticism of societal issues. The is most often completed with the purpose of implementing or promoting and appealing to peoples sense of justice It can take almost any form: Print, Film, Art, Music, Photography, etc GOAL OF SOCIAL COMMNETARY
Hopes to inspire change Draws attention to a serious issue Critiques a societal aspect Behavior, attitude, misinformation, etc BORN IN THE USA You all have probably heard this song beforemany times probably. However, it is greatly misunderstood.
Meany people hear the chorus and assume that it is a patriotic anthem, but it is quite the opposite. How does this song function as social commentary? How does the songwriter develop the commentary? SATIRE A literary work holding up human immorality
and foolishness to ridicule or mock Wit or irony used to discredit and expose wrongdoing and foolishness. EXAMPLES OF SATIRE 4 TYPES OF SATIRE Exaggeration Incongruity
Reversal Parody EXAGGERATION To enlarge increase or represent something beyond normal bounds so that it becomes
ridiculous and its faults can be seen INCONGRUITY To present things that are out of place or are absurd in relation to their
surroundings PARODY To imitate the techniques and/ or style of some person place thing or existing work
REVERSAL To present the opposite of the normal order (e.g. the order of events, hierarchical order)
What is being criticized? What satirical devices are being used? SATIRICAL SOCIAL COMMENTARY Many times, issues that are serious in society are the issues that elicit the strongest responses, which also conveniently menas that they are typically the issues that are the
most difficult to address or discuss For hundreds of years many authors and artists have linked social commentary and satire together, finding that using humor to approach and critique a serious issue was the IT IS ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTAND THAT. Social Commentary and satire are NOT
mutually exclusive or inclusive Social commentary can exist without using humor, sarcasm, or comedy HOWEVER Using satire is an easy way to bring a difficult subject to light SO HOW DO YOU KNOW???
Rhetoric/Authors Craft INTRODUCTION TO RHETORIC BY THE END OF THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO: Identify the rhetorical situation of a written or spoken argument;
Analyze the relationship between speaker, audience, and subject; Discuss the rhetorical appeals made by a speaker; and Create an argument through conscious and deep consideration of the rhetorical situation, audience, and rhetorical appeals. IMPORTANT TERMS
Aristotelian (Rhetorical) Triangle Persona Context WHAT IS RHETORIC?
WHAT IS RHETORIC? As Aristotle defined the term, the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. In other words, it is the art of finding ways to persuade an audience. WHERE IS RHETORIC USED?
Not just in speeches Every essay Political cartoon, photograph, advertisement Documentary films (lighting, music, what to show, what to leave out, etc) TYPES OF RHETORIC Manipulative rhetoric Deceptive rhetoric
Civil and effective rhetoric It is a part of our job as informed citizens and consumers to understand how rhetoric works so that we can be wary of manipulation or deceit, while appreciating effective and civil communication. ACTIVITY 1 EXAMPLES: Lets look at the following political advertisement:
VOTE President Lyndon Johnson http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Id_r6pNsus -Manipulative rhetoric Easily one of the most manipulative political advertisements in history, the Daisy ad from the Lyndon B. Johnson campaign preyed on the greatest fear of the American people at the time: nuclear war. The ad appealed especially to middle class families; this is why a
young, innocent-looking girl was chosen as the ads primary focus. ACTIVITY 1 EXAMPLES CONTINUED Lets look at another example of rhetoric: Kindness Boomerang advertisement: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwAYpLVyeFU -Civil rhetoric
The video I chose as my civil rhetoric example shows how one completely random act of kindness can begin a domino effect. Not only is the video footage itself useful, but by using the song "One Day" by Matisyahu, the video also gives a message of utopia; a world where there is no longer war and children can live in peace and prosperity. WHAT KIND OF RHETORIC IS
THIS? MANIPULATION RHETORIC This is an example of a manipulative rhetoric because it is manipulating men into thinking that they are not men if they do not join the navy to help with the war efforts.
WHAT ABOUT THIS? DECEPTIVE RHETORIC My example of deceptive rhetoric is an advertisement I saw. The product, POM Wonderful, claims to have "lifesaving" capabilities and asserts that it can be used to treat or prevent heart disease and various cancers. As one might imagine, this began a craze over pomegranate juice, which is by no means a miracle drug. The Federal Trade
Commission sought to protect consumers and demanded that POM Wonderful discontinue the manipulative advertisements and health "claims" because they had no support. OCCASION, CONTEXT, & PURPOSE OccasionThe time and place the text was written or spoken. ContextThe circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding the text.
PurposeThe goal the speaker wants to achieve. THE RHETORICAL TRIANGLE AKA ARISTOTELIAN TRIANGLE Another important aspect of the rhetorical situation is the relationship among the speaker, audience, and subject. Why are these elements important? What is the relationship between these elements?
THE RHETORICAL TRIANGLE SPEAKER TEXT AUDIENCE SUBJECT
RHETORICAL TRIANGLE The speaker is the person or group who creates a text. It is important to not only think of the speaker as a name, but to consider the description of the speaker. The audience is the listener, viewer, or reader of a text or performance, but it is important to note that there may be multiple audiences. The subject is the topic.
LETS PRACTICE! Lets read MLKs I have a dream speech. As you read, identify the occasion, context, and purpose of the speech. THIS MEANS ANNOTATE!!!! Identify the occasion, context, and purpose Highlight or underline words/lines that stood out to you as being effective.
Identify the speaker, audience, and subject AND their relationship to one another THE RHETORICAL TRIANGLE SPEAKER TEXT AUDIENCE
SUBJECT SOAPS When analyzing the rhetorical situation of a piece, just remember: S O A
P S ubject ccasion udience urpose peaker
LETS PRACTICE! Read the letter from Albert Einstein to Phyllis Wright. As you read, identify SOAPS. SUBJECT The explicit subject here is whether scientists pray and, if so, what they pray for. Implicitly, the subject is the nature of faith.
OCCASION The occasion is Einsteins receipt of a letter from Phyllis Wright asking questions about science and religion. AUDIENCE
The primary audience for the letter is Phyllis herself, though the formality of his response suggests that Einstein realized that his letter would have a larger audience. (Note that he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921, so by 1936 he was a world-renowned scientist.) PURPOSE
Einsteins purpose is probably the most complex element here. At its most straightforward, his purpose is to respond to a sincere schoolgirls question about science and religion. Beyond that, it seems that Einsteins purpose is to expand Phylliss horizons a bit, to help her understand that science and religion do not necessarily represent two antagonistic ways of thinking.
SPEAKER The speaker, a scientist approaching age sixty, is responding to a girl who is likely twelve, so his RHETORICAL APPEALS THREE RHETORICAL APPEALS Rhetorical Appeals are the tools a speaker uses to
persuade an audience. Aristotle, the father of the Classical Argument model (that which we study in this class), identified three rhetorical appeals: Ethos: credibility Logos: reason Pathos: emotion ETHOS
Speakers appeal to ETHOS to demonstrate that they are credible and trustworthy. Appeals to ethos often emphasize shared values between the speaker and the audience. AUTOMATIC ETHOS In some cases, a speakers reputation immediately establishes
ethos. We call this AUTOMATIC ETHOS. LETS PRACTICE! Lets look back at MLKs speech How does MLK appeal to ethos in his speech? Lets Listen! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AHY2UzOonig How does King George appeal to Ethos??
LOGOS Speakers appeal to LOGOS, or reason, by offering clear rational ideas. Appealing to logos means thinking logicallyhaving a clear main idea and using specific details, examples, facts, statistics, or expert testimony to back it up. HOW DOES ONE CREATE A LOGICAL
ARGUMENT? Creating a logical argument often involves defining the terms of the argument and identifying connections such as causality. It can also require considerable research. Evidence from expert sources and authorities, facts, and quantitative data can be very persuasive if selected carefully and presented accurately. HOW ELSE CAN A SPEAKER APPEAL
TO LOGOS? CONCEDE and REFUTE Acknowledge a counterargument: anticipate the objections or opposing views. Your argument will be vulnerable if you ignore ideas that run counter to your own. In acknowledging the counterargument, you agree (concede) that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable, but then you deny (refute)
the validity of all or part of the argument. Concession and Refutation strengthens your own argument: it appeals to logos by demonstrating that you understand a viewpoint other than your own, youve thought through other evidence, and you stand by your view. Lets look back again at MLKs speech. How does MLK make appeals to logos?
PATHOS PATHOS is an appeal to emotions, values, desires, and hopes, on the one hand, or fears and prejudices, on the other. Although an argument that appeals exclusively to the emotions is by definition weak, an effective speaker or writer understands the power of evoking an audiences emotions by using such tools as figurative language, personal anecdotes, and vivid images. Lets return again to MLKs speech.
What appeals to pathos does MLK make in his speech? Uses first person (I)reinforces the friendly sense that this is a guy who is speaking on his own behalf. Chooses words with strong positive connotations. Uses an imageDREAM Creates a powerful contrast between what is happening and what could be happening.
LETS PRACTICE! Lets look at a more direct example of pathos. As a vice-presidential candidate, Richard Nixon gave a speech in 1952 defending himself against allegations of inappropriate use of campaign funds. Lets Listen! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EjHoH2m3iKA
HOW ELSE CAN A SPEAKER APPEAL TO PATHOS? Use striking imagerywritten and visual images Use humor Understand the needs and beliefs of the audience. COMBINING ETHOS, LOGOS, AND PATHOS Most authors dont rely on just a single type of appeal to persuade
their audience; they combine these appeals to create an effective argument. The appeals themselves are inextricably linked: if you lay out your argument logically, that will help to build your ethos. It is only logical to listen to an expert on a subject, so having ethos can help build a foundation for an appeal to logos.
It is also possible to build your ethos based on pathosfor example, who better to speak about the pain of losing a loved on than someone who has gone through it? SO WHAT NOW?? How is rhetoric created RHETORIC IS MADE UP OF
How you say things Why you say things What you are saying When you say it Who you are saying it to And you manipulate all of these so masterfully by using your literary devices Authors Craft
How authors create What is Authors Craft? Authors craft is how the author intentionally uses literary devices and narrative elements to tell a story, persuade, or inform an audience. How do authors do this?
Categories of Craft: 1. Word Craft: careful, deliberate word choice 2. Literary Craft: literary devices/techniques 3. Structural Craft: organizational features 4. Audible Craft: sound choices 5. Visual Craft: print features Word Craft 1. They carefully and
deliberately make word choices reflecting their unique voice, style, and tone. Word Craft: Deliberate, Artful Choice of Words Including: Word Choice
Vivid Verbs Details Imagery: descriptive language that appeals to the reader's senses of touch, smell, sound, taste, and sight
Word Craft: Deliberate, Artful Choice of Words Use of Figurative Language: simile metaphor hyperbole
personification allusion Literary Craft 2. They incorporate literary devices and techniques to convey a
theme. Literary Craft: Devices/Techniques to Convey a Message Including: Literary elements like pacing and flashbacks create mystery, tension, or surprise.
Narrative elements (plot, character, and setting) used effectively. They send a message (theme) with their writing. Structural Craft
3. They choose how to organize and structure their text. Structural Craft: Organizational Features Organizational Framework: Text structure
Paragraph types Transitional devices Repetition Page Layout/White Space Parallel structure Parallel Structure They use parallel structure (or parallelism): repetition of the same pattern of words or
phrases within a sentence or passage to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance or are connected thematically Audible Craft 4. They choose language that's noticed without even seeing
the print because of the sounds it creates. Audible Craft: Language That Lingers Sound Devices: Alliteration
Visual Craft 5. They include thoughtful, artful placement of text on a page. Visual Craft: Must Be Seen To Be Noticed
Including: Print Features (bold, italics, fonts, punctuation) Line breaks White space Graphicspictures, illustrations, charts, maps How do authors do this?
5. They carefully choose their words and sentence structure. Author's Style Word Choice and Voice how the author intentionally uses words to convey personality
Author's Style Syntax the way words are purposefully put together; sentence structure and meaning Analyzing Author's Craft Name It!
Claim It! Frame It! Which elements of craft were present Cite an example quote from the in the speech? Be specific. speech. Be specific. How did the writer's craft impact the
audience? Explain. Example: As listeners, we know the structure his speech will follow. It's a string of anecdotes (stories) from his life. We anticipate learning something useful from each tale he tells.
Structure/organization In the introduction Jobs says, "Today I want to tell you three stories from my life...Just three stories." Analyzing Author's Craft 1. Listen and read along as
Steve Jobs delivers Stanford's 20 05 commencement address . 2. Notice and note (annotate) these moments of author's craft: Word choice Literary devices/techniques
Structure/organization 3. Complete the Name It, Claim It, and Frame it chart . ALL OF THIS ADDS UP TO
North Atlantic Drift Current of water through the Atlantic Ocean carrying warm water that influences temperatures in Europe. Chapter 11 Section 1 Europe's Dramatic Landscape Europe's Geography The entire continent is a peninsula, sometimes called "the peninsula of peninsulas".
randomly from the original population. Typically we have only one sample - of n points - observed for our variable of interest (e.g., field goal % for a team's season games) We can obtain a sample estimate (e.g., for the...
University Significant attrition rate after two years at UPEI. College 26% of incoming students at Holland College are direct from high school, experience most difficulty in programs due to low literacy and numeracy skills; general level students struggling more than...
The EDGE Model Teaching EDGE Leading EDGE Trainer's EDGE The first one to fall asleep gets today's competitive-edge award. * * * * Leading is like teaching Using EDGE is like taking a patrol thru the stages of doing a...
Introduction to Cosmology Cosmology Scientific study of the origin and evolution of the universe "kosmos" - Greek for "order" Based on laws of physics, incorporates chemistry, mathematics, and astronomy Foundations of modern cosmology 1) General Theory of Relativity (A. Einstein...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!