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Gramado, Brazil September 19, 2012 The XVII Seminrio Nacional de Bibliotecas Universitrias Using Virtual Reference Services to Embed the Library in the Academic Workflow Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist OCLC Research The worlds libraries. Connected. The convenience is still better online than in person, you dont have to make trips to the library. lib ra r
y (UTI-24, MALE 15-18 YEARS OLD) The worlds libraries. Connected. Then & Now Then: The user built workflow around the library Now: The library must build its services around user workflow Then: Resources scarce, attention abundant Now: Attention scarce, resources abundant (Dempsey, 2008) The worlds libraries. Connected.
The worlds libraries. Connected. Virtual Reference Services Global reach Anytime/anywhere access Cooperative services may reduce costs The worlds libraries. Connected. Seeking Synchronicity The Study Seeking Syn chronicity The worlds libraries.
Connected. Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User & Librarian Perspectives Libraria ns Studied habits & needs of virtual reference service (VRS) librarians, users, & non-users to identify characteristics for informing library system & service development Generalizable through large sample sizes, multiple methods of data collection, & triangulation of results (Connaway & Radford, 2011) The worlds libraries.
Online Surveys 850 QuestionPoint 100 VRS Librarians live chat transcripts 76 VRS Users 107 VRS Non-users The worlds libraries. Connected. 173 VRS Librarians 137 VRS Users 134 VRS Non-users Critical Incident Technique (CIT) for Telephone Interviews & Survey Flanagan (1954) Qualitative technique Focuses on most memorable event/experience Allows categories or themes to emerge rather than be imposed
(Flanagan, 1954) The worlds libraries. Connected. Critical Incident Technique (CIT) for Telephone Interviews & Survey VR Users & Librarians Questions Remember 1 specific successful VRS interaction Remember 1 specific unsuccessful VRS interaction Describe each interaction Identify factors that made interactions successful or unsuccessful The worlds libraries. Connected. Seeking Synchronicity
Types of Questions Types of que stions The worlds libraries. Connected. What politician supports gay rights and or is an activist for them how many books can i check out at one time? QP2-276 QP2-282 How do I get a job and what are the requirements? Is The Mindful Child: How
to Help Your Kid Manage Stress and Become Happier, Kinder, and More Compassionate Available? QP2-274 I need some help with finding articles how do you spell I miss you in spanish QP2-273 I need a good website all about the history of DESIGN of telephones with a timeline and good pictures with it. The worlds libraries. Connected.
QP2-269 Cannot log in, telling me authentication failed. Was able to log in yesterday. QP2-269 Types of VR Questions Subject Search Ready Reference Procedural No Question Holdings Research Inappropriate Directional Readers Advisory (Arnold & Kaske, 2002,2005) The worlds libraries.
Connected. Subject Search or Specific Search Almost always takes the form of giving the user a document, for example, a list of citations, a book, or a report (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). How was the labeling theory important in deinstitutionalization? (QW023) can you help me find poems by Maya Angelou and criticism on them? (QP1230) The worlds libraries. Connected. Where can i find information about
ADHD? (QP2005) Ready Reference These are the typical ready-reference or data queries that require only a single, usually uncomplicated, straightforward answer...Who? What? When? Why? Where? (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). who won the world cup game between south africa and france? (QW024) Who was Bentonville, NC named after? (QP1147) The worlds libraries. Connected. How do i cite a political talk show in MLA
format? (QP2013) Procedural Questions pertaining to the policies or procedures within the library system (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). Can I get summer long term renewals online? How? (QP1004) what is the max for checkout on blu ray dvids? (QW033) The worlds libraries. Connected. need access logon info to lexis from scool library website (QP2 027)
Holdings Questions about specific holdings of a library in print or digital form (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). I was wondering if you have textbooks to rent for an hour or 2? (QP2172) Do you have any books on Paris Hilton? (doing a project on her) (QP 1195) The worlds libraries. Connected. hi there; i was wondering if you guys have Moby Dick in
stock? (QW014) Research Research questions involve trial-and-error searching or browsing [and] are usually identified as coming from an adult specialist who is seeking detailed information to assist in specific work (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). Looking for information on national traffic survey and incident reports. (QP2169) Hi, I am trying to find out information on how the Learn Direct initiative was started, the criteria that was set and if local government had to be involved in the first stage. (QP 1155) The worlds libraries. Connected.
Hi Im looking for studies similar to one Ive already found. How do I go about this? (QW013) Inappropriate Questions which are not appropriate for a reference service including personal questions (Radford, 2005). How do I have sex? (QP1159) WAT DOES it mean when a guy said he like me more as a friend doesnt it mean like a gf? (QP2153) The worlds libraries. Connected.
Are You Typing War and Peace (QW020) Directional The general information or directional question is of the information booth variety (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). what is the URL for the summer reading program for teens? (QP2032) I heard that you have adapted book kits for ESL speakers. Where can I find these online? (QW008)
The worlds libraries. Connected. Where is the 67th street library? Is it on the west or east side? (QP1387) Readers Advisory Readers Advisory questions are focused on helping readers find materials they want to read, listen to, or view for pleasure (Ross, Nilsen, & Radford, 2009). Hello I am looking for recommendations for the author jonathan kellerman. (QP1218) I was wondering if u would happen to know any good fantasy books
(QP2 050) The worlds libraries. Connected. Hi, my 7 year old son is looking for a copy of the Hobbit suitable for children, but we cant seem to find anything in the library catalogue. Can you please offer any advice? Thanks. (QW 120) (from Australia) Query Type: 2004-2006 35% 32% n=293 30%
Consortium Academic & Law -10% The worlds libraries. Connected. <1% <1% 0% 1%1%0% 2% 2% 1%0% National Other <1% 0% Seeking Synchronicity
Accuracy in Ready Reference Types of que stions The worlds libraries. Connected. Accuracy in VR Ready Reference How accurate are VR librarians/staff in answering ready reference questions? Do we see the 55% rule in effect? (Hernon & McClure, 1987) The worlds libraries. Connected. Ready Reference Accuracy: 2004-2006 vs. 2010 100%
2% Other A Simple Way to Increase Accuracy For 2004 2006, accuracy would rise from 78% to 90% if VR librarians only -Answered specific question asked! Seeking Synchronicity urged VRS librarians -Before pushing a general info page make sure it has specific & exact answer to users question! 2010 sample included far fewer with this error: accuracy 90% (perhaps b/c of recommendation?) The worlds libraries. Connected. VRS Librarians Critically evaluate sources
Create metrics for evaluating new scholarly forms of authoring, publishing, & researching Assist new content creators Develop customized widgets Provide services in different formats Be available to the users Face-to-face Online Email Text Messaging IM Mobile Telephone Social Media Services The worlds libraries. Connected. Seeking Synchronicity What We Learned
TypesVR ofSqLueessti oo nn ss The worlds libraries. Connected. Why Not Virtual Reference? What we learned from non-users: Preference for FtF service Do not know service exists Unknown or unfamiliar format The worlds libraries. Connected. Convenience is King Convenience dictates choices
Is it readily accessible online? Does it contain the needed information & is it easy to use? How much time will it take to access and use the source? Is it a familiar interface and easily navigable interface? CONVENIENCE Google and Wikipedia (Connaway, Dickey, & Radford, 2011) The worlds libraries. Connected. Barriers to Convenience Difficulty of library systems
Print articles Limited hours, distance to library The worlds libraries. Connected. VR Users The worlds libraries. Connected. VR Non-users The worlds libraries. Connected. Recommendations to Boost Convenience Deliver resources 24/7 Integrate library tools in popular sites Provide links & reminders Make interfaces more like web browsers
Accommodate different & personalized discovery & access preferences Offer multiple service modes Provide opportunities for collaboration Offer help at time of need Chat/IM on library Web site Online catalog The worlds libraries. Connected. What Mobile Technology Undergraduate Students Own (Dahlstrom, de Boor, Grunwald, & Vockley, 2011) The worlds libraries. Connected. How Undergraduate Students Use Their Smartphones 24%
(Dahlstrom, de Boor, Grunwald, & Vockley, 2011) The worlds libraries. Connected. Connaway for OCLC Research, 2012 What We Can Do TypV esRS of questions Superpo wers The worlds libraries. Connected. Lack of Knowledge that VR Exists: VR Non-users Online Survey Ive never used this type of service and never knew it was
availablethats probably why I never tried it. MILLENNIAL The worlds libraries. Connected. Market VRS Market & publicize services Dont know what is available Text Email Chat Phone Face-to-face Facebook Skype (Radford & Connaway, 2010) The worlds libraries.
Connected. Top Recommendation Attract Potential Users Introduce & demonstrate online alternatives during inperson reference sessions, library use instruction classes & library programs The worlds libraries. Connected. Two Views of Whats Effective in VR Experiences Users: Librarians: Convenience Ability to leverage complex
& specialized knowledge Comfort with service Accuracy Positive attitude Positive attitudes, responses, & feedback Good communication skills VR tools & hybrid communication modes Relationships with librarians Relationships with users The worlds libraries. Connected.
Two Views of Whats Not Effective in VR Experiences Users: Librarians: Abrupt, dismissive answers Convoluted & confusing questions Grumpy, ill-informed or uninterested librarians Poor wrap-up Rude, impatient &/or disappearing users Limiting time of session Unrealistic expectations
Being sent to Google Unreceptive to suggestions Failing or refusing to provide info The worlds libraries. Connected. Recommendations from CIT Findings Ask open questions Portray positive attitude Provide specific & accurate answers Clarify questions Take your time Pay attention to close Always be pleasant & polite The worlds libraries.
Connected. Mode for Developing Best Relationship: VR Users & Librarians The worlds libraries. Connected. Conclusions Its all about the relationships Death of ready reference exaggerated VRS Toolbox To boost accuracy Clarify question Answer specific question Convenience is the hook Marketing matters
The worlds libraries. Connected. IPS RELATIONSH IENCE CONVEN ING MARKET Current Research Cyber Synergy: Seeking Sustainability through Collaboration between Virtual Reference and Social Q&A Sites New grant - amount of $250,000 for 11-13 Funded by IMLS, OCLC, & Rutgers University Co-PIs Marie Radford (RU), Lynn Silipigni Connaway (OCLC), & Chirag Shah (RU) http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synergy.html The worlds libraries. Connected.
References ACRL Research Planning and Review Committee. (In press). ACRL top ten trends. C&RL News. Arnold, J., & Kaske, N. (2002). Real time interactive reference service: Chat with a librarian. 17th Annual Computers in Libraries Annual 2002, March 13-15. Arnold, J., & Kaske, N. (2005). Evaluating the quality of a chat service. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 5(2), 177-193. Clark, C. (2012, March 12). Social media: Information networks are vital to success. Financial Times. Retrieved from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/0e97b7a0-6389-11e1-9686-00144feabdc0.html Connaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). The digital information seeker: Report of findings from selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC user behavior projects. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/reports/2010/digitalinformationseekerreport.pdf Connaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011). If it is too inconvenient Im not going after it: Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information Science Research, 33(3),179-190. Connaway, L. S., Prabha, C., & Dickey, T. J. (2006). Sense-making the information confluence: The whys and hows of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Phase III: Focus group interview study. Report on National Leadership Grant LG-02-03-0062-03, to Institute of Museum and Library Services, Washington, D.C. Columbus, Ohio: School of Communication, The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20100213164444/http://imlsosuoclcproject.jcomm.ohio-state.edu/imls_reports_list.html The worlds libraries. Connected.
References Connaway, L. S., & Radford, M. L. (2011). Seeking synchronicity: Revelations and recommendations for virtual reference. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/synchronicity/default.htm Connaway, L. S., & Radford, M. L. (2012). Extending our virtual reach: A longitudinal study of query type & accuracy in live chat & IM reference [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synchronicity/ppt/alise2012.pptx Connaway, L. S., White, D., & Lanclos, D. (2011). Visitors and residents: What motivates engagement with the digital environment? Proceedings of the 74th ASIS&T Annual Meeting, Volume 48. Silver Spring, MD: Richard B. Hill. Dahlstrom, E., de Boor, T., Grunwald, P., & Vockley, M. (2011). The ECAR national study of undergraduate students and information technology. Boulder, CO: EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ecar Dempsey, L. (2008). Always on: Libraries in a world of permanent connectivity. First Monday, 14(1). Retrieved from http://www.firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2291/207 De Rosa, C. (2005). Perceptions of libraries and information resources: A report to the OCLC membership. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Online Computer Library Center. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/2010perceptions/2010perceptions_all_singlepage.pdf Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. (2003-2005). Sense-making the information confluence: The whys and hows of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). Retrieved from http://imlsosuoclcproject.jcomm.ohio-state.edu
The worlds libraries. Connected. References DeSantis, N. (2012, January 6). On Facebook, librarian brings 2 students from the early 1900s to life. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/on-facebook-librarian-brings-two-students-from-the-early-1900s-to-life/34845 Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Washington: American Psychological Association. Hernon, P., & McClure, C. R. (1987). Unobtrusive testing and library reference services. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing. Kelley, M. (2011, October 27). Major medical library closing its doors to patrons and moving to digital model. The Digital Shift. Retrieved from http://www.thedigitalshift.com/2011/10/research/major-medical-library-closing-its-doors-to-patrons-and-moving-to-digital-model/ Kesselman, M. A., & Watstein, S. B. (2009). Creating opportunities: Embedded librarians. Journal of Library Administration, 49(4), 383-400. OCLC Distinguished Seminar Series (Producer). (2012, January 16). From books and buildings to information and services. Seminar recording retrieved from http://player.multicastmedia.com/player.php?p=j1v57etx Radford, M. L. (2006). Encountering virtual users: A qualitative investigation of interpersonal communication in chat reference. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(8),10461059. The worlds libraries. Connected.
References Radford, M. L., & Connaway, L. S. (20052008). Seeking synchronicity: Evaluating virtual reference services from user, non-user, and librarian perspectives. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synchronicity/default.htm Radford, M. L., & Connaway, L. S. (2010). I stay away from the unknown, I guess. Measuring impact and understanding critical factors for Millennial Generation and adult non-users of virtual reference services. Online proceedings of the Fifth Annual iConference, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, February 3-6, 2010. http://nora.lis.uiuc.edu/images/iConferences/2010papers2_Page-Zhang.pdf Radford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., & Shah, C. (2011-2013). Cyber synergy: Seeking sustainability through collaboration between virtual reference and social Q&A sites. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synergy/default.htm Ranganathan, S. R. (1957). The five laws of library science. Madras: Madras Library Association; London: G. Blunt and Sons. Wasserman, S. (2012, June 18). The Amazon effect. The Nation. Retrieved from http://www.thenation.com/article/168125/amazon-effect Zabel, D. (2011). Reference reborn: Breathing new life into public services librarianship. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. The worlds libraries. Connected. The researchers would like to thank
Alyssa Darden for her assistance in preparing this presentation. The worlds libraries. Connected. Questions & Discussion Lynn Connaway [email protected] Lynn Silipigni Connaway [email protected] The worlds libraries. Connected.
Under Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines disclosure must be made regarding financial relationships with commercial interests within the last 12 months. Jon Brightbill. I have no financial relationships or affiliations to disclose.
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