The Cold War - Weebly

The Cold War - Weebly

The Cold War World History The Cold War The Alliance Breaks Apart Two new powers would emerge from this war The United States The Soviet Union

These two countries would become Super Powers with the economic resources and military might that would dominate the globe They would also become intense rivals and would come to divide the world Growing Differences Conflicting Ideologies and mutual

distrust soon led to the conflict know as the Cold War It was a state of tensions and hostilities among nations without armed conflict between the major rivals War

Cause and Effect of the Cold Cause System of Government Soviet Union was a Communist dictatorship United States is a democratic republic Post War Conflict: Both sides disagreed over Eastern

Europe governments throughout Eastern Europe United States resisted Soviet expansion and aided countries seeking to resist communism Effect Military: Arms race between Soviet Union and

United States led o the threat of nuclear war Confrontations took place around the world including Germany, Cuba, Korea, and many other locations Political: Both sides formed a variety of alliances Soviet Union eventually collapsed and United States became the worlds sloe

superpower Origins of the Cold War Stalins goals in Eastern Europe: Spread of communism into the area Create a Buffer Zone of friendly governments as a defense against Germany As the Red Army (Soviets) pushed out the Germans from Eastern Europe it left behind occupying forces The US and British did not approve of this

Stalin pointed out that the US did not consult with the USSR about peace terms for Italy or Japan both defeated and occupied by US/British forces, The same was true for USSR. It would determine the fate of the Eastern European lands overrun by the Red Army on the way to Berlin Truman and Churchill rejected this idea and made Stalin promised Free Elections but Stalin ignored the pledge destroying rival government parties and installing pro Soviet communist governments throughout Eastern Europe A Divided Europe

Churchill describes the Soviet control of Eastern Europe as an Iron Curtain dividing the continent The Iron Curtin became a symbol of the Cold War along with fear Europe would be described as Eastern and Western blocks East was Soviet dominated communist countries and the West

were democracies led by the United States New Conflicts Develop Churchill and Truman both saw communism as an evil force creeping across Europe and threatening countries around the world The US abandoned its traditional

Isolation (withdrawing from global affairs) but instead taking a leading role in the world Soviets soon began backing communist rivals fighting in Greece Stalin was also menacing Turkey in the Dead Sea linking the USSR to the Russian Black Sea coast to the

Doctrine Truman Truman takes actions with the Truman Doctrine US would resist Soviet expansion in Europe or the world The military and economic aid and advisors were sent to Greece and Turkey to help them withstand the communist threat It was rooted in the idea of containment or limiting communism to the areas already under Soviet control

Stalin saw it as being encircled by capitalist wanting to isolate the Soviet Union The Marshal Plan To help strengthen democratic governments the US offered a massive aid package called the The US would funnel food and economic assistance to Europe to help countries Truman also offered aid to the USSR and its satellites or dependent states

Stalin saw it as a trick to win Eastern Europe over to capitalism and democracy and he forbade the Eastern European countries to accept US aid promising it from the USSR Divisions in Germany Germany had been divided into 4 zones of occupation by the US, France, Britain and USSR The US France, and Great Britain decided to join their zones and encouraged Germans to rebuild

The USSR dismantled factories and took other resources back to help rebuild the USSR (Russia) Germany thus became a divided nation Western Germany was democratic and allowed the people to write their own constitution and regain self government East Germany was communist and tied to Moscow Looking Ahead After surrender the US occupied a

ruined Japan Germany had been divided into 4 zones of occupation Problem: how to build a foundation for a stable peace Berlin Airlift Stalins resentment a the west to rebuild Germany triggered a crisis The former capital of Berlin was also divided in to 4 zones and was

deep within the Soviet zone. In 1948 Stalin tried to force western Allies out of Berlin and sealed off every part of the city Western powers responded to the blockade by mounting around the clock airlift For more than a year cargo planes supplied West Berliners with food and fuel forcing the Soviets to end the blockade Although the West won a victory it only deepened hostilities

Berlin Wall Military Alliances As tensions grew in 1949 the US Canada, and Nine other nations formed a new military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO Members pledged to help one another if any one of them was attacked In 1955 the USSR responded by forming its own military alliance called the Warsaw Pact and included the USSR and Seven satellites in Eastern

Europe Soviets used the military alliance to keep its satellites in order NATO Warsaw pact North Atlantic Treaty Org. Members Belgium Canada Denmark France

Iceland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Portugal United Kingdom United States Greece

Turkey West Germany Spain Warsaw Pact Member Nations Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia

East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union The Propaganda War Both sides participated in a propaganda war

US defending capitalism and democracy against communism and totalitarianism The USSR clamed to struggle against western imperialism Cold War Propaganda/ Duck and Cover The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union

After WWII, the USSR emerges as a superpower. Stalin created a sphere of influence from the Baltic to the Balkans but dies in 195 Nikita Khrushchev emerges as the new Soviet leader He pursues a policy of de-Stalinization by freeing political prisoners and easing censorship[ Sought a peaceful coexistence with the West But when Hungarians revolted against communist rule in 1956 Khrushchev sent tanks in

Khrushchevs successor was Brezhnev who held power from the 60s to 80;s He rigorously suppressed dissidents or people who spoke out against the government The Cold War Some Successes After WWII the USSR had to rebuild its industry with priority given

to industries such as steel, coal and heavy machinery The government also poured resources into weapons, science and technology In 1957 they launched Sputnik which was the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth This was used to demonstrate the Soviets technological superiority to the USA Citizens enjoyed benefits such as low rents, cheap bread, and day care for children, and low wages

The Space Race: Soviets had the first satellite (Sputnik and man in space (Yuri Gagarin: First Man in Space 1961) US puts first man on the moon 1969 Failure of a Command Economy Command Economy is one in which the government makes

decisions on production / economy It was plagued with severe problems Collectivized agriculture was so unproductive that the USSR had to frequently import grain to feed its people Consumer goods were far inferior to these made the West and luxuries were rare A lifetime job security caused little incentive to produce better quality goods

Cuban Missile Crisis Rivalry with the US USSR and USA relations swung back and forth between confrontations and dtente. 1961 USSR builds the Atomic Bomb increasing Cold War tensions 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis when Khrushchev tries to build nuclear missile bases in Cuba bring the two nations to the brink of war Brezhnev invests in a huge military build stating the USSR had the

right to intervene militarily in any Warsaw Pact nation while pursing detente (easing tensions) with the US Dtente ends when USSR invades Afghanistan to ensure Soviet influence in the neighboring nation which ended up draining the economy and causing a moral problem at home Keith Hughes Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban Missile Crisis

The Other Fellow Blinked The Gorbachev Revolution In 1985 a new leader Mikhail Gorbachev comes into power wanting to bring about reforms He wanted to end Cold War tensions Signed arms control treaties with the USA

In USSR he called for a new glasnost or openness, ending censorship and encouraged open discussions He urged perestroika which meant the restructuring of the government (by reducing its size and complexity) and the economy (allow some free market enterprises and produce more and higher quality consumer goods) Mr. Gorbachev tear down this wall: Contrasting Economic

Systems COMMAND ECONOMIES (such as USSR) The government makes all economic decisions The government decides what goods and products to make and how much to produce The government decides what wages to pay and what prices to charge for

goods The government owns most property MARKET ECONOMIES (such as the US) The government has minimal involvement in the economy Market forces such as supply and deman determine the type and quantity of oods and products Wages and prices are set largely by

market forces Private citizens and businesses own most property Unexpected Results Economic turmoil Shortages High prices Some factories could not survive without government help and closed leading to

high unemployment Old line Communists criticized the reforms as did Boris Yeltsin who wanted more radical changes Baltic republics such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania regained independence in 1991 Eastern European countries from Poland, East Germany, to Romania and Bulgaria broke out of Soviet orbit In 1991Gorbachev was able to rebuff a coup from the hardliners communists 1991 Gorbachev resigned and he replaced by Boris Yeltsin

After 74 years the Soviet Union cased to exist Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989 Yeltsin Gorbachev and

Economic Problems Yeltsin privatized more state run industries and collective farms The change over to a market economy was painful unemployment so ared.Prices skyrocketed, banks closed To avoid financial collapse Russia defaulted or failed to make payments on much of its foreign debt In Yeltsin resigns and Vladimir Putin becomes president and then is elected in 2000 in the first free presidential election in Russias history. He is a veteran of the secret service

Not strongly committed to democracy Critics worry about his censorship of some journalists and his treatment of minority nationalists Russian President Putin The Collapse of the Soviet Union Long Term Causes of the Collapse

of the Soviet Union Low output of corps and consumer goods Cold War led to high military spending Ethnic & nationalist movements Denial of rights and freedoms Immediate Causes of the

Collapse of the Soviet Union War with Afghanistan Food and fuel shortages Demonstrations in the Baltic States Gorbachevs rise to power The Effects of the Collapse of the USSR

1. Soviet Union breaks into 15 republics 2. Russian republic approves new constitution 3. Change over to market economy in Russia 4. War in Chechnya Following long resistance during the 18171864, Russia defeated the Chechens and annexed their lands in the 1870s. The Chechens' subsequent attempts at gaining independence after the fall of the Russian Empire failed and in 1922 Chechnya was incorporated into the USSR. .

Chechens continue want their freedom from Russia The Cold War: Freeze to Thaw 1960s NATO and Warsaw Pact Berlin Wall built Arms buildup Cuban Missile Crisis Vietnam War

1970s Dtente Strategic Arms Limitations Talks United States improves relations with China Soviet invasion of Afghanistan US withdrawal from Vietnam

USSR From Freeze to Thaw 1980s Economic decline of Soviet Union Gorbachevs glasnost and perestroika Berlin Wall town down Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan Move toward democracy in

Eastern Europe 1990s Collapse of Soviet Union German reunification China accelerates reform Vietnam opens itself to the world Communism declines around

the globe Japan Becomes an Economic Superpower In 1945 Japan lay in ruin suffering the most devastating property damage of any nation in WWII with thousands homeless and hungry Under Gen, MacArthur, the US military government set 2 main objectives to destroy militarism, with its military disbanded ensure a democratic govt with the emperor losing all political power and a

constitutional government being set up with the people electing a Diet or parliament and with protections of basic rights Japan will successfully industrialize and build efficient, modern factories that out produce older industries in the West They adapted the latest technology to create high quality products From Revolution to Reform in China After WWII civil war resumes in China between Mao Zedongs communist forces and Jiang Jieshis nationalists until Maos forces won and set up the Peoples Republic of China

China was now united and under communist control Reasons for victory: 1. Mao won the support of the peasant population with pledges to redistribute land and to end oppression of landlords 2. Women backed Mao because communists rejected the inequalities of the old Confucian order 3. Maos armies outfought Jiangs army 4. Many educated Chinese say Jiangs government was morally and politically bankrupt

5. Mao collectivized the land to increase agriculture production, set up a one party govt, honored the workers of China and set up schools for all 6. He launched a Cultural Revolution to purge China of is nonrevolutionary or non-communist tendencies China: Mao Zedongs Tiananmen Square Massacre By the late 1980s some Chinese were demanding greater political freedom as

well as economic reforms In Beijing, and other cities, students, workers, and others supported a democracy movement In May 1989 tens of thousands of demonstrators occupied Tiananmen Square calling for democracy when they wouldnt disperse the govt sent troops and tanks Thousands were killed or wounded and many were arrested and tortured and even put to death The crackdown showed that Chinas communist leaders were determined to

maintain control, To them order was more important that Political freedom China 1989: Tiananmen Square Tank Man The Asian Tigers The Asian tigers are known for

their aggressive economic growth, they followed similar roads to modernization and were influenced by China and Confucian traditions The Asian Tigers are 1. Taiwan 3. Singapore 2. Hong Kong 4. S. Korea

Taiwan Was ruled by China until 1895 when it fell to Japan In 1945 Taiwan reverted back to China after WWII Jiang set up a nationalist govt and the country experienced rapid economic growth and US support

Its economic success has slowly gained its people more political freedom Recently Beijing has reasserted its insistence that Taiwan must be reincorporated into China Hong Kong Britain gained the island after the Opium Wars and it stayed under British rule1997

Hong Kong became very prosperous because Trade and light industry such as textiles and electronics Became a world financial center Wealth from profitable industries help it to modernize Location of Chinas doorstep Britain returned Hong Kong to China in 1997 but Beijing had to agree to not

change Hong Kongs social or economic system for 50 years and allow its people self government Korea The Two Koreas In 1910 Japan occupied the Korean peninsula After WWII the USSE and US agreed to a temporary division

of Korea along the 38th parallel of Latitude North Korea was ruled by Kim Song and he became a communist ally South Korea was non communists led by Rhee and backed by the US Both leaders wanted to end the division and North Korea attacking and almost overrunning South Korea US forces made up mostly of US and South Koreans were led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur He was able to push troops

northward to near China Alarmed by MacArthurs success, China sent troops to help the North Koreans Korean Peninsula Two Koreas The Korean War turned into a stalemate Finally in 1953 the two counties signed an armistices to end

fighting but no peace treaty has been signed. The country remains divided along the 38th parallel North Korea is a communist with its state owned industries and collective farms and attempts to develop nuclear power for electricity and weapons. It did agree to end its nuclear weapons program in exchange for oil and other assistance from the US South Korea has emerged as an economic powerhouse with its workers winning better pay and higher standards of living. While early dictators were backed by the military it did begin holding

direct elections and moved toward a democracy Inside North Korea nat Geo 46 min: Night Sky Over Korean Peninsula Anti American North Korean Propaganda

Anti American Propaganda Childrens games in school Kim Jong-un The Supreme Leader of Korea since 2011 Vietnam War

Vietnam Map War in Vietnam In 1945 the French set out to regain Indochina, which Japan had seized during WWII but was met with fierce resistance form guerrilla forces led by Ho Chi Minh, a nationalist and communist He was able to wear the French down and forced them to leave Vietnam

The struggle for Vietnam became part of the Cold War at an international conference I n1954 western and communist powers agreed to a temporary division of Vietnam with Hos communists ruling North Vietnam and Ngo King Diems noncommunist supported by the US ruling in South Vietnam with elections being held to reunited the country, these never happened because the US feared Diem would lose and communists might win The Domino Theory

Vietnam War American officials believed in the Domino Theory in which a communist victory in S. Vietnam would cause noncommunist govts across Southeast Asia to fall to communism like a row of dominoes Cambodia and Laos gained independence Ho Chi Minh wanted a united Vietnam under his rule and aided the National Liberation Front or Vietcong who were communist rebels trying to overthrow Diem in S. Vietnam

As the war continued the US became increasingly involved. At first Eisenhower it only sent military advisers and supplies to Diem, later, Kennedy sending troops, turning a local struggle into a major Cold War conflict In 1964 the US began bombing targets in N. Vietnam and Eventually more than 500,000 troops were committed 6 min overview: * Cartoon version 5 min:

Vietnam: Tet Offensive Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions authorizing the president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression At the same time both the USSR and China sent aid but no troops to help North Vietnam Despite massive US aid, S. Vietnam could not defeat the communists guerrillas and N. Vietnamese allies

In 1968 the guerrilla forces launched a massive unexpected attack on US/S. V. forces at Tet, the Vietnamese New Year (The Tet Offensive) . While they did not capture cities is showed that the N.V. would fight at any cost and it marked the turning point in public opinion in the US Tunnels of Cu Chi Hawks and

Doves Credibility Gap: while the govt kept saying US forces were winning people could see on TV that that was not true plus casualties kept raising, there were Hawks: those who wanted to stay and fight and

Doves who wanted to withdraw from Vietnam With casualties growing and antiwar opinions growing President Nixon finally arranged a cease fire or halt to the fighting and began withdrawing US forces in 1973. Over 58,000 US soldiers died with more that 300,00 injured and

around one million N & S Vietnamese dead and cost our nation over $170 billion Vietnam War Agent Orange Napalm

Execution of Viet Gong / Village attacked by napalm My Lai Massacre / Calley My Lai Memorial Kent State

/ DC Anti War Protest (Naitonal Guard killing four students and wounding nine others) Protesting the Vietnam War The Fall of Saigon War Powers Act: Congress passed this to reestablish some limits on

executive power. It required the pre4sident to inform Congress of any commitment of troops abroad within 48 hours and to withdraw them in 60-90 days unless Congress explicitly approves the troop commitment Two years later the North Vietnamese captured Saigon, the

capital of the south and the country was reunited. Minh Why the Communist won? Diem was an unpopular leader with a corrupt govt Ho Chi Minh was an admired hero who had fought the Japanese and the French

Many Vietnamese saw the US as another foreign power seeking to dominate their land Guerrillas fought well in the jungle terrain The communist victors imposed harsh rule and thousands of Vietnamese fled in small boats with many drowning but others landed in refugee camps with

some accepted into US or other countries Ho Chi Cambodia During the Vietnam War fighting spilled over into Cambodia. N. Vietnam sent supplies along the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Cambodia to guerrilla forces in S.V.

In 1970 the US bombed that route and then invaded Cambodia After the US left, Cambodian communist guerrillas called the Khmer Rouge overthrew the govt led by Pol Pot They destroyed all western influence and slaughtered millions In 1979 Vietnam invaded and occupied Cambodia and Pol Pot and his forces retreated In the 1990s UN helped Cambodia hold elections Crash Course Cold War: 2E52FB1EF80C9&index=39

The Khmer Rouge The Killing Fields under Pol Pot Vietnam Memorial: D.C. Memorial

Vietnam Videos Czar Bomba 8 min: https:// Nuclear detonations time line 10 min: https:// Cold war crash course 10 min : https:// Cold War animation 9 min : https:// Cold War Keith Hughes 12 min:

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