The Greening of MIT

The Greening of MIT

Policy Alternatives -- Civil Society Initiatives: The Greening of Institutions and the Emergence of Grassroots Carbon Activism Building Momentum for Campus Sustainability at MIT: Integrating with the Core Academic Mission and Engaging Students Steven M. Lanou Deputy Director - Sustainability Program Environmental Programs Office Massachusetts Institute of Technology 617-452-2907 [email protected] What Does Campus Sustainability Mean at MIT? Minimizing our campus energy and environmental footprint Building and strengthening a local community Leading by example Creating a learning laboratory mens et manus Enabling and facilitating community aspirations Key Players in our Campus Sustainability Community Setting the Stage at MIT

158 academic buildings 12 million sq feet academic space 153 urban acres in Cambridge 20,000 person campus population Over 2,000 research labs District steam, chilled water & electricity Utilities purchased for FY07 $60M+ $31.7M natural gas (2.9 million mmbtu) FY06 $9.4M electric (80 GWh of 200 GWh total) FY06 $3.8M oil (0.4 million mmbtu) FY06 $4.2M water and sewer FY06 Building energy intensity

Campus average 373 kbtu/sf/year Typical wet lab 1200 kbtu/sf/yr Bldg 39 2600 kbtu/sf/yr Typical dorm (unairconditioned) 150 kbtu/sf/yr Historical 1M sq ft of new space/decade MIT Campus: A Microcosm of Our Global Challenge MIT targeting energy and climate issues Aligning research, education, walking the talk A learning laboratory for local & global change Students play key role in all aspects Pushing the envelop on all frontiers MIT's Recycling Rate and Amounts Have Increased Dramatically Since 2000, While Overall Trash Discards Have Declined MITs Sustainability Challenge - Achieving 40% Recycling Goal in 2005 - 8000 50 7035

6881 7000 40 6000 5176 5132 27 5000 22 4000 2000 1000 4851 11 648 12

993 1329 15 10 5 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year Tons Recycled

25 20 1667 1871 0 35 30 3288 16 3000 45 40 5788 Tons Trash Discarded

Percent Recycled MIT uses 350 million gallons of water annually Generates nearly 16,000,000 lbs of trash per year and over 270,000 lbs of lab chemical waste per year Produces thousands of cu/ft of other regulated lab waste annually 25% of MIT community drives to campus alone But 75% take the T, carpool, bike, walk, etc. versus 45% nationally Of over 100 campus vehicles, only 3 use alternative fuel Energy, energy, energy Our GHG Challenge GHG Reduction Scenario (1990 levels by 2015) Building consumption 90% Equivalent Metric Tons CO2 Reduced 200,000 Transportation (including commuting) 9.5%

150,000 50,000 100,000 60,000 50,000 0 53,000 5,100 Reduction Source Solid waste 0.5% CO2 EMISSIONS FROM MIT CAMBRIDGE CAMPUS (Calculated 1990-2005; Estim ated 2006-2020) Co-gen Expansion (16MW) Sustainable Building Design Energy Conservation Programs Renewable Power Investments

500,000 450,000 You Are Here Equivalent Metric Tons CO2 400,000 168,000 Ton Reduction Needed for 1990 Levels 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Fiscal Year Utilties Transportation MIT Air Travel

Now Add 20% More! What Are We Doing About Sustainability? Reduce, Reuse, Recycle MITs trash to waste has gone down Solid waste goes to waste-to-energy facility Comprehensive recycling program established Our recycling rate has gone upto over 40% MIT's Recycling Rate and Amounts Have Increased Dramatically Since 2000, While Overall Trash Discards Have Declined - Achieving 40% Recycling Goal in 2005 8000 50 7035 6881 7000 40 5176 5132

27 5000 22 4000 2000 1000 4851 11 648 12 993 1329 25 20 1667 15 1871

10 5 0 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year Tons Recycled Tons Trash Discarded Percent Recycled We now compost over 20 tons of food waste per month Green Procurement policy in place Pollution prevention program formalized Green Chemistry

Re-use listservs and furniture exchange in place Water use on campus reduced 60% from 1990 to 2005 levels: thats over 40 million gallons saved a year! Stormwater runoff significantly reduced Waste vegetable oil to biodiesel in the works 35 30 3288 16 3000 45 40 5788 6000 What Are We Doing About Sustainability? Minimizing Transportation Impacts Aggressive transportation demand management programs including MIT subsidized T-Passes, rideshares, van pools, Zip Cars, GoLoco have significantly reduced the passenger miles driven by the MIT community, and resulted in MIT being distinguished as a Best Work

Place for Commuters by the EPA. MIT adopted several alternative-fuel vehicles, including campus utility vehicles powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) & hybrid. MIT and the City of Cambridge awarded an EPA grant to install advanced diesel pollution control devices on their fleets. Renewable, plant-based biodiesel fuel has been introduced into MITs fleet. Student run waste vegetable oil processor coming. Student-led efforts have shaped new commuting and parking options What Are We Doing About Sustainability? Adopting Sustainable Design Because building energy use contributes heavily to our ecological impact, MIT has made a commitment to build more sustainably. MITs Institute building construction guidelines specify that all new construction and major renovations strive for LEED Silver certification or better. Ready for revisiting. The Brain and Cognitive Sciences Building was recently awarded Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver certification. The Stata Center was designed to meet LEED Silver. An anticipated LEED Gold Sloan School building and a new graduate dormitory expected to surpass Silver are in the works. Our new Center for Cancer Research lab is hitting fume hood & HVAC use head-on. What Are We Doing About Sustainability?

Implementing Cleaner, More Efficient Energy Systems Co-generation technology in the power plant has saved money, reduced fuel consumption, and drastically reduced air pollutants from the conventional systems. With co-generation MIT reduced - in the short-term - greenhouse gas emissions by 32%. Over 60,000 tons a year! Solar panel and algae bioreactor installations on campus have further demonstrated the reality of zero emission power generation and advanced control technologies. Energy conservation programs have been effectivebut limited. We are now ramping up significant, new pilot programs. How to Deepen Sustainable Practices? Engage Leadership through Linking Operational Objectives with Academic Mission Energy Initiative: President Hockfields signature research initiative A call to action for MIT to tackle the global energy crisis: The need for workable energy options is perhaps the greatest single challenge facing our nation and the world in the 21st century The gist: how to meet growing energy demand without destroying our worlds resources = sustainable energy web.mit.edu/mitei MIT Energy Initiative: Walking the Talk on Campus

Extending research impact by demonstrating sustainable energy practices on campus and integrating education opportunities Leading and educating by example: MIT taking action to reduce its own campus energy foot print through: Making a commitment Investing in energy conservation Increasing energy efficiency Applying advanced energy technologies Embracing sustainable design Applying innovative financial strategies Opening our campus as a learning laboratory Creating campus-focused energy research and education opportunities Using greenhouse gas emissions & student engagement as some metrics of our progress Pilot Success: A Steam Trap Demonstration Project A dramatic increase in energy efficiency was

demonstrated after steam traps devices to regulate steam use - were replaced in one of two identical dorms. Steam use in Building 62 (indicated by the black line) was reduced by nearly 50% and was responsive to changes in outside temperatures. This year: all academic buildings renewed for $700,000 savings = 1 year payback! Show the Data: A Chemical Fume Hood Example Expect annual cost savings upwards of $100,000 in Dept. of Chemistry alone more opportunities abound. Document the Obvious (Lights Out 1656) Two webcams in Stata Center & Occupant Sensors in 16 & 56 capture photos every 20 minutes between 9pm and 4am Threshold algorithm detects whether lights are on and matches them to rooms Java software computes lighting usage and sends weekly emails to participants Engage the Entire Community First 2 years: a focus on the engineered solutions for energy conservation

Current priority: the community solutions Individual actions that make a difference for energy conservation A need to engage the entire MIT community in their place Build awareness, inform, enable, and empower individuals greeningMIT logo strengthening community of action Harness the Local Culture: Revolving Door Analysis As seen in If everyone used the revolving doors at E25 alone, MIT would save almost $7500 amounting to nearly 15 tons of CO2. And thats just from two of the 29 revolving doors on campus! Avenues for Student Engagement in Sustainability Researching Learning Doing Leading Driving How We Engage Students On Campus (and

Geteducation Engaged by Them) Formal channels Course curricula Class projects (5.92, S-Lab) Special modules (FPOP DEEP) Faculty-sponsored research (CS-UROPS) Informal education channels Explosion of volunteer activities & internships Student clubs: SAVE, SfGS, Sloan EE, Energy Club MIT Generator MIT Pledge Classwork Undergraduates Energy, Environment & Society (5.92) First Year Students Project-Based Learning Interdisciplinary Key Lessons Projects Freshman exceed expectations MIT Wind Capacity

Meaningful results for partners Waste Heat from MIT Nuclear Research Reactor Sufficient guidance is key Renewables Capacity at Cambridge High School Bring new students into network Classwork Lab for Sustainable Business (S-Lab) Carbon Mitigation Projects Matrix Key columns Totals Project category Project description Fac Eff Cogen. Plant Expansion 16MW, 300,000 pph

Fac Eff Window Film Application Fac Eff Retrocommission Six Buildings Fac Eff Fac Eff ROI 132,164 CO2 Reduction MTCO2e/yr NPV per MTCO2e %52.27% of Total MIT CO2e 2003 8% 53,086.13

40% 110.98 $148,647 233% 16,776.82 $503 6.64% Lighting Occupancy Sensors 63% 5,026.04 $992 Laboratory Fume Hoods Upgrade & VAV Controls 19% 4,274.88

$267 Fac Eff Continuous Commissioning of Buildings W35 & 18 302% 12,522.20 Fac Eff Continuous Commissioning of Four More Academic 133% 10,017.76 Fac Eff Re-Lamp / Re-Ballast Campus-Wide Fac Eff Steam Trap Retrofits Fac Eff Add Heat Recovery to Building 13

Fac Eff Air Handler Low Drop Filters and Coil Cleaning Fac Eff Fac Eff Fac Eff $103,721,140 $16,284,745 Annual Installed Energy # of Units Cost Saving $ 21.00% $78,000,000 $6,500,000 $10,000,000 $4,000,000 6

$600,000 $1,400,000 1.99% 9,867 $1,609,820 $1,006,933 1.69% 500 $4,000,000 $750,000 $244 4.95% 2 $165,000 $499,102

$229 3.96% 4 $300,000 $400,000 0.04% 2,400,000 16% 1,570.64 $133 0.62% 50,000 $2,500,000 $390,000 119%

8,184.59 $248 3.24% 3,000 $302,000 $360,000 1 $2,000,000 $225,000 $150,000 $150,000 11% 9,093.98 -$43 3.60%

100% 604.09 $1,366 0.24% Underground Steam Pipe Insulation 35% 4,546.99 $117 1.80% 1,800 $400,000 $140,000 Add Heat Recovery from Lab Exhaust Systems Incandescent Light Bulbs to CFL Retrofits (Task Lighting)

13% 4,092.29 -$11 1.62% 5 $750,000 $100,000 70% 212.04 $1,269 0.08% 5,000 $75,000 $52,650 FPOP [email protected]

Pre-freshmen get DEEP into energy and environment Freshmen Pre-Orientation Program = Discover Energy & Environmental Programs Leading faculty presentations on global climate issues, research, classes Calculation of own carbon footprint Learning about MITs own energy use & CO2 emissions Dorm building audit: heating loss, water & electricity use, trash and recycling Leads to sets of recommendations for improvements New addition to programs on literature, engineering and outdoor adventures Education Office Campus Sustainability UROPs UROP = Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program >80% of MIT undergraduates do at least one Project Examples Green Roof Feasibility Analysis Lab HVAC Assessments for Energy Conservation Faculty Advisor Undergrad

Student Operations Advisor EPO Sponsorship/MITEI Coordination Environmental Programs Office Recycling Systems & Communications Analysis Graduate Thesis or Independent Research Student Campus Energy Project Grants Wind Turbine Competition Energy Mapping Project Campus Climate Awareness Project Revolving Door Behavioral Change Campaign

MIT Generator UA Campus Energy and Environment Pamphlet Appliance Use Energy Audits and Case Studies http://mit.edu/mitei/campus/project-fund.html Students Embrace the Campus as a Learning Laboratory Student interest in on-campus energy and environmental performance has skyrocketed Driven by desire to: Walk the Talk on campus and affect change in their community Create a unique space to apply MIT-honed creative problem-solving skills Develop and test emerging leadership abilities Build collaborative bridges across academy and administration Lead the way on campus for win-win solutions: Reduce energy use and costs

Educate the community (and themselves) Minimize MITs climate footprint Create smarter, more efficient campus The MIT Generator exists to unite and catalyze student groups working on local energy, environment, and sustainability projects with a campus focus Operations Education Research Our vision is for MIT to be a living laboratory, where the campus itself is a development site and proving ground for student leadership and innovative policies, practices, and technologies MIT Student Pugwash SAVE

SfGS S* UA committee Sloan Net Impact Energy Club Generator Events LFEE Generator - Nov 14th Re-Generator - Feb 12th Earth Week - April 23th Facilities EPO Vision 2015 Mapping Vision 2050

Energy Audits and Assessment Closing the Loop Transportation Course Dorm Electricity Solar Electric Vehicle Team Biodiesel Biodiesel Fume Hoods ??? 8 week undergraduate competition: Saved over 230 megawatt/hours (over $30,000) Enough to power 21 homes for a year Created education and awareness Sustainable Transportation Through Policy: 1.963 A Sustainable Transportation Plan for MIT 6 credits, 2-0-4 (G), W 2:30-4:00 PM, Rm. 1-132 John Attanucci, Research Associate, Center for Transportation and Logistics

Lawrence Brutti, Operations Manager, MIT Parking & Transportation Office Goal: Evaluate and recommend alternative commuter and business-related transportation policies for the MIT campus, with an emphasis on reducing transportation-related energy usage in a sustainable manner in response to President Hockfields Walk the Talk energy initiative. Source: Collegehumor.com This student team really wanted to get their hands dirty and make a difference Setting the gold standard for student leadership, commitment and organization Created whole new campus community Established new model for bringing change Leading faculty member: Dont let these proposals gather dust! MIT group strikes oil, wins "ecogrant" A plan to turn used cooking oil into biodiesel fuel has won a group led by MIT students a $25,000 "eco-grant" and a concert to be headlined by Angels & Airwaves. Campus Energy Mapping

Lessons to Share Aligning operational goals with core academic and educational mission increases its power For academics and educators, knowing the rhythms of operations is critical Student learning is optimized through a mix of informal and formal opportunities for learning and leadership Persistence, vigilance, and constant linking are key to keeping the threads together Some campus links you should check out: http://mit.edu/environment http://mit.edu/facilities/environmental http://mit.edu/mitei/campus http://sustainability.mit.edu

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