Achilles as a Hero Some Definitions of "Hero" Lord Raglan's Hero Pattern The Hero Pattern applied to Women in Myth, History, and Literature The Hero Quest Stages in the Heroic Quest Variations on the Theme of the Heroic Quest Other Hero Patterns
Heroic Seach as Life Process Birth Maturation Death Rebirth
Name Vase of the Achilles Painter (450 BC) Rites of Passage
Birth Puberty Coming of Age Death Question: What are some modern examples of such rites of passage? The Psychological Quest Sigmund Freud, c. 1921
(1856-1939) Carl Jung (1975-1961) Hero Quest in the Individual Mind dream world of the individual importance of subconscious in determining human behavior and belief psychoanalysis
a method of therapeutic analysis based on theory that abnormal mental states result from the repression of desires that the conscious mind rejects but which persist in the unconscious id / ego / superego Oedipus complex Sigmund Freud, c. 1921
(1856-1939) Freud on Achilles Relationship with parents Thetis, his mother Peleus, his father Mortal vs. Divine Attic red figure kylix, signed by Peithinos
500 BC Antikenmuseen, Berlin Achilles and His Mother Honor Daumier Thetis dipping Achilles in the river Styx. Thomas Banks (1735-1805) English; about 1788 Victoria and Albert museum
Achilles and Peleus Peleus marries Thetis Mortal Peleus makes Achilles mortal Peleus gives Achilles to centaur Chiron to be raised. Peleus consigns Achilles to Chiron's care, white-ground lekythos by the Edimburg Painter, ca. 500 BC, National
Archaeological Museum of Athens Joachim Wtewael The Marriage Feast of Peleus and Thetis ca. 1606-10 oil on copper, .75 x 8.75 in., t Feigen Hero Quest in the Collective Mind dream world of society
collective unconscious archetypes: recurring myths characters, situations and events archetype as primal form or pattern from which all other versions are derived More on Jung: http://skepdic.com/jung.html Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Achilles as an Jungian Archetype Mortal Yearning for Immortality Achilles Choice (Immortal Fame) Students of Jung Ernst Cassirer (1874-1975) Mircea Eliade (1907-1986) Victor Turner (1920-1983) Joseph Campbell (1904-1987)
Ernst Cassirer (1874-1975) German philosopher and historian of ideas one of the leading exponents of neo-Kantian thought in the 20th century Emphasized the inevitable relationship of myth and language The great symbol systems from science to mythology are not modeled on reality but model it.
Myth as mind's spontaneous creation of an emotionally satisfying cosmos. More on Cassirer: http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/cassir.htm Joseph Campbell 1904-1987 Hero's rite of passage journey of maturation Growth into true selfhood (Jung's individuation) More on Campbell: http://www.jcf.org/about_jc.php
Five Stages of the Hero Quest Call to Adventure Struggle or Crossing the Threshold
Tests of Will, Endurance and Ability The Ordeal and Its Reward The Return Call to Adventure Each hero receives a call to his task--either through some inner voice of feeling of through outside circumstances. he may eagerly accept of bluntly refuse his task. (If he refuses, he is usually forced through trickery or violence to accept.)
Discovery of Achilles Author : JAN DE BRAY Date :1664 Nicholas Poussin. Achilles and Daughters of Lycomede. 1656. Oil on canvas. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA. Struggle or Crossing the Threshold These are the steps into the world of conflict and danger, which
may be conceive in human terms (e.g. a war) or in religious and mythological symbolism (e.g. monsters the lower world). The hero often has a helper (human or divine) who aids him with extra knowledge and strength. At times the hero must seem to die to his old life in order to enter the world of the quest
(e.g. disappearance for years, descent to the underworld). Tests of Will and Endurance These test (whether only one or a series) usually take the form of conflict or battle with monsters, natural forces, or hostile humans. Again, the hero may have help, but he must
successfully overcome the obstacles himself. Tiepolo. The Rage of Achilles 1757 Gavin Hamilton ( 1723 98 ), Achilles Lamenting the Death of Patroclus The Return
If the successful accomplishment of the heroic task is to be truly beneficial, then the hero must return to the world he left, bringing the princess, gift, treasure knowledge, of whatever it is with him. If he is the symbol of a group, then he is bringing a benefit to them all. Sometimes his return is aided by the gods or other forces; sometimes he must flee hostile forces that
resent his seizure of the reward. This is a theme of renewal and rebirth, the way the old individual, nation, and/or world can be restored and live again. Five Stages of the Hero Quest Call to Adventure Struggle or Crossing the Threshold
Tests of Will, Endurance and Ability The Ordeal and Its Reward The Return Gavin Hamilton ( 1723 98 ), Death of Achilles
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