The Human Body

The Human Body

Food & Digestion Chapter 9 Why You Need Food Your body converts the food you eat into nutrients. nutrients the substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all the essential processes There are 6 kinds of nutrients necessary for human health:

1. carbohydrates calorie the amount of 2. fats energy needed to raise 3. proteins the temperature of one 4. vitamins gram of water by one Celsius degree. 5. minerals

6. water Carbohydrates carbohydrates composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen & a major source of energy simple carbohydrates sugars glucose a sugar (major source of energy for your body) complex carbohydrates many sugar molecules

linked together in a chain fiber found in plant foods Fats fats high-energy nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, & hydrogen Fats provide the highest amount of energy of any of the nutrients. unsaturated fats usually liquid at room temperature saturated fats usually solid at room temperature

cholesterol a waxy, fatlike substance found only in animal products Too much cholesterol can lead to heart disease. Proteins proteins nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Proteins are made up of small units called amino acids, which are linked together chemically to form large molecules of protein.

Vitamins vitamins act as helper molecules in a variety of chemical reactions within the body Minerals minerals nutrients that are not made by living things

Water Water is the most important nutrient because the bodys vital processes including chemical reactions such as the breakdown of nutrients take place in water. The Food Guide Pyramid The Food Guide Pyramid classifies goods into six groups. It also indicates how many servings from each group should be eaten every day to maintain

a healthy diet. 1. Bread, Cereal, Rice, & Pasta Group 2. Vegetable Group 3. Fruit Group 4. Milk, Yogurt, & Cheese Group 5. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Beans, Eggs, & Nuts Group 6. Fats, Oils, & Sweets Group The Food Guide Pyramid

Food Labels Percent Daily Value indicates how the nutritional content of one serving fits into the diet of a person who consumers a total of 2,000 Calories a day. Food labels allow you to evaluate a single food as well as to

compare the nutritional value of two foods. Digestive System Functions of the Digestive System: It breaks down food into molecules the body can use 2. The molecules are absorbed into the blood and

carried through the body 3. Wastes are eliminated from the body 1. digestion the process by which your body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules absorption the process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood

Food passes through the 1. mouth 2. esophagus 3. stomach 4. small intestine 5. large intestine 6. rectum 7. anus.

The Mouth The digestion process begins in the mouth. Mechanical Digestion: The teeth break the food into smaller pieces. saliva the fluid released when your mouth waters Chemical Digestion: An enzyme is added to the food. enzyme a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body

The Esophagus epiglottis a flap of tissue that seals off and prevents food from entering your windpipe esophagus a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. mucus a thick, slippery substance produced by the body that lines the esophagus peristalsis involuntary waves of muscle contraction that push the

food toward the stomach The Stomach stomach a J-shaped muscular pouch located in the abdomen. Most mechanical digestion takes place in the stomach: Three strong layers of smooth muscle contract to produce a churning motion This action squeezes the food, mixing it with fluids

Some chemical digestion takes place in the stomach: Digestive juices break down the food and kill bacteria Mucus lines and protects the stomach. The Small Intestine small intestine the part of the digestive system where MOST of the chemical digestion takes place.

Almost all chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine. liver located in the upper portion of the abdomen and is the largest and heaviest organ inside the body The liver produces bile which is a substance that breaks up fat particles. Bile flows from the liver into the gallbladder which is the organ that stores bile.

pancreas a triangular organ that lies between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine. villi millions of tiny finger shaped structures that cover the surface of the small intestine and absorb nutrient molecules.

The Large Intestine large intestine the last section of the digestive system As material moves through the large intestine, water is absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining material is readied for elimination from the body. The large intestine ends in a short tube called the rectum. Waste material is eliminated through the body through a muscular

opening at the end of the rectum called the anus. Awesome Digestive Facts!!!! HOW LONG ARE YOUR INTESTINES? At least 25 feet in an adult. Be glad you're not a full-grown horse -- their coiled-up intestines are 89 feet long! It takes 3 hours for food to move through the intestine Food drying up and hanging out in the large

intestine can last 18 hours to 2 days! Americans eat about 700 million pounds of peanut butter. Americans eat over 2 billion pounds of chocolate a year. In your lifetime, your digestive system may handle about 50 tons!!

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