The Story So Far - AKC Canine Health Foundation

The Story So Far - AKC Canine Health Foundation

2006 Canine Health Foundation National Parent Club Canine Health Conference Proceedings and Summary The Story So Far The Canine Health Foundation Founded in 1995 $15 million in research grants Sixth biennial Parent Club Conference Research network from Netherlands to California

Mission: To develop significant resources for basic and applied health programs with emphasis on canine genetics to improve the quality of life for dogs and their owners. The Story So Far Alliances Make It Possible American Kennel Club Nestl Purina PetCare Company Canine Health Information Center (CHIC) Orthopedic Foundation for Animals

The Story So Far The 2005 Parent Club Conference Sequencing of the canine genome A huge opportunity to move forward They said it couldnt be done Complete sequence released in December 2005 Donations have never mattered more Other ways for clubs, individuals to help

Send samples (but check first!) Conduct health surveys Raise awareness The Story So Far AKC CHF Research Grants Biennial survey identifies five top health concerns Last survey: Cancer, eye disease, epilepsy, hip dysplasia, thyroid disease RFP to 2,500 researchers world-wide

Peer review Funding so far: More than 50 institutions in eight countries ACORN grants: up to one year, $12,000 The Next Big Thing Is Now Sequencing the Canine Genome Human health benefits from canine research Parallels between canine, human diseases Closer match to humans than traditional research

species Detailed pedigrees lead to quicker results Dogs benefit from human health funding The Next Big Thing Is Now Sequencing the Canine Genome The idea is to approach breeds that have dogs that are of interest, and to use free living dogs for the research. This avoids

ethical concerns and costs less than working with laboratory mice. -- Karl Lark, PhD The Next Big Thing Is Now Case Study The Portuguese Water Dog The ideal research subject Small population Excellent pedigree records 30 founders

10 responsible for 90% of the gene pool Closer attention from corporate sponsors, NIH Everybody wins The Next Big Thing Is Now Sequencing the Canine Genome The dog has a much closer genome to the human. More than 300 human genetic diseases are found in dogs. The different

breeds are genetic isolates, so theyre very important and very hard to find in humans. -- Karl Lark, PhD The Next Big Thing Is Now Sequencing the Canine Genome People are mutts, and flagging heritable risk factors is less straightforward in human research because of the genetic background of

cross-breeding that we have. -- Dr. Jaime Modiano The Next Big Thing Is Now Sequencing the Canine Genome The real bottleneck now is getting samples, and samples that are accurately characterized. The rest is easier than it used to be. -- Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, PhD

Major Findings Results on the Horizon Canine cancer Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) and Battens disease Stem cells: Mending heart failure Epilepsy and canine neurologic disease Major Findings

Canine Cancer Most serious canine disease Primary tumors often metastasize before they are diagnosed Human genome: 27,000 cancer-related aberrations Canine genome: Chromosomes harder to identify, but five linked to non-Hodgkins lymphoma Major Findings Canine Cancer Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

Lifetime risk of 1:10 to 1:20 in dogs, 1:50 in humans One-year canine survival rate: 55% Breeds at highest risk Boxers, Goldens, Labradors, Scottish Terriers, Basset Hounds, Saint Bernards, Dobermans All middle-aged dogs Specific genes: A work in progress Major Findings Canine Cancer

Lymphoproliferative Disease and Age Major Findings Canine Cancer Prevention and Treatment Dogs and humans: Similar incidence, age of onset, location, progression, outcome Shared environment, shared susceptibility Canine cancer on the rise Environmental factors? Longer lifespans?

Life is the single highest risk factor Major Findings Working with Cancer Researchers Elaine Ostrander, PhD NHGRI/NIH Building 50 50 South Drive, Room 5381 Bethesda MD 20892

[email protected] Sample Coordinator: Dana Mosher 301-451-9390 [email protected] (DNA samples only) Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, PhD Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT 320 Charles Street Cambridge, MA 02141 [email protected]

Sample Coordinator: Joanne Lai [email protected] (DNA samples only) Major Findings Working with Cancer Researchers Jaime Modiano, VMD, PhD University of Colorado at Denver and

Health Sciences Center 1600 Pierce St Denver, CO 80214 [email protected] Samples to: Cristan Jubala 303-239-3327 [email protected] (blood or tissue samples; please contact before sending!)

Matthew Breen PhD College of Veterinary Medicine North Carolina State University 4700 Hillsborough Street Rm. 348 CVM Research Building) Raleigh, NC 27606 [email protected] (blood or tissue samples; please contact before sending) Major Findings

Canine Cancer Proper procedures matter! Work with sample coordinators Match available sample to current need Send samples quickly Send reference samples from older, unaffected dogs Pay attention to waiver provisions Fill out consent forms in full Major Findings Canine Cancer

Mark your calendar! AKC CHF Canine Cancer Conference Chicago, IL September 15-17, 2006 More information: Major Findings Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (NCL) Multiple breeds Linked to Battens disease in humans

Major symptoms: Mobility problems, dementia, blindness Benefits of canine research: 30 generations of DNA, shorter breeding cycle Tests show fluorescent yellow material in cerebellum, retina Major Findings Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (NCL)

Cerebellum Retina Major Findings Stem Cells Mending heart disease The bodys innate repair tool Two key characteristics Self-renewing Able to differentiate

Clinical treatments 10 to 15 years away Human health results apply to dogs, too Major Findings Stem Cells Mending heart disease Progression of heart disease Inflammatory response may be a first sign Scarring of the heart Heart cant compensate; cells fail

Cell therapy for damaged hearts Dosage rates matter A measure of success: Ability to pump blood Major Findings Canine Neurologic Diseases Striking at the essence of the animal Help is on the way for Movement disorders Epilepsy/storage diseases

Degenerative myelopathy Major Findings Canine Neurologic Diseases Movement disorders Cerebellar ataxia DNA marker found in English Pointers American Staffordshire Terrier research may help Old English Sheepdogs Progressive Neuronal Abiotrophy

Common in Kerry Blues, in Chinese Crested Possible similarity to Parkinsons in humans Major Findings Canine Neurologic Diseases Epilepsy/storage disorders Cases in miniature wirehaired Dachshunds linked to a form of human epilepsy Storage disorder symptoms linked to abnormal accumulation in brain: Seizures, generalized weakness, blindness

Neonatal encephalopathy in Standard Poodle Chinook seizure Link to NCL in sheep and mice Major Findings Canine Neurologic Diseases Degenerative myelopathy Begins at age eight or nine Poor coordination leads to paralysis, spinal degeneration Current and pending studies involve German

Shepherds, Corgis Existence and characterization of disease is controversial; causes are under study Solid evidence is needed Major Findings Better Knowledge of Chronic Conditions Diabetes Hypothyroidism Centronuclear myopathy

Pancreatic acinar atrophy Dermatomyositis Major Findings Better Knowledge of Chronic Conditions Nutrition and metabolism Osteoarthritis Protein metabolism Assisted reproduction

Behavior and temperament Canine vaccination Major Findings Diabetes High prevalence in dogs and humans Incidence has more than tripled since 1970 50,000 amputations, 50,000 cases of blindness projected for 2005 Many cases may go undiagnosed

Susceptibility varies widely among breeds Major Findings Hypothyroidism Commonly diagnosedand misdiagnosed? Susceptible breeds: Goldens, Dobermans, Irish Setters, Miniature Schnauzers, Cocker Spaniels, Airedales Diagnosis more difficult in dogs than in humans Treatment without clear diagnosis may suppress pituitary, damage heart

No value in routine or pro-active screening Major Findings Centronuclear Myopathy Previously known as muscular myopathy Prevalent in Labradors Clinical signs begin at one month of age Dogs can live 8.5 years and reproduce, but never regain mobility Carriers have included national winners Breeder awareness is crucial

White list identifies dogs with no predisposition Major Findings Pancreatic Acinar Atrophy Degenerative disease of the pancreas Curtails enzymes required to digest food Prevalent in German Shepherds, Rough Collies Diagnostic test is 100% accurate Treatment is expensive, but 95% effective Late onset makes it impossible to identify carriers

before they breed Researchers are seeking a molecular signpost Major Findings Dermatomyositis Degenerative skin and muscle disease Prevalent in Collies, less so in Shetland Sheepdogs Some similarity to muscular dystrophy Abnormal chromosome may be linked to merle

coloring Major Findings Dermatomyositis Major Findings Nutrition and Metabolism Osteoarthritis Most common joint disease in dogs and humans 20% prevalence, 70% in older dogs

Nutritional approaches can manage obesity, reduce inflammation Humans are good research models for dogs Major Findings Nutrition and Metabolism Protein metabolism Dogs need 20 different amino acids, 10 from diet Inadequate protein impairs growth Research supports low energy, moderate protein diet for large breed puppies

High protein for older dogs supports lean muscle mass Severe calorie restriction reduces lean muscle Major Findings Assisted Reproduction Poor timing is still the biggest issue Two drug groups can manipulate the reproductive cycle Drugs have pros and cons Costs are high

Embryo transfer: Careful synchronization, or larger breeding colonies Canine cloning: One clone required three years, 123 embryo transfers Major Findings Behavior and Temperament Major cause of euthanasia Temperament eliminates 30-50% of service dogs C-BARQ Assessment questionnaire: Seeking a

reliable measurement standard 152 questions >3,000 owners and breed club members 11 traits were common to most dogs Study identified differences among breeds Major Findings Canine Vaccination More vaccines available, but adverse events may be understated

Research requires large population, long study period 3.5 million doses to 1.2 million dogs led to 4,678 events Highest prevalence in Dachshunds, Pugs, Boston Terriers, Miniature Pinschers, Chihuahuas Adverse events increased 25% for each additional vaccine on the same occasion Major Findings How Far Do We Go?? Health conditions may be genetically linked to

desirable or necessary traits Breed clubs may not recognize dogs with important characteristics removed Alternative: For recessive traits, breed dogs with abnormal genes to normal, cleared dogs Whats Next? A World of Opportunities Health committees Health surveys DNA testing

Fundraising Whats Next? Health Committees Independent structure Close relationship with Parent Club Committee activities Educational seminars and publications DNA clinics Fundraising Research support

Parent Clubs and breed foundations: The backbone of disease-specific research Whats Next? Health Surveys Basic principles for survey design Set goals and stick to them Define acceptable proof Anticipate barriers and build in solutions Choose a method

Include healthy dogs Test forms for accuracy, ease of use Whats Next? Health Surveys Barriers to a successful survey: People, not technology Confidentiality Breed reputation Low participation rates Inclusion of pet population in addition to fancy

Complexity of online surveys Club leadership is essential CHF is here to help Whats Next? DNA and the American Kennel Club AKC department formed in 1997 Compliance audit 83,000 DNA samples during routine inspections

Compliance up from 87% to >95% Voluntary DNA certification Owner collects cheek swab Lab processes results AKC provides DNA certificate Conditional registration Whats Next? AKC-CHF Fundraising

MEETING THE CHALLENGE We need your support Contributions Volunteers to tell the story CALL US TODAY! Jeff Sossamon (888) 682-9696 [email protected]

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