Wednesday 12/2/09

Wednesday 12/2/09

DO NOW ANSWERS When you switch from low to high power, the field of view decreases which causes the brightness to decrease. How can you fix this? Adjust the diaphragm The cell is the basic unit of life BUT WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?

It means that it builds ALL living things and it is capable of performing ALL life processes Tuesday 1/13/15 AIM: How did scientists discover cells? DO NOW: List as many cells as possible. Homework: read 152-153. reading check pg 153

How did we discover the cell? The microscope The Invention of the Microscope - YouTube Who discovered the first microscope 1590 Hans and Zacharias

Janssen Ground up glass and used it to magnify Robert Hooke discovered cell 1605-1703

1605 Robert Hooke Looked at cork plant Noticed it was separated into tiny compartments which resembled jail cell One of the first users discovered protozoa

Anton von Leeuwenhoek Ground up glass 1676 Anton von Leewenhoek Discovered living things in pond water Small single celled

organisms Ameba and paramecium Matheis Schleiden 1838 ALL plants are made up of cells not just the cork plant

1839 Theodor Schwann Looked at animal tissue and saw that animals also were made up of cells Francisco Redi

Living things come from other living things Maggots come from flies which lay eggs on decaying meat 1855 Rudolf virchow

Cells come from preexisting cells The cell theory An explanation or theory about living things All living organisms are composed of one or more cells The cell is the basic unit of structure and

organization of all living organisms Cells come from preexisting cells Assessment Explain how the microscope helped in the development of the cell theory List in order the scientists that helped develop the microscope

AIM: What are the different types of cells in the world? DO NOW: Create a timeline of events that led up to the development of the cell theory HW: Textbook read pages 151-153. Answer the reading check question on page 151 and 153. DO NOT FORGET TO

WRITE OUT THE QUESTION AND THE ANSWER In your own words, explain the definition of a cell Basic unit of life Builds all living things Capable of performing all life functions

Can exist alone as a single celled organism or combine to create multicellular organisms The Cell The cell: the basic unit of life Prokaryote

Eukaryote AIM: how does the type of cell determine the classification of an organism? DO NOW: observe the two cells below. List all of the similarities and differences of the cells.

Picture B Picture A Prokaryotes: Prokaryote (Greek - Before Nucleus) Prokaryotes were first group of organic organisms to evolve 3.8 BYA

Prokaryote cells lack membrane bound nuclei, and organelles and reproduce asexually ALL PROKARYOTES ARE SINGLE CELLED Asexual reproduction of Prokaryotes Budding: small identical bud grows

and pinches off Binary fission: cell splits in two Both produce genetically identical cells AIM: How are living things placed into

Kingdoms? DO NOW: Explain the difference in the genetic arrangement of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. HOMEWORK:Textbook Read pages 156157. Answer questions 1,3,4 on page 161 AIM: How can we determine the difference between organisms within different Kingdoms?

DO NOW:THE CELL 5. Read pages 77-80. AS YOU READ, UNDERLINE THE MAIN POINT OF EACH PARAGRAPH. Answer questions1-4 pg 80. HOMEWORK: Textbook Read pages 156-157. What does the cytoskeleton do? How does DNA direct activity in the cytoplasm? What organelles participate in protein production?

Cell types Prokaryote Kingdom EuBacteria Kingdom Archaebacteria Eukaryote

Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plant Kingdom Animal

Plasmid Bacterial plasmids are used in genetic engineering A human gene can be inserted into a bacterial plasmid in

order to make the human protein Ex: Insulin Plasmid Isolation - Extraction of plasmid from a bacterial cell (Amrita University) - YouTube

Eukaryotic cells Means True Nucleus Plant, Animal, Protists, Fungi

All contain membrane bound organelles Organelle: tiny organ Functioning parts of the cell All eukaryotic cells are surrounded by an extra cellular matrix There are 2 types we will discuss, plants and animal cells

How are prokaryotes and eukaryotes different? Organization of the nucleus Cell size Membrane bound organelles AIM: What are some properties of organisms in

each KINGDOM? DO NOW: Explain why the Monera Kingdom has been eliminated and what are the two new Kingdoms that took its place? HOMEWORK: HANDOUT The cell. Read pages 82-85. Give a brief description of the cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm.

Kingdom Eubacteria ALL single celled bacteria heterotrophic, autotrophic, and chemotrophic Prokaryote or

Eukaryote Normal every day bacteria Example of Eubacteria: E.Coli Streptococcus Eubacteria that causes strept throat

AIM: How can we determine the difference between organisms within different Kingdoms? DO NOW:THE CELL 5. Read pages 77-80. AS YOU READ, UNDERLINE THE MAIN POINT OF EACH PARAGRAPH. Answer questions1-4 pg 80. HOMEWORK: Textbook Read pages 156-157.

What does the cytoskeleton do? How does DNA direct activity in the cytoplasm? What organelles participate in protein production? How do Eubacteria obtain food? Feeding Behavior Heterotrophs absorb organic

materials down in both living and dead organisms. Autotrophs can make their own food by photosynthesis. Chemotrophs get their food by breaking down inorganic matter. Cyanobacteria

Photosynthetic Eubacteria Used to be called blue-green algae AIM:How can we determine the different characteristics of eukaryotes in different Kingdoms

DO NOW: Explain the difference between an autotroph and heterotroph HOMEWORK: Read the rest of The Cell handout and answer the questions page 90 1-5 Is the Dead Sea Dying? Video - TIME.com

Kingdom Archaebacteria Prokaryotic bacteria that live in EXTREME environments Halophiles Thermophiles Methanogens

Halophiles Can survive in extreme salty environments such as the dead sea Thermophiles Archaebacteria that live in extremely HOT environments

Methanogens Make methane gas Assessment Explain the similarities and differences between Eubacteria and Archaebacteria

AIM:How can we determine the different characteristics of eukaryotes iin different Kingdoms DO NOW: 1- Explain the difference between an autotroph and heterotroph 2- you have 5 full minutes to study for the quiz HOMEWORK: Handout A closer look at the

human cell. Read the first page and answer questions 1-3,6-8 and 10 ONLY!!!!!!! DO NOW ANSWER Autotroph: Make their own food Heterotroph: obtain food from other sources

Eukaryote Multi or Single celled organisms Protista Parmecium Ameba Fungi

Yeast Mushrooms Animal Plant How are all eukaryotic organisms similar?

True nucleus Membrane bound organelles Kingdom Protista characteristics

Eukaryotes Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Unicellular Mostly aquatic Mostly asexual

Things like: slime molds and algae, paramecium, ameba, euglena Friday AIM: What are some of the characteristics of the different Eukaryotic organisms? DO NOW: 1- Review your prokaryotic notes 2- Explain why plasmids are important.

3-Explain how prokaryotes reproduce Homework: Create flashcards for each organelle of the prokaryote Pili, flagella, capsule,cell wall, cell membrane, nucleoid,ribosome and plasmid Kingdom Protista: Paramecium Oral groove: ingest

nutrients Gullet: back of the throat and digestive system Cilia: movement Contractile vacuole: able to contract and expel excess water Food vacuole:

responsible for digestion Paramecium Feeding!! YouTube Amoeba in motion - YouTube Kingdom Protista: Ameba Psudopods: movement

Phagocytosis phagocytose 1 - YouTube Paramecium vacuole - YouTube AIM: How are all eukaryotes similar? DO NOW: 1- What do yeast, wheat grass, human beings and paramecium ALL have

in common? What do ALL living things have in common? Homework: Quiz on Firday. Textbook page 161 questions 4 and 5 DoNoW answer

Since they are all examples of eukaryotes, they all have a true nucleus and membrane bound organelles What do ALL living things have in common? They are all made up of cells 2 types of cells in the world: Prokaryote Eukaryote

How can we determine the difference between an Archaebacteria and a Eubacteria? Archaebacteria live in extreme environments

Eubacteria live in normal environments For your flash cards Capsule: is the outermost part of the prokaryotic cell. Release a slime that helps in movement and infection

Characteristics of the Kingdom Fungi Eukaryote Heterotrophic Saprobes or saprophytic eat dead or decaying matter Unicellular and Multicellular Mostly terrestrial Asexual and sexual

Mushrooms,molds, yeasts, puffballs Kingdom Fungi Unicellular yeast Single celled Mostly asexual reproduction through budding

Some by binary fission Used in baking and alcohol fermentation Kingdom Fungi Multicellular Mushroom Heterotrophic saprobes

Decomposer or recycler Breaks down dead and decaying matter to release back into the environment Characteristics of Plantae

Kingdom Eukaryote Multicellular

Autotrophic Mostly Terrestrial Asexual and Sexual Nonmotile Things like: mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants Autotrophic Photosynthetic Autotroph: self feeder

Make their own food through Photosynthesis AIM: How do Plants and animal cells differ? DO NOW: Explain the difference between a prokaryote and eukaryote

Homework: Text page 161 questions 1 and 2 Prokaryotes Kingdom Eubacteria Kingdom Archaebacteria All prokaryotes are single celled

Eukaryotes All have a true nucleus All have membrane bound organelles Kingdom Animalia largest of the kingdoms in terms of its species diversity.

Eukaryote Multicellular heterotrophs = other feeder multicellular In most animals, these cells are organized into tissues that make up

different organs and organ systems. Assessment List the similarities and differences of organisms in the Kingdom Fungi, Plantae and Animalia

Plant Cell:list all of the parts of the plant cell

AIM:how do organelles help the cell function? DO NOW: 1- Take out your cell handouts 2-Define the term organ and the term organelle 3-In your own words explain how the cell organelles are similar to the bodies organs. HOMEWORK: A closer look at the human cell handout, questions 1-10 should ALL be completed by tomorrow!!!!

QUIZ FRIDAY! Kingdom Animalia organization

Cell Tissue Organ System organism Review for Quiz

1-: You should be able to fill in the info on each Kingdom in the Table on the side board. Lets do it!!!! Any Volunteers to fill in cell types for alll 6 Kingdoms? Paramecium have an

oral groove which takes food in The gullet digests food to form a food vacuole Food vacuole stores food until it is digested

Ameba Uses psuedopods to perform phagocytosis Contractile vacuole Help single celled aquatic organisms pump out excess water so that they do not drown

All protista have contractile vacuole Kingdom fungi YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THAT THEY ARE SAPROBES Recycle dead and decaying matter For the Prokaryote cell

Must know each part and function The Cell The parts of a cell are called? Organelles. Organelles means little organs

Types of Eukaryotic Cells Plant cell Animal cell

http://www.wiley.com/legacy/ college/boyer/0470003790/ animations/cell_structure/ cell_structure.htm AIM: Why are orgranelles tiny organs of the cell? DO NOW: Handout 41 15-24. Label the plant

and animal cell. Homework: Textbook Read pages 39-40 Cell Organization. For each organelle that you read about, list and give its function. Use your colored pencils to identify the following organelles

Nucleus: Pink Centriole: Orange Mitochondria: Purple Cytoplasm: Yellow Vacuole: White Endoplasmic Reticulum: Blue Golgi Bodies: Red

Lysosome:Brown Chloroplast: green DO NOW ANSWER

In the nucleus are chromosomes Chromosomes are made up of DNA Genes are a part of DNA Genes hold the code for all of your physical characteristics The double nuclear membrane protects the genetic material (chromosomes)

Tuesday 1/7/14 AIM: How do organelles work together to make the cell a functioning unit? DO NOW: 1- what is an organelle? 2- how are multicellular organisms organized? Homework:text read pages 159-161.

answer question 4 on page 161 Activity Use the diagram below to identify each cell part Plant Cell

Central Thursday 1/9/14 AIM: How do the organelles work together to make the cell a functioning unit? DO NOW: Create a Venn diagram showing the organelles in animal cells,

plant cells and both animal and plant cells HOMEWORK: textbook page 161 question 5. ALL Questions 1-5 due tomorrow Monday 1/13/14 AIM: How do the organelles help the cell function?

DO NOW: 1- where is the DNA in a eukaryotic cell? 2- what is the function of DNA? HOMEWORK:Handout Nucleus The Brain of the cell Contains the

Chromosomes Found in the center of the cell Nucleolus: RNA synthesis The nucleus

the brain of the cell Controls all of the cell activities Because chromosomes contain genes Genes help build proteins

Proteins cause chemical reactions Chemical Reactions control ALL life processes Nuclear Membrane or Nuclear Envelope Separates Chromosomes from the rest of

the cell. Double membrane Nuclear pores Chromosomes Made of DNA and proteins Carry genes: instructions for building

the body The Cell Membrane Surrounds the cell: creating a barrier Allows materials to move in and out Maintain homeostasis http://www.susanahalpine.com/

favicon.ico Cytoplasm Jelly like material Supports the Organelles. Many chemical reactions happen here. Has many molecules and ions dissolved

in it Mitochondria Site of cellular respiration (production of ATP)cellular energy Powerhouse of the cell

Mitochondria Double membrane

Outer membrane is smooth Inner membrane is folded into cristae Cristae: increase surface area for cellular respiration More active a cell is, the more mitochondria it will have Where does the energy for a

cell originally come from? GLUCOSE Which cell would have the most mitochondria and why? Heart muscle cell Stomach cell Skin cell

Gall bladder cell The more energy a cell needs the more mitochondria it will have Chloroplast Plant cell only Contain Chlorophyll

Double membrane Site of Photosynthesis ( the exact opposite of cellular respiration) Why do the mitochondria and chloroplast have two membrane? Because they were once prokaryotes

The Endosymbiont Theory Created by Lynn Margulus States that eukaryotes evolved from a symbiotic relationship between two small prokaryotes that were ingested by a larger prokaryote

Wednesday 1/15/14 AIM: How can we determine the difference between a plant and animal cell? DO NOW: 1-Explain why the nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane HOMEWORK:Handout Ribosomes

Site of protein synthesis (use information from DNA to make proteins) Very tiny Can float free in the cell or be bound to the Endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum

Transports materials around the cell Network of passageways Can be smooth(no ribosomes) or rough (ribosomes Smooth ER: makes carbohydrates and lipids

Rough ER: holds ribosomes and makes proteins Golgi Body golgi apparatus Receive Modify Package

The post Office of the cell Makes vesicles to ship out molecules all over the cell Packages materials for export out of the cell

Vesicle Membrane surrounding some type of molecule Used to transport stuff from the GA to the rest of the cell Can fuse with the Cell membrane to

Release contents THE ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM

The nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus All connected through their membranes THE ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM

How does the Golgi apparatus ship mature molecules to other parts of the cell? ANSWER: Vesicle Vacuole Space within the cell that can be

used to store food, water or waste products. Vacuoles are the storage compartments of the cell. The cytoskeleton Network of protein

fibers Provide structure, support, transport Made up of Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments microtubules Plant cells:

microfilaments only Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton Microfilaments: muscle contraction, cytoplasmic movement, psudopodia Intermediate filaments: Function to

support cell framework Mictrotubules: Function to assist in movement within the cell Create centrosome and centrioles Cilia and flagella Thursday 1/16/14 AIM: How are plant cells different from

animal cells? DO NOW: List the organelles that form the endomembrane system. EXPLAIN WHY the endomembrane system is important to cell communication HOMEWORK: MIDTERM EXAM WEDNESDAY JANUARY 22 and THURSDAY JANUARY 23

Centrosome structure Normally located outside of the nucleus When the cell is

getting ready to divide, they move to opposite ends or poles Centrioles and Spindle Fibers

Centrioles are anchor point for spindle fibers Spindle fibers appear during cell division Lysosomes Contains enzymes that digest foreign particles and old cell parts

digestive enzymes surrounded by a membrane lysosome Break down old and damaged cell parts Break down food particles into their molecular components

Friday 1/6/12 AIM: How do plant and animal cells differ? DO NOW: Explain the difference between a vesicle, vacuole and lysosome Homework: Textbook page 171 question 13 Parts of the Plant Cell

Plants have organelles in them that Animal cells dont have. Plant Cell only Central Vacuole

Space within the cell that can be used to store food, water or waste products. Vacuoles are the storage compartments of the cell. Central Vacuole Plant Cells Only

Storage space for sap,food, water or waste products. Vacuole

Cell Wall Rigid structure that encloses, supports and protects the cells of plants, algae, fungi and most bacteria. Cell Wall

Protective outer layer on plant cells Adds support Cell walls in plants are made of cellulose. Chloroplast Contain Chlorophyll

Site of Photosynthesis Chloroplasts

Have 2 membranes just like the mitochondria Structures found only in the plant cell. Site of photosynthesis. Photo = Light, Synthesis = To make. So Photosynthesis is to make something (glucose) using Light!

Write down a part of the cell we learned that you think is most important and describe why you think it is most important. Ask a neighbor what they thought was

most important and why. Pick ONE. Why did you decide to pick that one? Animal Cell Parts of the Animal cell

Part # 1 The Nucleus. The nucleus is the control center of the cell. It contains the chromosomes which are made of DNA. Part #2 The Nuclear Membrane

The Nuclear Membrane surrounds the nucleus and keeps the Chromosomes separate from the cytoplasm. Part #2 The Nuclear Membrane Part #3 Chromosomes

Structure found in the nucleus that contains hereditary material. Part #3 Chromosomes Part #4 Centrioles

Cylindrical structures only found in animal cells that aid in replication (cell division). Part #5 - Mitochondria

Breaks down food and releases energy. Often called the powerhouse of the cell. Part #6 - Cytoplasm Gel-like liquid that all of the

other organelles float around in. Most of the chemical reactions that occur in the cell happen in the cytoplasm. Part #7 Cell Membrane

Protective outer covering of all cells that regulates what goes in and out of the cell. Part #9 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Network of folded membranes that act as a

transport system for materials in the cell. Can be Rough or Smooth. Rough ER Has ribosomes attached to it. Smooth ER No ribosomes attached to it. Part #10 - Ribosomes This organelle is used to make proteins

within the cell. Ribosomes are like the factories of the cell where small structures (amino acids) are put together to form larger structures (proteins). Parts of the Plant Cell Plants have

organelles in them that Animal cells dont have. Part #1 - Ribosomes This organelle is used to make proteins

within the cell. Ribosomes are like the factories of the cell where small structures (amino acids) are put together to form larger structures (proteins). Part #2 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Network of folded membranes that act as a transport system for materials in the cell. Can be Rough or Smooth. Rough ER Has ribosomes attached to it. Smooth ER No ribosomes attached to it. Part #4 - Nucleus

The nucleus is the control center of the cell. It contains the chromosomes that are made of DNA. Part #2 The Nuclear Membrane

The Nuclear Membrane surrounds the nucleus and keeps the Chromosomes separate from the cytoplasm. Part #6 Chromosomes Structure found in the nucleus that contains hereditary material.

Nuclear membrane and Chromosomes Part #7 Cell Membrane Protective outer covering of all cells that regulates what goes in and out of the cell.

Part #8 - Cytoplasm Gel-like liquid that all of the other organelles float around in. Most of the chemical reactions that occur in the cell happen in the cytoplasm. Part #9 - Mitochondria

Breaks down food and releases energy. Often called the powerhouse of the cell. Part #10 Chloroplasts

Structures found only in the plant cell. Site of photosynthesis. Photo = Light, Synthesis = To make. So Photosynthesis is to make something

(glucose) using Light! Just like complex organisms, cells are able to survive by coordinating various activities. Complex organisms have a variety of systems, and cells have a variety of organelles that work to help the cell survive. Describe the role of two

organelles. In your answer be sure to include: The names of two organelles and the function of each. An explanation of how the organelle does its job. The name of the organelle and the name of a part of the human body that has a similar function.

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