What are our major uses of water?

What are our major uses of water?

What are the human and environmental factors affecting water scarcity? Suggest what factors will influence water scarcity Water scarcity sorting Cut out the slips, read them through and check your understanding of the vocabulary used. Categorize the slips as being environmental or human related. Categorize the slips as being either linked to patterns or trends.

Categorize the slips as being either concerning physical water scarcity or economic water scarcity. Suggest how the following factors are likely to make water scarcity more severe in pairs, create a mind map USE WATER SCARCITY THE ISSUE How could you colour code to represent different factors?

Population growth Increasing affluence Climate change Pollution Human (growing demand) and Environmental (falling supply) Causes of Water Scarcity http://www.ifpri.org/blog/what-s-really-causing-water-scarcity-africa-south-sahara POPULATION GROWTH POLLUTION

DOMESTIC DEMAND + INCREASED INC0MES http://growingblue.com/implications-of-growth/ LEISURE + TOURISM Las Vegas INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE + ENERGY http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz/ABRASHNM/ POLITICS + MISMANAGEMENT

SEWAGE CLIMATE CHANGE + GROUNDWATER INTRUSION See-think-wonder Physical Scarcity Case Study - The Aral Sea The Aral sea is an inland lake on the border of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The Aral Sea used to be the fourth largest inland lake in the world, with a surface area of 68,000km2. The sea is fed by two rivers, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. Since the

1960's the sea has been shrinking because they were diverted by USSR to irrigate the desert to increase their production of melons, rice, wheat and cotton. Rice and cotton both need extremely high amounts of water to grow. Because the irrigation canals were built quickly, it has been estimated that up to 75% was lost through evaporation or leakage. Even today, only 12% of Uzbekistan's irrigation canals are lined to stop leakage. Between 1960 and 1988 the surface of the Aral Sea shrank by nearly 60% and its volume by up to 80%. By 2007 it was only 10% of its original size and its salinity had increased to 100 /L (normal seawater is only about 35 g/L).

The rapidly increasing salinity has largely killed the sea's ecosystem. Huge salt plains have appeared as more water is evaporated. The salt on the plains is often whipped up in storms, killing crops and also cooling winters and warming summers. The fishing industry has collapsed and residents health worsened due to inhalation of salt, a lack of clean water and food shortages. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3107915.stm Economic Scarcity Case Study Coca Cola in Rajasthan, India

Coca-Cola established a bottling plant in the village of Kaladera in Rajasthan at the end of 1999. Rajasthan is well known as a desert state, and Kaladera is a small, impoverished village characterised by semi-arid conditions. Farmers rely on access to groundwater for the cultivation of their crops. but since Coca-Cola's arrival, they have been confronted with a serious decline in water levels. Locals are increasingly unable to irrigate their lands and sustain their crops, putting whole families at risk of losing their livelihoods. Local villagers testify that Coca-Cola's arrival exacerbated an already precarious situation. Official documents from the government's water ministry show that water levels remained stable from 1995 until 2000, when the Coca-Cola plant became operational. Water levels then dropped by almost 10 metres over

the following five years. Locals fear Kaladera could become a 'dark zone', the term used to describe areas that are abandoned due to depleted water resources. However, the government data showed water table decline of 1.83 metres in Kala Dera compared with those of other villages: 2.39 m in Chomu, 2.28 m in Jaipur and 2.43 m in Tigariya. Coca- Cola claims this is the result of "water stewardship by a responsible company with "expertise in water management. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/asia/july-dec08/waterwars_11-17.html

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