World War I

World War I

Introduction to World War I WWI is aboutrising tensions and conflict in Europe. CAUSES

MAJOR EVENTS IMPACTS Militarism The Spark

Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Germany Devastated

Alliances The Ultimatum Millions Dead/Injured

Imperialism Two-Front War Schleiffen Plan Tension in Europe

Nationalism U.S. Involvement Treaty of Versailles

Key Terms Alliances Groups of nations that promise to support each other. Propaganda Utilizing media outlets to support government policies and programs (Govt Advertising)

Total War War in which all of a countries political, social and economic resources are dedicated to the war effort. Aggression Using violent and assertive actions to achieve national goals. Ultimatum a demand accompanied by a threat to inflict some penalty if the demand is not met.

Militarism Using a powerful military to achieve national goals, glorifying the military. Rising Tensions Cause WWI M - Militarism A - Alliances

I - Imperialism N - Nationalism Militarism Glorification of the miliatry Examples: Bismarck Blood and Iron

Russian Mobilization Security Dilemma Arms Race in Europe Militarism leads to more powerful military and greater potential for violent conflict.

Alliances Groups of nations that band together for common benefit. Major Powers in Europe are Divided Examples: Triple Alliance Germany, Austria, Italy Triple Entente Bound Britain, Russia and

France Alliances lead to war by involving more countries in disputes and increasing TENSION. Germany declares war on RUSSIA AND FRANCE. Imperialism When a stronger

country takes over a weaker country. Examples: Scramble for Africa Berlin Conference Spheres of Influence in China Opium Wars British in India Crown Jewel LEADS TO WAR..it creates competition over colonies which leads to conflict. The

increases in POWER AND WEALTH INCREASE TENSION Nationalism Deep feelings of pride in one's nation. Examples: Nationalism is used to UNITE Italy and

Germany. Nationalism leads to the BREAKUP of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary (ethnic tensions) Nationalism leads to competition in W. Europe, increases tension and creates conflict.

The Spark that caused the war Archduke Franz Ferdinand

and his Wife are Assassinated Shooter Gavrilo Princip Serbian Member of the Black Hand Society Problems in the Balkans

Balkans are the Powder Keg of Europe Breakup of Ottoman Empire SERBIA Intense Nationalism

Timeline of Events Date Events Reaction

1908 Austria Hungary Annexed Bosnia and Herzgovina Serbia OUTRAGED

June 28, 1912 Serbia regains freedom from Ottoman Empire Nationalism Grows

June 28, 1914 Archduke FF Assasinated by Serbian Terrorist

Austria-Hungary blames Serbia/issues ultimatum July 28, 1914

Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia after they refuse ultimatum Russia mobilizes army to support

Serbia August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia and France

WWI Begins CENTRAL POWERS ALLIED

POWERS Germany Russia Austria-Hungary

France Great Britain Joined Later By Bulgaria Ottomans

Joined Later By Italy (From Central) Japan The End of World War I

US INVOLVEMENT begins with GERMAN AGGRESSION TWO FRONT WAR Western Front (France) Bloody Stalemate

Trench Warfare Eastern Front (German/Russian Border) Russian supply lines are

SLOW Russias strength is its SIZE GERMAN AGGRESSION A) Unrestricted

Submarine Warfare Germans sink US Lusitania B) Zimmerman Telegram Intercepted Message from Germany to Mexico asking

for help Eastern Front New Weapons of WWI Poison Gas Machine Guns

Tanks Submarines Russia Withdraws Civil unrest in Russia forces them to withdraw

(Russian Revolution) Germany and Russia signed Treaty of BrestLitovsk (Ends War) END OF EASTERN FRONT Central Powers Collapse (Triple Alliance)

German Troops are TIRED Allied troops are FRESH (Thanks to US Troops) Bulgarians and Ottomans Surrender (give up) Revolution in AustriaHungary

Germany Loses German troops Mutinied (quit) Germany and France signed an Armistice (Cease

Fire) Legacy of the War 8.5 Million Dead 21 Million Wounded Severe Economic Strain Tense Relationships (total

war) The Treaty of Versailles The Big Four Woodrow Wilson US

Georges Clemenceau France David Lloyd George Great Britain Vittorio Orlando - Italy Major Provisions -Treaty of Versailles

(Signed June 28, 1919) 1. Punished Germany Article 231 War Guilt Clause (Sole responsibility) Forced to REPARATIONS (Payments for damage in war) Military Restrictions

Germany Loses Territory Alsace Lorraine and Saar Basin to France Poland Created 2. Creates a League of Nations 3. Map of Europe is Redrawn New Nations better reflect ethnic groups

Based on the principle of SELF DETERMINATION (right to rule your own nation) US President Woodrow Wilsons 14 Points Goal Achieve a just and lasting peace in

Europe Create a General Association of Nations Change Borders and Create New Nations End Secret Treaties Free Trade

DOESNT WORK France and Britain want MORE (to the VICTOR go the SPOILS) New Map of Europe Problems with the Treaty

US Rejected Treaty US is not in the League of Nations Mandated (Colonial) Territories wanted Independence Germany Angry for taking FULL blame Japan/Italy Feel slighted because they didnt

get anything. New Nations are Created Austria Hungary Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia

Turkey Romania Poland Territories in the Middle East go back to Britain and France

TOTAL WAR A Total War Total War All of a nations resources are dedicated to the war effort. Rationing Limited the amounts of war

goods that could be bought Suppressed held down, all anti-war activity was banned Restrain Hold Back Belligerent Warlike, Aggressive Marshaled Arranged, Put in order Conscription Forced to join

Incitement To encourage Compulsory Forced Unprecedented Never before Dissident Speaks out against the government

Propaganda Advertising to spread ideas Censorship Government regulation of media Embittered Made angry/upset Diplomacy Political interactions other than war Competency Ability, Capable

Innovation Invention or advancement REVIEW Key Terms Aggression Using violent and assertive actions to

achieve national goals. Alliances Groups of nations that promise to support each other. Armistice Cease Fire Balance of Power Even distribution of power between European countries leads to PEACE Blood and Iron Bismarcks policy to Unite Germany

through war and sacrifice. Congress of Vienna Meeting of European powers in 1814-1815 to create peace in Europe by establishing a balance of power. Militarism Using a powerful military to achieve national goals, glorifying the military. Multi-National Empire Empire comprised of Multiple

ethnicities and nationalities (i.e. Ottoman, AustriaHungary) Nationalism - Feeling of strong loyalty and pride to ones country and culture.

Powder Keg of Europe Description of the volatility of the Ottoman empires NATIONALISTIC TENSIONS Propaganda Utilizing media outlets to support government policies and programs (Govt Advertising)

Realpolitik Realistic politics aimed at growing the economy and military Self Determination People have a right to rule their own nations Total War War in which all of a countries political, social and

economic resources are dedicated to the war effort. Ultimatum a demand accompanied by a threat to inflict some penalty if the demand is not met. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare German wartime policy to blockade all shipments to Britain

Xenophobia: Intense fear or dislike of people from another country. What are the common bonds people in a NATION share? Borders, Government, Language, Religion, Culture

What regions were UNITED using nationalism? Germany, Italy What empires were DIVIDED by nationalism? Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire What were the goals of Otto Von Bismarcks Blood and Iron policy? Build German Military

Unite Germany through War Realpolitik Realistic politics State over Individual What problems arise in a Multinational Empire? Ethnic Tensions, Nationalistic Rivalries, Group

over Nation What role did Geography play in WWI conflicts? Ottoman Empire Strategic Location Suez Canal, Med. Sea, Indian Ocean Competition for colonies in Middle East as Empire breaks up

Why is nationalism such an important force in Europe? Many nations, close together, shared borders What are the MAIN causes of WWI? How did the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand lead to WWI?

Austria Hungary Issues Ultimatum Russia Mobilizes troops AH declares war on Serbia Germany declares war on France and Russia What were the most significant turning points of WWI? US Involvement (Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, Zimmerman Telegram) Russia Backs Out Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Revolt in Austria Hungary Breakup of Ottoman Empire What were the major alliances formed in WWI? Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottomans, (ITALY) Allied Powers: France, Russia, Britain, (US), (Italy) What were the major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?

What were the major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles? 1. Punished Germany: REPARATIONS, Military Restrictions, Loss of territory 2. Creates a League of Nations 3. Map of Europe is Redrawn-NEW NATIONS What were the major problems of the Treaty of Versailles?

US Rejected Treaty US is not in the League of Nations Mandated (Colonial) Territories wanted Independence Germany Angry for taking FULL blame Japan/Italy Feel slighted because they didnt get anything. How did the map of Europe change as a result of WWI?

NEW NATIONS: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Turkey, Romania, Poland

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