www.engr.psu.edu

www.engr.psu.edu

West Virginia University Alumni Center Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 | Advisor: Dr. Srebric Existing Summary WVUBuilding Alumni Center Project Information Owner: WVU Alumni Association Location: Morgantown, WV Size: 48,000 Square Feet Date of Construction: June 2007-August 2008 Cost: $12 Million Project Delivery Method: Design-Bid-Build Stories: 3 (Bell Tower Extends to 4th) Existing BuildingExisting Summary Goals Redesign Goals MechanicalMechanical Redesign Construction Breadth Construction Electrical Electrical Breadth CostAnalysis Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Results and Conclusion Existing Building Summary First Floor

Lobby Pre-Event Lounge Mechanical Room Commercial Kitchen Grand Ballroom Second Floor Club Room/Lounge (4) Meeting Rooms Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Third Floor Board Room Meeting Room Open Office Plan Enclosed Offices Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Existing Building Summary Original Mechanical System Cooling Central plant with 2 air-cooled R-22 screw

chillers 35% ethylene glycol mix to AHU cooling coils Heating Central plant with 2 natural gas boilers 3000 MBH Input, 2400 MBH Output Hot water to AHU heating coils Hot water to VAV reheat Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Existing Building Summary As-Designed Mechanical System Kitchen and Lobbies, hallways and office areas Ballroom andStorage Loggia Direct AHU-8:expansion Single zone, constant cooling Natural volume gas heat

VAV AHU-9: 100% OA,reheat make-up with electric Single zone, constant volume Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Existing Building Summary Redesign Goals Mechanical System Reduction in annual energy costs Low 20-year life-cycle cost Short return on investment Existing Building BuildingExisting Summary Existing Summary Goals Redesign Goals Goals

Construction Meet needs of mechanical system Lowest capital cost possible Minimal construction schedule impact MechanicalMechanical Redesign Construction Breadth Construction Electrical Minimize changes to electrical distribution system Minimize cost impact of changing mechanical loads Electrical Breadth Electrical CostAnalysis Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Results and Conclusion RedesignRedesign Goals Mechanical Systems to be Replaced Existing BuildingExisting Summary Redesign Goals Goals Goals Goals Mechanical Mechanical

Redesign MechanicalMechanical Redesign Construction Breadth Construction Electrical Breadth Electrical CostAnalysis Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Results and Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Ground Source Heat Pump System Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Dedicated Outdoor Air System Existing OA EA OA Unit

Goals EA Conditioned Space RA Construction MA Heat Pump Mechanical SA Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Energy Recovery-Cooling 70.8F 55 gr/lb s = 64% l = 61% 87F 100 gr/lb 74.7F 72 gr/lb W3 = W1 l (W1 W2) t3 = t1 s (t1 t2) Existing

Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Equipment Costs Existing 30 Water-to-Air Heat Pumps Instead of 26 VAV Boxes ClimateMa Number of ster Model Units 50PSH024 50PTH038 50PTH049 50PTH064 11 5 7 7 Goals Average EER Total Cost 17 15.85 18.1 18

$77,275 $42,000 $76,825 $83,825 Total Heat Pump Cost $279,925 Mechanical Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Equipment Costs Existing 7 Dedicated Outdoor Units Instead of 7 Existing AHUs Unit Designation DOAU-1 DOAU-2 DOAU-3 DOAU-4 DOAU-5 DOAU-6 DOAU-7 Latent Load (MBH) 64.6 179.4 59 92.5 92.5

92.5 100.2 Goals Carrier Model Number Cost 62DA14 62DA20 62DA07 62DA14 62DA15 62DA16 62DA09 $16,847 $20,582 $13,650 $17,121 $17,121 $17,121 $15,875 Construction Total AHU Cost $118,31 7 Cost Analysis Mechanical Electrical Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009

Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Annual Energy Analysis Existing $80,000.00 $80,000.00 $70,505 $67,580 $70,505 $67,580 $70,000.00 $70,000.00 $60,000.00 $60,000.00 $50,000.00 Energy Cost Savings $62,761 $62,761 $19,831.00 $17,621.96 $49,910 $16,929.97 $50,000.00 $40,000.00 29% over LEED 26% over As-Designed 20% over Original $49,910 Design Gas Cost Electric Cost

$20,000.00 $30,000.00 $50,674.02 $10,000.00 $20,000.00 $0.00 $10,000.00 $0.00 LE Mechanical $8,606.30 $30,000.00 $40,000.00 ED Goals B el as e in sig e D As LEED Baseline $49,958.54 d ne

l na i g sig De n i Or As-Designed $45,830.93 ig es d Re n Original Design Emissions Savings (CO2, SO2, Nox) Construction $41,303.74 12.5% over LEED 11.7% over As-Designed 8.5% over Original Design Redesign Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009

Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Ground Loop Length Calculation Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Heating and Cooling Loads Ground and Water Temperatures Electrical Ground Resistance Factors Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Ground Loop Length Calculation Existing Heating Length Entering Water Temp: 35F Exiting Water Temp: 45F Heating Load: 945 MBH Total Length = 25,852 FT

Cooling Length Goals CRITICAL LENGTH Entering Water Temp: 85F Exiting Water Temp: 75F Cooling Load: 892 MBH Total Length = 19,858 FT Mechanical Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Construction Breadth Construction Cost OptimizationExisting BuildingExisting Summary Borehole Field Cost Considerations Borehole drill rig Different rigs to dig different depths HDPE piping and fusing Borehole grouting Miscellaneous site costs Redesign Goals Goals MechanicalMechanical

Mechanical Mechanical Redesign Construction Construction Construction Breadth Construction Electrical Breadth Electrical CostAnalysis Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Results and Conclusion Construction Breadth Construction Cost Optimization Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Construction 115 Boreholes 225 ft Deep $143,096 Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Construction Breadth Construction Cost Optimization

Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Construction ~46,000 Square Feet Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Construction Breadth Schedule Optimization Existing Goals Mechanical Existing Activities Construction Construction 1.1 Structural Erection (6 Months) 1.2 Rough-in and Landscaping 1.3 - Interior Finishes 1.4 Electrical Fit-out Electrical 1.5 Plumbing and Mechanical Fit out (3.5 Months) 1.6 Misc. Finishes Cost Analysis

Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Construction Breadth Schedule Optimization Existing Activities to be Added 1.2a - Test Bore Construction and Testing (3 weeks) 1.2b - Site Grading and Sediment Control (4 weeks) 1.2c - Bore field Set-up (1 week) 1.2d - Borehole Drilling (4 weeks) 1.2e - Ground Loop Piping and Grouting (2 weeks) Goals Mechanical Construction Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Construction Breadth Schedule Optimization Activities to be Added

1.6a - Interior Piping and Equipment Installation (12 weeks) 1.6b - Heat Pump Connections (5 weeks) 1.6c - Flush and Test Ground Loops (2 weeks) 1.6d - Testing and Air Balancing (2 weeks) 1.6e - Plumbing Fit-out (12 weeks) Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Construction Breadth Electrical Breadth Equipment Removed/Added Existing BuildingExisting Summary Removed 7 AHU circuits 18 VAV box circuits Added 7 DOAU circuits 14 Heat Pump Circuits Redesign Goals Goals MechanicalMechanical Redesign

Construction Construction Construction Breadth Construction Electrical Breadth Electrical Electrical Electrical All loads are 3 Phase, 480V CostAnalysis Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Results and Conclusion Electrical Breadth Electrical Cost Adjustments Conductor Costs Breaker Conduit Costs Conduct Cost Per Cost Perper FT # Breaker Cost Cost Condu or/ Size100 Linear FT Cost 100 Cost it Size Wire4

90A/3P $535.00 Wire $2,140.00 Ground Ft Ft Linear Size 70A/3P $511.00 -72-5 -$3.13 -$2,555.00 3/4" $4.35 $1,264.2 110A/3P $555.00 1032 $555.00 #2 $122.50 1-1/4" $5.75 -2581 -$14.84 0 20A/3P $454.00 258-2 $16.25 -$908.00 1-1/2" $6.30 #1 $195.00 258 $503.10 #4 $97.50 -1290 $1,257.7 Total Breaker Total Conduit Cost: -$1.71 -$768.00 5 Cost: #10

$46.00 -289 -$132.94 Total Conductor Cost: Total Savings = $392.49 $376.61 Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Electrical Breadth Voltage Drop Check Equipmen Voltage Drop Line to Line t Conducto Lengt Amps per 1000 Voltage Connecte r Size h (FT) Amp-FT Drop d DOAU-1 #2 52 75

0.20 1.32 DOAU-2 #1 67 95 0.16 1.78 DOAU-3 #2 58 75 0.20 1.51 DOAU-4 #2 95 75 0.20 2.47 DOAU-5 #2 125 75 0.20 3.24 DOAU-6 #2 155 75 0.20 4.02 DOAU-7 #1 130 100 0.16 3.60 Existing

% Voltage Drop Less than 3%? 0.28% 0.37% 0.31% 0.51% 0.68% 0.84% 0.75% Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Assumed PF of 90% All Below 3% %VD=(L)(VD/1000 ft)(1.73)/(480) Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Electrical

Breadth Life-Cycle Cost Analysis 20-Year Life-Cycle Cost Costs Included Construction, installation, equipment costs Annual energy costs Annual preventive maintenance costs Scheduled replacement costs Existing BuildingExisting Summary Redesign Goals Goals MechanicalMechanical Redesign Construction Breadth Construction Electrical Breadth Electrical Electrical Electrical Life-Cycle Cost Analysis CostAnalysis Analysis Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Results and Conclusion

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis 20-Year Life-Cycle Cost As-Designed Capital Cost = $1.42 million Maintenance and Repair Costs = $218,000 Energy Costs = $1.35 million Re-Design Capital Cost = $1.52 million Maintenance and Repair Costs = $96,000 Energy Costs = $1.00 million Life-Cycle Savings = $380,000 Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Payback Period = 4.99 Years Cost Analysis Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Life-Cycle Cost Analysis 20-Year Life-Cycle Cost Original Design Capital Cost = $1.47 million Maintenance and Repair Costs = $202,000 Energy Costs = $1.26 million Re-Design Capital Cost = $1.52 million Maintenance and Repair Costs = $96,000 Energy Costs = $1.00 million

Life-Cycle Savings = $318,000 Existing Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Payback Period = 2.83 Years Cost Analysis Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Results and Conclusion Results and Conclusion Existing BuildingExisting Summary Recommended Over Original Design $45,000 increase in capital cost $13,000 reduction in annual energy cost Payback period of 2.83 years Recommended Over Existing Design $100,000 increase in capital cost $17,500 reduction in annual energy cost

Payback period of 4.99 years Minimal impact on construction time Minimal impact on electrical system Redesign Goals Goals MechanicalMechanical Redesign Construction Breadth Construction Electrical Breadth Electrical CostAnalysis Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Cost Analysis Life-Cycle Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Results and and Conclusion Conclusion Results Results and Conclusion Existing Goals Questions? Mechanical Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009

Conclusion Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Energy Recovery-Heating 66F Goals Mechanical s = 64% l = 61% 10F Existing 46F Construction Electrical W3 = W1 l (W1 W2) t3 = t1 s (t1 t2) Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Monthly Electric and Gas Costs $7,000 $7,000 $6,000 $6,000 $5,000 $5,000 $4,000 $4,000

$3,000 $3,000 $2,000 $2,000 $1,000 $1,000 $0 $0 $4,000 $4,000 $3,000 $3,000 $2,000 $2,000 $1,000 $1,000 $0 $0 Existing Electrical Cost Savings $377/month over Original Design LEED Baseline As-Designed $721/month over AsOriginal Design DesignedRe-Design Goals Mechanical Gas Cost Savings $694/month over LEED Baseline Original Design As-Designed $751/month over AsOriginal Design

DesignedRe-Design rt r r r r yil y y y y h hil r r e y y e t yr aurar uar uararc aArcpr MApar JunMa Jul Jungus Juble obgeus be be be obe be be u m m nn r r Au tem OctAu vemtemcem Oct JaJa Feb Feb M M ve ce p p o e o e N Se D N D Se Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Mechanical Redesign Ductwork and Insulation Savings

Existing Assumptions 185 lbs of sheet metal per ton of cooling 104 SF of insulation per ton of cooling As-Designed 202 tons of cooling Ductwork = $117,450 Insulation = $73,080 Re-Design 57 tons of cooling Ductwork = $109,000 Insulation = $61,950 Total Savings = $19,580 Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Construction Breadth Construction Cost Optimization Existing $190,000 Goals $180,000

$170,000 Mechanical $160,000 Total Boreho le Cost $150,000 Construction Construction $140,000 $130,000 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 5 10 5 11 5 12 5

13 5 14 5 15 Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion Construction Breadth Construction Cost Optimization Existing Equipment and Material Assumptions 1 HDPE Piping = $1.32 per linear foot HDPE fusing at 40 ft intervals, $20/fuse, $50/day rental Borehole drill Deeper than 325 ft = $16,000/week, 900 ft/day 225 ft 325 ft = $14,000/week, 1200 ft/day Less than 225 ft = $11,500/week, 1800 ft/day Grouting = $5,780 for all combinations Site costs ranges from $20,000 to $32,500 Goals Mechanical Construction Construction Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion

Electrical Breadth Assumptions Existing Demand Factor Assumptions Lighting = 1 Receptacles = 0.5 Motors = 0.3 Miscellaneous = 1 Kitchen = 1 Data = 0.5 A/C = 1 Goals Mechanical Construction Electrical Electrical Cost Analysis Gregory Smithmyer | Mechanical Option | Penn State University | April 15, 2009 Conclusion

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